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Zvinotaridza Zvakashaikwa.… Zvichiri zvakashaikwa

Zvichida unorangarira mu2009 apo vemidhiya inoona nezvekuwanikwa kwezvainge “zvakashaikwa” Masikeletoni, “Ida” (Franzen, nevamwe vake muna., 2009). Vezvenhau vakaburitsa zvirevo zvine ushingi, vasina zvidziviso, sekuti, “Masayendisiti akawana tateguru wevanhu ane mamirioni makumi mana nemanomwe” (Public Library of Science, 2009). Ida akawedzerwa kune rondedzero yekushaikwa hukama mumutsara pakati pevanhu neanofungidzirwa kuti tateguru vedu vari kure mumwe wavo aratidza kuve manyepo, kunyangwe vazhinji vasina kuwana zviwanikwa panyaya iyi. Science Daily risina kunyara yakatumidza Ida “rudzi rwekuchinja,” sekunge nyaya yakanga yavharwa, uye chokwadi chakange chasimbiswa (2009). Muna 2009, Jorn Hurum, musayendisiti ane mukurumbira pasi rose wekuNorwegian weNhorondo yehumbowo hwakachengetedzwa hwoupenyu hwekare, hwemavambo neweOslo Museyamu uye vakatsvaga Ida, vakaona kuti, “Iyi ndiyo batanidzo yekutanga kune vanhu vese … , 2009). Philip Gingerich weMuseyamu yePaleontology paYunivhesiti yeMichigan nemuwambi vekutarisaIda akati, “Ichokwadi rudzi rweDombo reRosetta” (Public Library Science, 2009). Zvinotaura zvakaisvonaka, kutaura chokwadi, asi zvisingawanzowaniki pakati penyanzvi dzemhindumupindu nhasi, dzinowanzokurumidza kutaura umboo hwedzidziso yemhindumupindu pasina ufakazi hwakakwana. Sekureva kweBoka reScience Dairly , Ida akanga asina “zviviri zvezvinhu zvakakosha zvemhando mbiri dzine zvimwe zvakafanana zvinowanikwa muremasi: rukudzo rwekushongedza pachidimbu chechipiri chetsoka, uye mutsara wemazino pakati peshaya yake yezasi inozivikanwa semazino” (2009). Pane kudaro, inofungidzirwa kuti bhonzo repachiziso raIda rakamubatanidza nevanhu, iyo “rine chimiro chakafanana nechiri muvanhu nhasi” (Public Library yeScience, 2009). Chinyorwa cha2009 cheScience Daily  chakapera nemashoko akasimba emutepfenyuro uye nyanzvi yezvezvisikwa vaDavid Attenborough: “Chisikwa chidiki ichi chichatiratidza kubatana kwedu nedzimwe mhuka dzese. Iyo ratidzo yavangadai vakati kusvika parizvino haipo … haichashaikwi” (2009).

Vezvenhau nevemhindumupindu-yakafashukira pakudzidza hupenyu hwezvisikwa vane mukurumbira unokurumidza kutaura mashoko makuru pamusoro pezvisaririra zvinowanwa pazvinenge zvichiita sezvingangotsigira pfungwa yokushanduka-shanduka kwevanhu. Sezvinoratidzwa kuti ndizvo zvazviri nguva nenguva, kumwe kuongorora kwesainzi kunowanzoita kuti vanhu vepa zvekudzidza hupenyu hwezvisikwa varambidzwe pamusoro pezvavakatanga kuita maererano nezvakawanikwa zvisaririra—uyewo chiitiko ichi. Nekudaro, panguva iyo kudzoreredzwa kwakakodzera kunoitwa, uye vazivisi vekutanga vechikanganiso vanomhanya nenzira yakatarisana nemiswe yavo yechirevo pakati pemakumbo avo, kazhinji vachikanda vaongorori pasi pebhazi mukuyedza kuzviponesa, kukuvara kwatove. zvaitwa. Mazita matsva emarudzi echiLatin akatosarudzwa uye akadhindwa, vanhu vanoitwa mukurumbira, uye mabhuku acho akatora uchapupu hunonzi hunotsigira mhindumupindu ndokuhudhinda. Kashoma chero munhu anonzwa kubvuma kudiki kwe “huhu” kubva pakona. Vezvenhau havadi kuzvizivisa zvakanyanya, nekuti ivo vanowanzove vane mhosva mukuparadzira chikanganiso, uye vazhinji vari munharaunda yekushanduka-shanduka havadi kuzivisa kukanganisa nenzwi guru nekuda kwekutya kushambadza kwakashata kwedzidziso yenhema nezveshanduko. Kuzivisa kukuru kwechokwadi kunosiiwa kuvakwikwidzi vezveongororo yezvisikwa (kureva, dzimwe nyanzvi dzechinyakare), avo vamene vanowanzorerekera divi rimwe munzira. Uye, hongu, kune vanodavira kusikwa vakamira mumakona emigwagwa vachishevedzera kune vose vachanzwa, “Umbowo huchiri kutsigira muenzaniso wokusika. Chokwadi hachidi kudzokororwa!”

Muna Mbudzi mugore ra 2010, wesainzi vanoita nezvetvsakirudzi yezvidzidzo zvevanhunoita nezvezvidzidzo zvevanhu vezvemhindumupindu Blythe Williams naRichard Kay veDuke Univhesiti, Chris Kirk, anobatana napurofesa wezvidzodzo zvehuwepo vevanhu paUnivhesiti yeTexas kuAustin, uye nyanzvi yezvekushanduka shanduka kwezvipenyu Callum Ross weYunivhesiti yeChicago, vakazivisa zvakawanikwa patsvakiridzo yavo pachavo. Vakapindura kuti Ida ikubasa raFranzen, nevamwe vake. (Williams, evamwe). Zvavakawana? Ida haisi ratidzo isipo sezvakataurwa. Chii chaiva Ida? Maererano netsvagiridzo itsva iyi, Ida aive, chokwadi, tateguru wemazuva ano maremasi uye rorise. Vanyori vanocherechedza kuti tsvakurudzo yaFranzen, nevamwe. “inofuratira makumi maviri emakore ekutsvagisa kwakadhindwa kunoratidza kuti zvisaririra zvakafanana [kureva, kuti Ida umbowo hwakachengetedzwa hwoupenyu hwekare] chaizvoizvo strepsirrhines, boka remaprimate rinosanganisira lemurs uye lorises,” maererano neScienceDaily, mukupokana zvakananga nechishuvo chechinyorwa chavo chakadhindwa. gore rapfuura (Public Library of Science, 2010). Chris Kirk akataura pachena kuti, “Uchapupu hwakawanda hunoratidza kuti Darwinius [kureva, Ida—JM] haana kana nechokuita nokushanduka-shanduka kwevanhu” (Public Library of Science, 2010). ScienceDaily, vachizvibvisa pachena kubva kune zvakatemwa naFranzen, nevamwe, zvisinei nekutsigira kwavo kwakajeka mhedziso dzechikwata gore rakanga rapfuura, nyora nezvebasa ravo: “Vadzidzi vezvezvidzidzo zvekuongorora vanhu vakakurumidza kukahadzika nezvemhedziso uye vakatanga kunyora mhinduro dziri kuitwa, yakabudiswa mwedzi uno” (2010). Williams, nevamwe. vanopokana kuti Ida haana zvakafanana akakosha anoratidza kuti ihama yepedyo mukuenzanisa nechero zvimwe zvisikwa muhurongwa (kureva, tsoko, vanhu), se”nzeve yepakati ine makamuri maviri uye ndiro yebhonzo inodzivirira maziso. kubva pamhasuru dzekutsenga” (Public Library of Science, 2010). Kirk akati, “Hapana humbowo hunoratidza kuti Darwinius akagovera zvinhu izvi muhurongwa hwakashanduka. Uye kana usingakwanise kuita saizvozvo, unogona kukanganwa nezve Darwinius kuva hama yepedyo yevanhu kana mamwe maonere kuva nehunhu hwemunhu” (Public Library of Science, 2010).

Hapana umbowo hwakasimba, hunotsigirwa hunotsigira rondedzero yemhindumupindu. Kunyange vezvemhindumupindu vamene havagoni kusvika pakubvumirana pahupi noupi hwoumboo hunokarakadzwa. Sei? Nekuti humbowo hwese hunonzi inyaya yekududzira. Chinhu chakakosha pakuferefeta kwesainzi ndechekuona tsananguro yechokwadi chinopindirana neuchapupu hwese hwesainzi. Kana dzidziso inozviratidza nguva nenguva kuti inopokana nehumbowo, mhinduro isina kurerekera, yesainzi inofanira kunge iri yekurasa dzidziso yacho uye kuwana muenzaniso unoenderana nehumbowo. Mhando yekugadzira inofambirana nezvese humbowo hwesainzi. Sei muchiramba kutsigira dzidziso yakakundikana? Kana iwe uchitenda kuti ruzhinji rwenharaunda inoshanduka-shanduka vanozoteerera kune iyi yazvino memo ichikanda kusahadzika pamusoro pehuchokwadi hwemichina yekududzira yekushanduka-shanduka, ndinokurayira zvakasimba kuti usabate mweya wako paunenge wakamirira. [Cherechedza: Ona Butt, 2009; Lyons, 2009; uye Lyons naButt (2009) kuti tiwane imwe nhaurirano pamusoro pezvisariridzwa zvinosara pamhuka kana zvirimwa seIda]

Zvinyorwa

Butt, Kyle (2009), “Kutevera Pane Zvakaipa, uye Zvichiri Kushaikwa, Zvinoratidza,”Apologetics Press,  https://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=9&article=2729.

Lyons, Eric (2009), “Ida, Imwe Nguva,” Apologetics Press,  https://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=9&article=2726.

Lyons, Eric naKyle Butt (2009), “Ida-Chisungo Chinotaridza Chisipo?” Apologetics Press,  https://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=9&article=347.

Franzen, Jens L., Philip D. Gingerich, Jorg Habersetzer, Jorn H. Hurum, Wighart von Koenigswald, B. Holly Smith (2009), “Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel muGermany: Morphology and Paleobiology,” PLoS ONE, 4[5]:e5723, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.

Public Raibhurari yeSainzi (2009), “Common Ancestor of Humans, Modern Primates? ‘Inoshamisa’ Nezvetsvakurudzo yezvakasara Yave Nemakore Mamirioni makumi mana nemanomwe Ekare,” ScienceDaily, Chivabvu 19, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090519104643.htm.

Public Library yeScience (2010), “‘Missing Link’ Fossil Yakanga Isiri Tateguru Wevanhu Sezvinorehwa, Vanodzidza Anthropologists,” ScienceDaily, Kurume 2, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100302131719.htm.

Williams, Blythe A., Richard F. Kay, E. Christopher Kirk, uye Callum F. Ross (2010), “Darwinius Masillae Is a Strepsirrhine—A Reply to Franzen et al. (2009),” Journal of Human Evolution, 29[5]:567-573, Mbudzi.

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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