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Zvikonzero Zvitatu Zvakanaka Zvoita Utende kuti Bhaibheri Rinobva kuna Mwari

Bhaibheri ndiro bhuku rakakurumbira zvikuru pamabhuku ose akambodhindwa. Ndiro rimwe remabhuku okutanga akabudiswa muuzhinji pamuchina wokudhinda waGutenberg muna 1455. Kufungidzira huwandu panhamba yamaBhaibheri nezvikamu zvaro zvakabudiswa zvakafararira munyika yose munhorondo yose zvinova zvisinganzwisisike, asi nhamba yacho inopfuura zvikuru mabhiriyoni gumi, sezvo United Bible Society yoga yakaparadzira anopfuura mabhiriyoni mapfumbamwe mumakore 70 apfuura (“Mashoko aMwari,” n.d.). Pasina kupokana, Bhaibheri ndiro bhuku rinotengeswa zvakanyanyisa renguva dzese pasirese (“Rakatengeswa Zvakanyanya…,” 2014).

Nei Bhaibheri richifarirwa zvakadaro? Chikonzero chinowanzopiwa ndechokuti avo vari kudhinda, kurigovera, uye kurava Bhaibheri vanotenda kuti iShoko raMwari rakafuridzirwa. Vanhu vakawanda vanoverenga Bhaibheri havafungi kuti izano rakanaka rinobva kuvanhuwo zvavo. Uyewo havafungi kuti ibhuku rengano rakanyorerwa varaidzo. Panzvimbo pezvo, vanodavira kuti Bhuku ravari kurava chibereko chaMwari mumwe wechokwadi.

Kakawanda, vanhu pavanokumbirwa kuti vape zvikonzero zvinotsigira zvavanotenda kuti Bhaibheri rinobva kuna Mwari, vanoti Bhaibheri rinotaura kuti rinobva kuna Mwari. Ichokwadi kuti Bhaibheri rine mashoko akawanda anoti rakafuridzirwa. 2 Timotio 3:16-17 inoti: “Rugwaro rwose rwakafuridzirwa naMwari . . . Kutaura chokwadi, munhu upi noupi anoda kunzvera Bhaibheri rose achawana kuti rine zvikamu zvinopfuura 2 700 umo kufuridzirwa kwoumwari kunotaurwa (somuenzaniso, “Mwari akati;” “Jehovha akati;” “nechizaruro Iye [Mwari] akazivisa”).

Asi, kunyange zvazvo taizotarisira kuwana kuti bhuku ripi neripi rakabudiswa naMwari rinoti rakafuridzirwa naMwari, kutaura kwakadaro hakuratidzi chimwe chinhu pachakwo. Icho chimiro chinodiwa chekufemerwa, asi hachisi hunhu hwakakwana. Mabhuku akasiyana-siyana anoti akafuridzirwa naMwari (somuenzaniso, Quran, Bhuku raMormoni), asi anopokana neBhaibheri, uye anogona kuratidzwa kuti haana kururama uye haana kukwana mune zvimwe zviitiko (tarisa Miller, 2005; Miller, 2003). Kungoti bhuku kana kuti chinyorwa chinoti rakafuridzirwa naMwari hachisi uchapupu hunogutsa hwokuti rakafuridzirwa. Chero munhu anogona kumira pamberi pevateereri ozviti ndiye Mutungamiriri weUnited States of America. Kutaura zvazviri, aigona kutaura izvozvo kanopfuura ka2,700. Asi kutaura kwaakaita kumutungamiri wenyika kwakawanda kwaizotadza kuratidza mhosva yake kunze kwekunge akwanisa kupa humbowo hwechokwadi uye hwakakwana.

Jesu paakazviratidza kunyika soMwanakomana waMwari pazera remakore anenge 30 ( Ruka 3:23 ), akanga asingatarisiri kuti vanhu vamutende nokuti Akati aiva Mesiya. Nokumwekutaura, Jesu akati, “Kana ndisingaiti mabasa aBaba Vangu, musanditenda; asi kana ndichiaita, kunyange musinganditendi, tendai mabasa, kuti mugoziva nokutenda kuti Baba vari mandiri, neni mavari” (Johane 10:37-38 , emp. anovedzera). Kudai Mesiya aisafanira kuvimbwa naye zvichibva pazvinonzi ndimesiya, Bhaibheri harifaniriwo kudaro. Zvakare, kunyange zvazvo kutaura kwokufemerwa kwakakosha (uye kuchitarisirwa kana Bhaibheri riri Shoko raMwari), kungotaurawo zvako hakuratidzi chinhu.

Avo vakanyora Bhaibheri vakanga vasingatarisiri kuti nyika igamuchire kunyora kwavo seShoko raMwari nemhaka yokuti ivo vaiti ndizvo bedzi. Vanyori veBhaibheri vanosimbisa kuti kunyoro kwavo kwakanga kusina kuvakirwa pavanhu kana kufungidzira, zvisingagoni kubvumikiswa nezviitiko, asi kuti, zvakavakirwa pachokwadi chakasimba, chinoonekwa. Muapostora Petro akanyora kuti: “Nokuti hatina kutevera ngano dzakarukwa nouchenjeri patakakuzivisai simba nokuuya kwaShe wedu Jesu Kristu, asi takanga tiri zvapupu zvakaona ukuru hwake.” 2 Petro 1:16 . Musumo yake yebhuku raMabasa, Ruka akati Jesu “akazvipa amene ari mupenyu pashure pokutambudzika Kwake nouchapupu huzhinji husingakundiki, akaonekwa navo mumazuva makumi mana uye achitaura zvinhu zvoumambo hwaMwari” (Mabasa 1:3 , NW. emp. Vanyori veBhaibheri vakanzwisisa ndokuomerera pakuti mashoko avakanyora akanga akarurama uye echokwadi, uye anofanira kugamuchirwa, kwete nemhaka yokushaikwa kwoumboo kana kuti “kuvira murima,” asi neumbowo hwakawanda hunonzwisisika.

Naizvozvo ndeupi umboo hwokuti Bhaibheri rakabva musimba rinopfuura romusikirwo? Nei munhu anotsvaka chokwadi aifanira kusvika pamhedziso yokuti Bhaibheri ndiro rakazarurwa chairo rinobva kuMusiki weChisiko Chepasi pose? Muchidimbu, chikonzero chikuru-kuru chinoita kuti Bhaibheri riratidzire kuva rakabva kuna Mwari ndechokuti vanyori veBhaibheri vakanga vakarurama mune zvose zvavakanyora—nezvenguva yakapfuura, yazvino, uye kunyange nenguva yemberi.

Mumwe mudetembi wechiRungu womuzana ramakore rechigumi nesere Alexander Pope akataura muchidimbu mu“Nhoroondo Yokutsoropodza” izvo munhu wose anonzwisisa anonyatsoziva—“kukanganisa munhu” (1709). Kunyange zvazvo tingazvigadzirira pachedu mipimo yakakwirira ndokudzidza zvose zvatinogona, uye kunyange zvazvo tingaisa dziviriro dzakawanda munzvimbo inobvira sezvinobvira muvanhu, zvikanganiso zvichaitwa; kusaziva kucharatidzwa; kukanganisa kuchaitika. Sezvo Herodotus aiva mukuru wemunyori wenhoroondo, dzimwe nguva aikanganisa. Semunhu akangwara saAristotle, aive asina kururama dzimwe nguva (tarisa Jackson, 1997). Sekukwanisa kuita munyori sezvakaita muzana remakore rechisere B.C. Mudetembi wechiGreek Homer, dzimwe nguva “kunyangwe zvakanaka zvekare Homer anogutsurira” (Horace, 1.359). Zviri pachena kuti sevanhu hazvikwanisike kutaura chokwadi pane zvese zvinotaurwa kana kunyorwa nemunhu. “Kuna Mwari,” zvisinei, “zvinhu zvose zvinoita” (Marko 10:27).

Kana Mwari anoziva zvose, ane masimba ose aripo (uye pane humbowo hwakakwana hwekuti Anodaro—tarisa Lyons and Butt, 2014), saka Mwari akadaro anogona kuburitsa chizaruro chakanyorwa nokuda kwechisikwa Chake chevanhu chakanga chisina mhosva mukugadzirwa kwacho kwepakutanga. Aigona kutungamirira varume vasina kudzidza kuti vanyore nezvezviitiko zvakaitika mazana kana kuti zviuru zvemakore nguva yavo isati yasvika nokururama kwakakwana. Aigona “kufambisa” (nezvisizvo) varumewo zvavo kunyora nenzira isina mhosva pamusoro pechiverengero chipi nechipi chavanhu vepanguva imwe cheteyo, nzvimbo, uye zvinhu (2 Petro 1:20-21). Aigona kutotungamirira munhu kunyora nezvezviitiko zvomunguva yemberi nokururama kwakakwana. Chokwadi, chikonzero chinobatanidza zvose (chichakamurwa kuva zvikamu zvitatu) chokuti munhu anogona kusvika pamhedziso ine musoro yokuti Bhaibheri “rakapiwa nokufuridzirwa naMwari” ndechokuti vanyori veBhaibheri vakanga vakarurama zvinoshamisa… pazvinhu zvose.

Chikonzero #1:Chiporofita Chekufembera

Musi weChipiri, Gunyana 11, 2001, njodzi yakaipisisa yakavhundutsa United States of America apo magandanga akarwisa World Trade Center nePentagon. Mukati menhamo yacho, kwakapararira runyerekupe rwokuti Nostradamus, aifungidzirwa kuti mufemberi, akanga afanotaura kuchinja kwezviitiko. Mawebhusaiti ane ruzivo rweNostradamus akagamuchira zviuru, kunyange mamirioni ekubatidzwa. Mushure mekunge zvese zvataurwa uye zvaitwa, kufanotaura kwerunyerekupe kwakange kwagadzirwa uye kusanzwisiswa; Nostradamus akanga asina kufanotaura ramangwana. Asi zvakanga zviri pachena kubva mumhinduro yevoruzhinji kuti munhu upi noupi anogona kufanotaura zvakarurama nezveramangwana anopfuurawo zvawo. Muprofita Jeremia akanyora kuti: “Ndianiko anotaura, zvikaitika, kana Jehovha asina kuzvirayira? (Kuungudza KwaJeremia 3:37). Pfungwa yomuprofita wacho yakanga yakajeka: hapana anofanotaura zvakarurama nezvenguva yemberi kutoti Mwari amuudza nezvazvo. Naizvozvo, kana Bhaibheri richifanotaura zvakarurama remangwana, tinogona kuziva kuti rinobva kuna Mwari.

Chokwadi ndechokuti, Bhaibheri rine uprofita hwakawanda hwakaratidza kuti hwakazadzikiswa zvakakwana muzvinhu zvose. Funga nezvemienzaniso mishomanana. [Cherechedza: Kune dzimwe nguva dzakawanda dzisingabvumidzwe nezvivharo zvemuchadenga muchinyorwa chino, ndapota tarisa mubhuku reApologetics Press Tarirai! Shoko raMwari Tarirai! kana kuti shanyira “Kufemerwa kweBhaibheri” chikamu chewww.apologeticspress.org.]

Kuwa kweGuta reTyre

Maererano nenhau, guta reFenikiya reTyre raiva rimwe remaguta ekare uye akabudirira zvikuru munhoroondo yevanhu. Pakushanya kutemberi yaHeracles muTyre muzana remakore rechishanu B.C., munyori wenhau dzakaitika Herodotus akabvunza nezvezera retemberi, uye vagari vemo vakapindura kuti temberi yacho yakanga yasakara se“Tai pacharo, uye kuti Tyre iyi yakanga yatomira, makore zviuru zviviri nemazana matatu” (Herodotus, 2:44). Maererano nenyanzvi yepakutanga yezana remakore rechi20th yechiHebheru nechiGiriki, Wallace Fleming, mubhuku rake rinonzi Nhorondo yeTyre, “Kare muna 1400 B.C., Tyre rakanga risiri guta guru chete asi raionekwa serisingapindiki” (1966, peji 8).

Mukuvamba kwezana ramakore rechitanhatu B.C., zvisinei, muprofita Ezekieri akataura zviitiko zvakawanda zvaizoitika muTyre sechirango nokuda kwokuzvikudza kweguta racho nezviito zvisina tsitsi (26:1-14, 19-21). Muprofita wacho akafanotaura kuti: (1) Nebhukadhinezari, Mambo weBhabhironi, aizovaka murwi wokukomba guta racho; (2) marudzi mazhinji aizorwisa Tyre; (3) guta raizokoromorwa, kukoromorwa somusoro wedombo, uye matombo, matanda, uye ivhu zvaizokandwa “pakati pemvura; (4) guta racho raizova “nzvimbo yokuyanisira mambure; uye (5) guta racho raisazombovakwazve.

Nhoroondo inoratidza kuti zvose zvakaprofitwa naEzekieri nezveTyre zvakaitika.

  • Nebhukadhinezari “akakomba Tire kwemakore gumi nematatu mumazuva aIthobari, mambo wavo” (Josephus, 1.21). Mambo weBhabhironi akaparadza zvakakomba nyika yacho sezvakafanotaurwa naEzekieri, asi guta repachitsuwa rakaramba risina kukanganiswa.
  • Nezvekufanotaura kuti “marudzi mazhinji” aizorwisa Tyre, muna 392 B.C., “Tyre rakapinda muhondo yakamuka pakati pevaPezhiya naEvagorus weKupro” umo mambo weIjipiti “akakunda Tyre nechisimba” (Fleming, p. 52). Gare gare, makore makumi matanhatu muna 332, Alexander Mukuru akakomba Tyre ndokuriparadza. Kutaura zvazviri, Tire yaikwikwidzwa nemauto ekunze akawanda zvekuti Fleming akanyora kuti: “Zvaiita sekuti maguta eFenikiya aingove pakati peguyo repamusoro nepasi” (p. 66). Nokudaro, uporofita hwaEzekieri pamusoro pe“marudzi mazhinji” hunoramba huri chinhu chaichoicho chenhau chisingagoni kurambwa nenzira inobudirira.
  • Pakazosvika 333 B.C., uprofita hwaEzekieri hwaiva nemakore 250 hwokuti Tyre raizoparadzwa uye zvinhu zvaro zvokuvakisa zvichakandwa pakati pemvura zvakanga zvisati zvaoneka. Asi mamiriro ezvinhu iwayo akachinjwa nokukurumidza. Munyori wenhoroondo wekare Diodorus Siculus, akararama kubva makore angangoita 80-20 B.C., akanyora zvakawanda pamusoro pekubata kwaAlexander Mukuru neTyre (tarisa Siculus, 17.40-46). Nhoroondo yenyika inorondedzera kuparadzwa kwaAlexander kweTyre, uko kunopindirana chaizvo neuprofita hwaEzekieri hune chokuita nezvaizoitika kuzvinhu zvokuvakisa zveguta racho. Sokufanotaura kwakanga kwaita Ezekieri, matombo, matanda, uye ivhu zveguta guru zvakakandwa mukati megungwa nenzira yakanga isati yamboitika yehondo (Fleming, p. 56), iyo yakabvumira Alexander kugadzira zambuko renyika iro uto rake raizogona kubata naro pariri, kana kuuya kuzokunda guta rechitsuwa reTyre. Kuti Ezekieri “afungidzira” zvakarurama mamiriro ezvinhu aya kwaizova kutambanudza mutemo wezvingabvira kupfuura miganhu youpenzi.
  • Pakupedzisira, muna A.D. 1291, Sultan Halil akauraya vagari veTire ndokuparadza guta racho chose. “Dzimba, mafekitari, temberi, zvose muguta zvakaiswa kumunondo, murazvo uye dongo” (Fleming, p. 122). Mushure mekukundwa kukuru uku muna 1291, Fleming anotaura matanda akawanda ekufambisa umo vashanyi vakashanyira guta vanotaura kuti vagari venzvimbo iyi muna 1697 “vaingova varombo vashoma…vachinyanya kurarama nekubata hove” (p. 124).

Tichirangarira idzi nhauro,dziri pachena kuti marudzi mazhinji akapfuurira kuuya kuzorwa neguta rechitsuwa, kuti rakaparadzwa panhambo dzakawanda, uye kuti rakava nzvimbo yokuredza, richizadzika  kutaura kwaEzekieri pamusoro pokuparadzirwa kwemimbure. Uyezve, zviri pachena kuti nguva dzakawanda dzokuparadzwa uye kuvakwazve kweguta racho dzakabva dzaviga guta reFenikiya iro rakashurikidzwa naEzekieri. Enisaikolopedhiya yeColumbia, ichitaura nezveTyre, yakati: “Matongo makuru eguta racho nhasi ndeaya ezvivako zvakavakwa neVarwi veHondo Dzorudzidziso. Kune mamwe maGreco-Roman asara, asi chero akasiiwa nevaFenikiya ari pasi peguta riripo” (“Tyre,” 2006).

Uprofita hwakataurwa naEzekieri hwakanga hwakarurama kwazvo zvokuti vanhu vasina chokwadi vanomanikidzwa kutaura zuva rinotevera rezvaakanyora. Bva, musi wapashure wakadaro haugoni kuchengetwa, uye kubvumwa kwokururama kwaEzekieri kunomira soufakazi husingarambiki hwokufuridzirwa kwoumwari kwomuprofita wacho. Nekutarira kwakadzikama uko kunogona bedzi kuchengetedzwa noumwari, Mwari akatarira mazana amakore munguva yemberi ndokuraira Ezekieri chaizvoizvo zvokunyora kuitira kuti mumazana amakore akatevera kufanotaura, kuzadzika kwechimwe chinhu chiri chose chamashoko omuprofita chaigona kurambwa. hapana mudzidzi akatendeseka wenhoroondo. “Zvino kana shoko romuprofita richiitika, muprofita achazivikanwa somunhu akatumwa naJehovha.”— Jeremia 28:9.

Kuwa kweBhabhironi neKumuka kwaKoreshi

Fungidzira uchitora rwendo kuenda kuPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania uye uchishanyira State House uko Kokorodzano yeBumbiro reMitemo yakaitika muna 1787. Mukati merwendo, mutungamiri wenyu anonongedzera kugwaro rinotangira kudivi rino reKokorodzano—munenge mugore ra1820. dehwe rinotaura nezvemurume anonzi George W. Bush wekuAustin, Texas uyo aizova Mutungamiriri weUnited States mumakore 200 aitevera. Asi mumwe munhu aizoziva sei kuti murume anonzi George W. Bush aizoberekerwa muUnited States? Uye munhu angaziva sei makore anodarika zana VaBush vasati vazvarwa kuti vaizove Mutungamiriri weUnited States? Uyezve, mumwe munhu muna 1820 aizoziva sei kuti murume anobva kuTexas (ainzi George W. Bush) aizova Mutungamiriri weUnited States apo Texas yakanga isati yave chikamu cheMubatanidzwa? Uprofita hwakadaro hwaizova hunoshamisa zvechokwadi! Asi, zviri pachena kuti hapana kufanotaura kwakadaro kwakamboitwa. Zvinoshamisa kuti Bhaibheri rinofanotaura zvakafanana, izvo zvakazadzika nokururama kwakakwana.

Muzana ramakore rechisere B.C., Isaya akarondedzera zvakajeka kuti Mwari aizoparadza sei umambo hune simba hweBhabhironi, “mbiri youmambo” (13:19). Achinyora sokunge zvakanga zvatoitika (zvinowanzozivikanwa se“chiporofita chakakwana,” chinowanzoshandiswa muTestamende Yekare kusimbisa chokwadi chakakwana chokuzadzika), Isaya akazivisa kuti Bhabhironi raizowa (21:9). Akabva aprofita kuti Bhabhironi raizokundwa nevaMedhiya nevaPezhiya (Isaya 13; 21:1-10. Gare gare, akazivisa kuti “guta rendarama” (Bhabhironi ) raizokundwa nomurume ainzi Koreshi (44:28; 45:1-7). (Uhwu uprofita hunoshamisa, kunyanya sezvo Koreshi asina kumboberekwa kutozosvikira makore anoda kusvika 150 Isaya anyora mashoko aya.) Isaya haana kungofanotaura kuti Koreshi aizokunda Bhabhironi, akanyorawo kuti Koreshi, achishanda so“muzodziwa” uye “mufudzi” waJehovha. ,” aizosunungura vaJudha pakutapwa uye aizovabatsira pakudzoka kwavo kuJerusarema nechinangwa chokunovakazve Temberi. Zvose izvi zvakanyorwa anenge mazana maviri emakore Koreshi asati akunda Bhabhironi (539 B.C.).

Zvinoshamisa kuti nhoroondo yenyika inoratidza kuti zviitiko zvose izvi zvakaitika zvechokwadi. Chokwadi paiva nomumwe murume ainzi Koreshi aitonga Umambo hweMedhiya nePezhiya. Akakunda Bhabhironi. Uye sokuprofita kwaIsaya, akabatsira vaJudha pakudzoka kwavo kuJerusarema uye mukuvakwazve kweTemberi.

Jeremiya akafanotaurawo kuparadzwa kweBabironi, rudzi rune simba kwazvo pasi rose panguva yaitaurwa (Jeremiah 50-51). Akafanotaura kuti mvura yeBhabhironi yaizopwa, uye varwi varo vaizodhakwa ndokurara hope dzisingaperi. Uchokwadi hwezvaakanga afanotaura hwakasimbiswa zvinoshamisa apo Koreshi akatungamirirazve Rwizi rwaYufratesi ndokupinda muBhabhironi nepaburi raiwanzopinda rwizi rwacho. Suo racho rakasiyiwa risina munhu nokuti vaBhabhironi vakanga vachidhakwa panguva yomutambo.

Hwuporofita hwaMesiya

Mumapeji ese eTestamente Yekare mune zviporofita zvinopfuura mazana maviri nemakumi mashanu pamusoro peMesiasi anouya. Chimwe nechimwe chazvo chinozadzika muchidimbu muupenyu hwaJesu Kristu. Kunyange chiri chokwadi kuti hupenyu hwevanhu vazhinji hunogona kungonyorwa mushure mekunge vahurarama, hupenyu hwaJesu hwakarondedzerwa asati asvika Panyika. Uyezve, uprofita hwakawanda hune chokuita naKristu hwakanga hwakananga zvemazvirokwazvo uye hwaisagona kunge hwakarongwa nomunhuwo zvake aitaura zvenhema kuti ndiye Mesiya. Somuenzaniso, Testamente Yekare yakataura kwaizoberekerwa Mesiya (Mika 5:2), mamiriro ezvinhu asingagoni kuchinjwa neanoberekwa. Mamiriro orufu rwaMesia akarondedzerwa, kunyange kusvikira pakuvigwa Kwake, izvo zvinogovera chimwe chiitiko umo nyakufa aisagona kuva akaronga kuzadzikiswa kwazvo.

Mukusiyanisa Mwari waIsraeri nezvidhori zvechihedheni zvekare, muporofita Isaya akapa pikiso kuna avo vaidavira simba ravamwari vavo vechihedheni. Isaya akataura izvi pamusoro pezvidhori: “Ngavabudise, vatiratidze zvichazoitika; ngavaratidze zvinhu zvekare, kuti zvakanga zviri zvipi, kuti tizvirangarire…. Ratidzai zvinhu zvichazovapo pashure, kuti tizive kuti muri vamwari.” 41:22-23 . Maererano naIsaya, mwari upi noupi aigona kufanotaura nguva dzose nguva yemberi aizozivikanwa saMwari wechokwadi, saka ani naani asingagoni kutaura nguva yemberi anofanira kuendeswa kumurwi wemarara wezvitendero zvenhema. Kuti aratidze kuti Mwari waIsraeri akanga ari Mwari wechokwadi, Isaya akatora mashoko aya kubva mukutaura kwaMwari: “Ndini Mwari, hakuna wakafanana neni, ndinoparidza kuguma kubva pakutanga, nokubva panguva yekare-kare zvinhu zvisati zviripo. zvaitwa” (46:9-10). Chokwadi, Mwari waIsaya aizotaura nezveramangwana. Kuwa kweTyre neBhabhironi, kutonga kwaKoreshi, uye Mesiya anouya inongova mishomanene yemienzaniso yakatanhamara. Apo ufakazi hunorangarirwa nenzira yokutendeseka, mutsvaki wechokwadi anofanira kubvuma kuti uprofita huri muBhaibheri hunoratidza kuti rakanyorwa nokufuridzirwa naMwari.

Chikonzero #2: Kururama kweSainzi uye Kufanoziva Zvemberi

Kunyange zvazvo Bhaibheri risingazviratidzi rimene sebhuku resainzi kana kuti rezvokurapa, zvine musoro kuti kudai Mwari akafuridzira chaizvoizvo mabhuku eBhaibheri, aizova akarurama zvakakwana mumashoko ose esasainzi kana kuti ezvokurapa anowanikwa mumapeji awo. Pamusoro pezvo, zvikanganiso zvese zvesainzi nezvekurapa zvinozadza mapeji emamwe magwaro ekare, asina kufemerwa anofanira kunge asipo zvachose muzvinyorwa zvebhaibheri. Bhaibheri harikanganisi here parinotaura pamusoro pezvidzidzo zvesainzi, kana kuti rine zvikanganiso izvo munhu aizokarira kuwana muzvinyorwa zvavanhu vanotadza vomunguva dzakare?

VaEjipita vaizivikanwa munyika yekare nokuda kwokufambira mberi kwavo mune zvokurapa. Dr. Samuel Massengill, nyanzvi yemishonga yemishonga yepakutanga yezana remakore rechi20, akataura kuti “Egypt yaiva nzvimbo yezvokurapa yenyika munguva dzekare” (1943, p. 13). Herodotus akanyora kuti yaive tsika yamambo Dhariusi “kuchengeta vamwe vanachiremba vekuIjipita varipo, vaive nemukurumbira wepamusoro-soro pabasa ravo” (Herodotus, 3.129). Pakati pezvinyorwa zvekare zvinotsanangura zvakawanda zveruzivo rwekurapa rweEjipita rwakasara, Ebers Papyrus (yakawanikwa muna 1872) inomira seimwe yemanyuko makuru (Bryan, 1930, p. 1). Inosanganisira yakawanda yemishonga yekurapa inonzi inoporesa, kuwedzera, nekudzivirira. “Zvose 811 mishonga yemishonga yakanyorwa munhokwe, uye inotora; zvipfuyo, zvinofemesa, nezvigure; nzara, zvirwere, nemapiritsi; kufitita, nezvimwe” (p. 15). Pakati pemazana emishonga, tinowana marapirwo anonyangadza akakonzera kukuvadza kwakawanda kupfuura kunaka. Semuyenzaniso, pasi pechikamu chakanzi “Zvaunofanira kuita kuti uburitse zvidimbu zvidimbu munyama,” mushonga unotaurwa unosanganisira “ropa rehonye, nhunga nendove yembongoro” (p. 73). Mishonga yekurapa zvirwere zveganda yaisanganisira zvinhu zvakaita sendove yekatsi, ndove yembwa, nezino renguruve (p.92). Zvinoita sekuti vaIjipita vaive pakati pevekutanga kupa pfungwa ye “yakanaka uye inorumbidzwa urwa” (McMillen and Stern, 2000, p. 10). Kunyange zvazvo zvichifanira kucherechedzwa kuti mamwe emishonga yeEgypt aibatsira, mishonga inokuvadza uye zvinwiwa zvinoisa mumvuri unorwara wekusavimbika pakuedza kwese kweEgipita sekuonekwa nemuverengi wemazuva ano.

Sezvinobvumwa, Bhaibheri harina kutsaurirwa kundaza refu yemishonga yokurapa. Vanyori veBhaibheri vakanga vasingadi kunyora bhuku rezvokurapa. Kune, zvisinei, kunyanya mumabhuku mashanu ekutanga eTestamende Yekare, mitemo yakawanda yehutsanana, kuvharirwa, uye dzimwe nzira dzokurapa dzaifanira kutonga hupenyu hwezuva nezuva hwevaIsraeri. Sezvineiwo, mishonga inokuvadza nezvinosanganiswa zvakataurwa nemamwe marudzi ekare hazvipo zvachose mumapeji eBhaibheri. Kutaura chokwadi, Pendatuku inoratidzira nzwisiso youtachiona nehosha iyo boka rezvokurapa “razvino uno” risati ranzwisisa kutozosvikira nguva pfupi yapfuura.

Hutachiona, Fivha, Nekunatswa kweBhaibheri

Muna 1847, mumwe chiremba wepamuviri ainzi Ignaz Semmelweis aiva mutungamiriri wewadhi yechipatara muVienna, Austria. Vakadzi vazhinji vane pamuviri vakatarisa muwadhi yake, asi 10-18% yevakadzi ivavo havana kumbobuda. Anenge mumwe chete pavatanhatu voga voga vakarapwa muwadhi yaSemmelweis akafa nechirwere chefivha (Nuland, 2003, p. 31). Kuongororwa kwezvitunha kwairatidza urwa huri pasi peganda ravo, mumhango dzechipfuva, muziso reziso, nezvimwewo. Semmelweis ainetseka pamusoro pehuwandu hwevanhu vaifa muwadhi yake, uye mamwe mawadhi emuchipatara akafanana nawo muEurope yose. Nuland akacherechedza kuti Australia, America, Britain, Ireland, uye dzinenge dzimwe nyika dzose dzakanga dzatanga chipatara dzakatambura nhamba yekufa kwakafanana (pp. 41-43). Kana mukadzi akasununguka mwana achishandisa nyamukuta, nhamba yerufu yakaderera kusvika pazvikamu zvitatu chete kubva muzana. Asi kana akasarudza kushandisa ruzivo rwekurapa rwepamusoro-soro uye zvivakwa zvezuva racho, mukana wake wekufa wakawedzera zvakanyanya!

Semmelweis akanga aedza zvose kuti amise kuuraya kwacho. Akaunza madzimai ese kurutivi rwavo mutarisiro yekuti vangakunda l, asi hapana chakabuda. Akafunga kuti pamwe bhande mupirisita akaridza rungqanani rwakashishidzira madzimai. Naizvozvo, akaita kuti muprista apinde chinyararire, asi pasina kuderera kupi nokupi kwokufa. Paaifunga nezvechinwtso chake, aiona vadzidzi vechidiki vezvokurapa vachibatsira vanhu. Zuva rega rega vadzidzi vachiongorora zvitunha zvevanaamai vakafa. Ipapo vaigezesa maoko avo mundiro yemvura ine ropa, voapukuta pajira chena, renetsvina. Vanachiremba nemunyori venhorondo akataura pamusoro pokuita uku achiti: “Nemhaka yekuratidza kuti pakabuda pasina kuchenjerera maoko ako, vuye kuti kuzivisa kuchaita kuti azivise kuti vauye kuSarudzo yekutanga, varege kuita saizvozvo” (p. 100). Somucherekedzi womuzana matesti 21, mumwe anoshamiswa kufunga kuti miitiro yakauya panguva yakaitika muurongwa unotaura noruzivo rwokugadzira zvinhu zvemazuva ano. Ndeupi munhu akabata munhu akadzidzisa—asina kutanga kushandisa miitiro? Asi muEurope munguva yepakati pepakati rechi 19th, pakave muranda wechikadzi.

Semmelwe akabva ati munhu wese aiva muwadhi yake anyatsogeza nemushonga wechlorine mushure meongororo yega yega. Mumwedzi, nehuwandu hwerufu hwakadonha kubva pa18% kusvika pa1%. Semmelweis akawana chimwe chinhu…kana kuti akanga awana? Makore anoda kusvika 3,300 Semmelweis asati ararama, Mosesi akanga anyora kuti: “Ani naani anobata chitunha chomunhu upi noupi anofanira kuva asina kuchena mazuva manomwe. Iye anofanira kuzvinatsa nayo nemvura nezuva retatu nerechinomwe; ipapo achava akachena. Asi kana asingazvinatsi nezuva retatu nerechinomwe, haangavi akanaka.”— Numeri 19:11-12 . Utachiona hwakanga husati hwawanikwa hutsva muna 1847; chinyorwa chebhaibheri chakarekodha matanho ekutarisa kupararira kwawo kusvika kumashure sema 1500 B.C.

Majemusi neMvura Yekuchenesa

Kana mirairo yeTestamende Yekare ichifananidzwa netsananguro dzeTestamende Itsva dzezviito izvozvo, zvinova pachena kuti mimwe yemirairo yekare yainyanya kufananidzira muchimiro (semuenzaniso, Johane 19:31-37). Nekuvapo kwechiratidzo chakadaro muTesitamende yekare, zvakakosha, zvisinei, kuti tisatarise mirairo yeTestamende Yekare iyo yaive yakakosha mukukosha uye inopupura kune Mufungo Mukuru shure kwekunyorwa kweMutemo. Mumwe murayiridzo wakadaro unowanikwa muna Numeri 19 , apo vaIsraeri vakarayirwa kugadzirira “mvura yokuchenesa” yaizoshandiswa kugeza munhu upi noupi akanga abata chitunha.

Pakutanga kuona, mvura yokuchenesa inonzwika somushonga wokugadzira mishonga yokudavira mashura waibatanidza madota emhou, hisopi, danda romusidhari, uye mucheka mutsvuku. Asi iyi nzira yakanga iri kure zvikuru nemushonga waida “kudzinga mweya yakaipa.” Mukupesana, mabikirwo emvura yokuchenesa nhasi anomira somuenzaniso unoshamisa woungwaru hweBhaibheri, sezvo resipi yacho inongova nzira yokubudisa sipo inorwisa mabhakitiriya.

Patinotarisa pane zvakabikwa pachedu, tinotanga kuona kukosha kwechimwe nechimwe. Kutanga, funga nezvekushandiswa kwedota. Kemikari inozivikanwa nokuiti lye ndeimwe yezvinhu zvikuru zvinogadziriswa sipo dzakawanda nhasi. Kutaura pachokwadi, lye, ikashandiswa mukuvhengsnisa yakawanda inosvika pakukonzeresa kukwara kweganda. Asi yakanyatsoshandiswa mukusanganiswa zvakanaka, inogona kushandiswa zvakanakisa mukuchenesa mumiriri. Mabikirwo akasiyana-siyana esipo anoratidza kuti, kuti lye, inosanganiswa mvura nemadota. Mvura inosanganiswa nekemikari inodirwa mumadota. Mosesi akarayira vaIsraeri kuti vagadzirire musanganiswa waizosanganisira soda yakasanganiswa mumushonga wakanyungudutswa, uyo waizova wakanakira kumisa kupararira kwoutachiona.

Zvakadini nezvinosanganiswa zvemvura yekuchenesa? Hyssopu inodzivirira hutschiwana nekakunhuwirira chonova chinhu chimwe chete icho chatinowana nhasi mune mimwe mishonga yekuwachisa (McMillen naStern, p. 24). “Mapuranga emisidhari agara achishandiswa kuchengetera makabati nekuda kwekugona kudzinga tumbuyu nekudzivirira kuwora. Mune fomu yemafuta, inoshandiswa kuvanhu, inonzi antisepitiki, astringendi, esipetorandi (inobvisa madzihwa kubva munzira dzokufema), kudzivirirwa kweutachiwana, kunyaradza matwadzo, nekuuraya zvipukanana” (“Cedar Oil,” nd). VaIsraeri vakarairwa kuti vakande mumuvhenganiswa “mucheka mutsvuku,” uyo sezvingabvira wakanga uri mvere dzvuku (tarisa, VaHebheru 9:19). Kuwedzera shinda dzemvere dzemakushe kune musanganiswa kungadai kwakaita kuti musanganiswa “wakare ufanana nesipo” (McMillen naStern, p. 25).

Zviuru zvemakore zvisati zvaitwa zvidzidzo zvepamutemo kuona kuti rudzii rwemitoo yokuchenesa yainyanya kushanda; zviuru zvemakore ekutanga eAmerica asati agadzira zvigadziriso zvavo zveboka remishonga; uye makore ayo vadzidzi vedu vepamusoro vezvokurapa vasati vaziva chimwe chinhu pamusoro pedzidziso yehutachiona, Mosesi akarayira vaIsraeri kuti vagadzire resipi inoshamisa yemishonga, iyo, kana yakashandiswa zvakanaka muzvipatara zvakadai sezvipatara muVienna, ingadai yakaponesa zviuru zvehupenyu.

Kuiswa Kunzvimbo Yausingasangani Nevamwe

Chinyorwa cheTestamende Yekare chakawedzera mumwe muitiro unobatsira zvikuru mumunda wezvokurapa mutsananguro dzayo dzine udzame dzezvirwere izvo vanhu vapenyu vanofanira kugariswa kwavo voga. Bhuku raRevhitiko rinoronga hosha dzakawanda nenzira idzo muIsraeri aizobata nadzo utachiona. Vaya vaiva nehosha dzakadai semaperembudzi vakarayirwa kuti “vagare vari voga” “kunze kwomusasa” (Revhitiko 13:46). Kana munhu airwara akasvika pedyo nevaya vakanga vasingarwari uye kana munhu airwara, airayirwa kuti “afukidze ndebvu dzake, ashevedzere kuti, ‘Handina kuchena! Hamuna kuchena!’” (13:45). Zvinofadza kuti kuvhara ndebvu (“muromo wepamusoro”—ASV) kwaizodzivirira kupfira nokupfapfaidza kubva mumuromo womunhu kuti zvipfuure nokusununguka mumhepo, kufanana nokuvharika kwomuromo womunhu panguva yokukosora. Nezvekunzwisiswa kwekutapurira kunooneka mumitemo yokugarisa vanhu vari voga muTestamende Yekare, Roderick McGrew akanyora muZvinyorwa zveNhorondo yeMishonga yeKurapa kuti: “Pfungwa yokutapukira yakanga isiri yetsika dzechinyakare dzokurapa uye haina nzvimbo muzvinyorwa zvakawanda zveMadzibaba ezvemishonga. Testamente Yekare, yakapfuma mupfungwa dzeruzivo rwekutapurirana, kwemaperembudzi nehosha yeropa” (1985, p. 77-78). Pano zvakare, Bhaibheri rinoratidzira zivo yezvokurapa neyesayenzi yakarurama zvinoshamisa inopfuura unyanzvi hupi nohupi hunozivikanwa hwomunhu hwaivapo panguva yarakanyorwa.

Vanachiremba vakawanda vakaenzanisa mirayiridzo yaMosesi yokurapa nemitoo inobudirira yemazuva ano vakasvika pakuziva kukosha kunoshamisa uye nzwisiso zveBhaibheri. Senyanzvi yemishonga nenyanzvi yechiHebheru yomuzana remakore rechi20th, Dr. David Macht weJohns Hopkins University, akambonyora kuti: “Shoko rimwe nerimwe riri muMagwaro echiHebheru rakanyatsosarudzwa uye rine zivo inokosha noukoshi hwakadzama” (1953, peji 450). Zvamazvirokwazvo, miitiro yokurapa yakarurama yakarongwa zviuru zvamakore revo yawo isati yanzwisiswa zvakakwana inogovera ufakazi hwakaisvonaka hwokufuridzirwa kwoumwari kweBhaibheri.

Chikonzero #3: Chokwadi Chose Chechokwadi CheBhaibheri

Ngatitii taizokumbira boka revanyori venhoroondo kuti vanyore nhoroondo yazvino yeUnited States of America pamusika. Ngatitii takavapa makore kuti vapedze uye zviwanikwa zvisingaperi zvekushandisa pakutsvagisa kwavo. Pakupera kwenhambo iyoyo, nevhoriyamu yavo ichangobva kubudiswa muruoko, tingava nechivimbo here chokuti vakanga vanyora zvakarurama misi inokosha nemashoko zvakakwana? Aiwa, hatina kukwanisa. Muchokwadi, mukati memakore mashoma, sekuziva kwese kwakaringana muridzi wekambani yekutsikisa, isu taizoda vedzero yechipiri. Mukati memakore gumi, mashoko matsva akawanda angadai abuda pachena zvokuti chinyorwa chechitatu kana chechina chaizova chakakosha. Uye mukati memakore 20, sezvingabvira taizoda bhuku idzva chose kana taida kuchengeta nhau zvakarurama. Asi patinotarira mumabhuku 66 eBhaibheri, tinowana kururama kwakakwana kwenhau kusingamboda kuvandudzwa kana kuti kururamiswa.

Kutaura kwese kwemuBhaibheri kunogona kuongororwa kana kusimbiswa nenhoroondo kwakaratidza kuti vanyori veBhaibheri havana kumbokanganisa. Chokwadi chokuti mabhuku eBhaibheri akarurama zvakakwana chinoratidzira kuti uchenjeri hunopfuura mano omunhu unofanira kuva vakabata mukunyorwa kwamabhuku acho.

Kururama kweMabasa

VaWilliam Ramsay akanga ari imwe nguva asingatendi uye mukurumukuru anemukurumbira nezvokuchera matongo. Dzidzo yake yakakura yakanga yaroverera maari pfungwa yakadzama yezvidzidzo. Asi pamwe chete noruzivo irworwo kwakauya rusaruro rwakanga rwakavakwa pamusoro pokusarurama kunofungidzirwa kweBhaibheri (zvikurukuru bhuku raMabasa). Sezvo Ramsay pachake akati:

[K]ubva 1880 kusvika 1890, bhuku reMabasa raionekwa sechikamu chisina kusimba cheTestamende Itsva. Hapana aive nehanya nemukurumbira wake senyanzvi aifarira kutaura izwi rekuzvidzivirira. Anonyanya kuchengetedza nyanzvi dzezvidzidzo zvebhaibheri, sekutanga, akafunga zano rakachenjera rekuzvidzivirira kweTestamendee Itsva rose kwaive kutaura zvishoma sezvinobvira nezveMabasa (1915, p. 38).

Sezvingatarisirwa kune mumwe munhu akanga adzidziswa ne“nyanzvi” dzakadaro, Ramsay aiva nemaonero akafanana. Pakupedzisira akaisiya, zvisinei, nemhaka yokuti akanga achidisa kuita izvo vanhu vashomanene venguva yake vaishinga kunzvera Bhaibheri vamene nechisarudzo chenyanzvi yokuchera matongo muruoko rumwe uye Bhaibheri rakazaruka mune rumwe. Chinangwa chake chokuzvitaura chaiva chokuratidza kusarurama kwenhoroondo yaRuka sezvakanyorwa mubhuku reMabasa. Asi, zvakamushamisa zvikuru, bhuku raMabasa rakapfuura muedzo uri wose uyo nhoroondo ipi neipi yenhau yaigona kukumbirwa kuita. Kutaura idi, pashure pamakore okunzvera chaizvoizvo ufakazi muAsia Minor, Ramsay akagumisa kuti Ruka akanga ari munyori wenhau womuenzaniso. Lee S. Wheeler, mubhuku rake rekare rinonzi Vembiri yeKusatenda Avo Vanozviti vakaeana Kritsu, akarondedzera nhoroondo yeupenyu hwaRamsay zvakadzama (1931, mapeji 102-106), uye akabva atora mashoko emucheri wekare ane mukurumbira, uyo akazobvuma kuti:

Kuwedzera kwandakaita rondedzero yeMabasa, uye kuwedzera kwandinoita gore negore pamusoro peungano yeGraeco-Roman nepfungwa nemafashoni, uye kurongeka mumapurovhinzi iwayo, ndinowedzera kuyemura uye ndinonzwisisa zviri nani. Ndakaenda kunotsvaka chokwadi kumuganhu uko Girisi neAsia zvinosangana, uye ndakachiwana muno [mubhuku raMabasa—KB/EL]. Iwe unogona kutaura mazwi aRuka mune dhigirii kupfuura chero emumwe munyori wenhoroondo, uye anomira nekunyatsoongorora uye nekubata kwakaomarara, chero nguva dzose kuti mutsoropodzi anoziva nyaya yacho uye asingapfuuri miganhu yesainzi uye yekururamisira (Ramsay, 1915 , peji 89).

Ruka, munyori webhuku reMabasa, iye zvino anobvumwa nevakawanda somunyori wenhau dzakaitika akarurama zvikuru pachake—zvokuti Ramsay akasvika pakudavira chiKristu somugumisiro wokuongorora kwake pachake kururama kwenhoroondo yaRuka. Chikonzero chipi chine musoro chiripo chokuramba chipupuriro chaRuka chakarurama zvinoshamisa? Sezvo Wayne Jackson akapfupisa:

Muna Mabasa, Ruka anotaura nezvenyika makumi matatu nembiri, maguta makumi mashanu namana, uye zvitsuwa zvipfumbamwe zveMediterranean. Anotaurawo nezvevanhu makumi mapfumbamwe nevashanu, makumi matanhatu nevaviri avo vasina kutaurwa kumwewo muTestamende Itsva. Uye mareferensi ake, pazvinotariswa, anogara ari echokwadi. Izvi zvinoshamisa zvechokwadi, tichifunga nezvekuti mamiriro ezvematongerwo enyika/nharaunda yemazuva ake akanga ari mumamiriro ekuchinja nguva dzose (1991, 27: 2).

Runyoro rwaPirato

Mazuva mashoma okupedzisira oupenyu hwaJesu akanga ari anosuruvarisa kupfuura kusurivara kungafungidzirwa munhau yavanhu. Mukati memhirizhonga yose, pakanga pakamira mumwe murume akanga ane simba rokumisa kutambudzwa kwose. Mumwe murume aigona kumisa varwi veRoma oponesa Kristu pakurovererwa. Zita rake—Pondiyo Pirato, mukuru mukuru weRoma aitonga nharaunda yeJudhea panguva yorufu rwaKristu. Nyaya yekurovererwa haigoni kutaurwa pasina kutaura zita remukuru weRoma uyu akatongera Kristu rufu—kunyange zvazvo Pirato aiziva kuti akanga asina mhosva (Johani 18:38; 19:4, 6).

Kunyange zvazvo Bhaibheri richitaura nezvaPirato kakawanda, zita rake harina kuwanikwa pauchapupu hwezvinocherwa mumatongo. Kwemazana emakore, hapana zvakanyorwa nematombo kana humwe uchapupu hunotsigira pfungwa yokuti mumwe murume ainzi Pirato aiva nechokuita naKristu kana kuti Judhiya. Nekuda kweizvi, vazhinji vakanyomba Bhaibheri vachiti vanyori vebhaibheri vakagadzira nevakaruka Pirato kubva mufungidziro dzavo dzakaorera. Pamusoro pazvo, kudai Pirato aiva mutungamiriri akakurumbira kudaro, paisazova neuchapupu hwezvinocherwa mumatongo hunoratidza kuvapo kwake here?

Vatsoropodzi vakanyaradzwa apo, muna 1961, rimwe boka rezvokuchera matongo reItaly rinoshanda paKesariya rakawana hwendefa rebwe rakareba masendimita 32 kuenda mudenga, ne maihinji 27 kufara, ne8  gobvuka. Padombo iri, zvino rozivikanwa se“Runyoro rwaPirato,” pakanga pasara zvisaririra zveiri zita rakapfava, rokuti: “Pondiyo Pirato, Mutariri weJudhea” rinenge zita chairo chairo seriya rakapiwa kwaari pana Ruka 3:1 . Izvi, zvino, zvakava zvimwe zvakawanikwa zvinotiyeuchidza kuti patinofumura zvakapfuura, ndipo patinofumura chokwadi chekuti Bhaibheri iShoko raMwari zvechokwadi (tarisa Price, 1997, p. 307-308).

Chokwadi ndechokuti, zvakawanda zvakawanikwa nevanochera matongo zvakaratidza kururama kweBhaibheri. Sokunyora kwakaita nyanzvi yezvinocherwa mumatongo yakakurumbira Nelson Glueck, kuti: “Kunogona kutaurwa nenzira yakakomba kuti hakuna chiwanwa chezvinocherwa mumatongo chakambopokanidza nongedzero yeBhaibheri. Zvizhinji zvezvakawanwa nezvinocherwa mumatongo zvakaitwa zvinosimbisa muchidimbu chakajeka kana zvakadzama zvirevo zvenhoroondo muBhaibheri” (1959, p. 31). Zvamazvirokwazvo, ururami hwenhau hwakakwana, pasina zvikanganiso zvinorondedzerwa zvinowanwa mumabhuku akanyorwa navanhuwo zvavo, zvinopupurira mavambo oumwari eBhaibheri.

Mhedziso

Hapana nhevedzano yamabhuku munhau yavanhu yakachengeta tsinhirano inopfuura yomuzvarirwo iri mukati memapeji eBhaibheri. Kubva mubhuku rokutanga raGenesisi kusvika kubhuku rokupedzisira raZvakazarurwa, varume vanenge 40 vakanyora nyaya dzakasiyana-siyana dzinobatana kuti dziumbe bhuku rinotengwa zvikuru, rinoparadzirwa zvikuru, rakanyatsobatanidzwa, rakanyorwa zvisina mhosva risati rambobudiswa. Hungwaru chaihwo hwevanhu hahuna kumbokwanisa kugadzira basa rine chiporofita chekufanotaura, kufanoziva kwesainzi, uye chokwadi chese. Kunzwisisa kunoda tsananguro yakakwana. Mhedziso bedzi ine mufungo, inowirirana noufakazi huripo, ndeyokuti Bhaibheri “rakapiwa nokufuridzirwa naMwari.”

Refurensi yeZvinyorwa

“Bhuku Rakatengeswa Zvakanyanya Pasirese” (2014), Guinness World Records, http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-1/best-selling-book-of-non-fiction/.

Bryan, Cyril (1930), Ancient Egyptian Medicine: The Papyrus Ebers (Chicago, IL: Ares Publishers).

“Cedar Oil” (no date), Spavelous, http://www.spavelous.com/Articles/Health_Nutrition/Aromatherapy_Chart.html.

Fleming, Wallace B. (1966), The History of Tyre (New York: AMS Press).

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Yakabudiswa Ndira 1, 2015

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