Menu

Svondo NeKudya KweTafura YaShe

Pfungwa yokuti vanhu vose vanosungirwa kuita kuti mafungiro avo nezviito zvavo zvienderane nedzidziso yaJesu Kristu haisi dzidziso yakakurumbira mazuva ano—kunyange pakati pevaKristu. Vazhinji vanoshuva kunzwa vechokwadi mune zvechitendero uye vachifadza Mwari, asi vashomanana vanofunga kuti kugamuchirwa naMwari kunotsamira pakuteerera kwavo mitemo yaMwari. Zvamazvirokwazvo, avo vanokuchidzira vanhu kuti vave nehanya pamusoro pekuteerana neudzame hweShoko raMwari vanonzi “vanoita zvemutemo” (ona Miller, 2003). Chokwadika, uyu mudzimu wokusadavira Mwari unorwisana zvakananga nezvinorehwa neBhaibheri kubvira kwokutanga kusvika kwokupedzisira. Mwari agara achitarisira kuti vanhu vaenderane nezvaanoda (Muparidzi 12:13). Kuteerera kwemunhu kuratidzwa kwerudo rwemunhu (Johani 14:15; Johane 15:14; 1 Johane 5:3).

Testamende Itsva inopa mashoko chaiwo pamusoro pe“chii, rini, sei, uye nei” chokuchengeta Kudya kweTafura yaShe. Kunyanguvezvo, vazhinjisa vari muChiKristu havapi revo kuzviito. Kwavari, munhu angadya Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kamwe chete mwedzi wega wega, chikamu chimwe nechimwe, kana gore. Zvakadaro, Rugwaro rwunopesana nemafungiro aya (Brownlow, 1945, mapeji 168-175). Maonero ebhaibheri ndeokuti Mwari anoda kuti kereke ichengete Chirairo chaShe zuva rega rega rekutanga revhiki, kureva, Svondo yega yega. Imwe nguva ichangoburwa yekuvandudza ndiko kusimbirira kuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunogona kuchengetwa pamazuva evhiki kunze kweSvondo (semuenzaniso, Atchley, 1989; Hood, 1990, p. 15; Mayeux, 1989, 46:6). Asi Bhaibheri rinodzidzisei?

Mafungiro Ekutanga

Nguva pfupi asati afa, Jesu akachengeta mutambo weTestamende Yekare wechingwa chisina mbiriso. Mukuita kudaro, akatanga Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru (1 VaKorinte 11:20) uye akaudza vadzidzi Vake kuti “chirairo” ichi (1 VaKorinte 10:16) chaizochengetwa muumambo (Mateo 26:29). Chingwa nemuchero wemuzambiringa zvaifanira kushanda sechiratidzo chemuviri neropa raJesu izvo zvaizopihwa nekukurumidza pamuchinjikwa sechibayiro chenyika. Uyu muitiro wokuchengeta Chirairo chaShe uchaitwa rini? NeSvondo? Svondo yega yega? NeSvondo chete?

Imwe pfungwa huru ndeyekuita kwekereke yekutanga pasi pekutungamira kwevaapostora. Pashure pezvose, Jesu akafanotaura zvakananga kuti pashure pokunge abva paNyika, Mweya Mutsvene waizogonesa vaapostora kushandisa dzidziso dzaKristu mukugadzwa kwechechi uye kutangwa kwechitendero cheChiKristu (Johane 14:25-26; 15:26-27; 16:7-15). Asati akwira kudenga, Akatuma vaapositori kuparidza Evhangeri (Mateo 28:18-20; Mako 16:15-16). Nokudaro, Testamende Itsva inoshuma izvo MaKristu apakuvamba namachechi aiita somuuyo wakananga wedzidziso dzaKristu sezvairevererwa kupfurikidza navaapostora. Machengetero anoita machechi Kudya kweTafura yaShe, kutanga mubhuku raMabasa, pasina mubvunzo anoratidza pesvedzero yevaapostora uye muenzaniso wakafuridzirwa. Sezvakataurwa naMcGarvey:

Zvinoshamisa kuti Ishe, avo vakagadza zvisungo zvekuchengetwa muchechi, vaiziva nzira chaiyo yekuchengeta kwavo iyo yaizonyatso chengetedza magumo emweya aionekwa; uye nekudaro mweya wese wakavimbika unonzwa uchimanikidzwa kuvachengetedza chaizvo nenzira yehurongwa hwavo hwekutanga, kana izvo zvichigona kuzivikanwa…. [Ku]chengetedzeka kwedu chete…kunowanikwa mukukopa chaizvo chimiro chakatangwa nechiremera chaMwari (1910, peji 342-343).

Chechipiri chakakosha chine chekuita nekukosha kweSvondo. Testamente Itsva inopa chirevo chakakosha kuSvondo? Mumwe anogona kuita kunze kwokucherekedza idi rokuti kumuka kwaJesu kwakaitika musi weSvondo (Marko 16:1; Ruka 24:1; Johane 20:1). Mushure mokumuka kwake, Jesu akasangana nevadzidzi vake nemusi weSvondo (Johani 20:19,26). Pentekosti rakanga riri zuva remabiko emaJuda (Revhitiko 23:15 zvichiendamberi.), uye rakanga riri pazuva iri remabiko, mazuva gumi mushure mekukwira kwaJesu kudenga, ndipo pakavambwa kereke—neSvondo (ona McGarvey, 1892, p. 19; Brewer, 1941, mapeji 325-326). Makereke eTestamende Itsva aiungana musi weSvondo (Mabasa 20:7; 1 VaKorinde 16:2). Vakaita Kudya kweTafura yaShe Yemanheru pazuva iroro (Mabasa 20:7). Mukuwirirana naZvakazarurwa 1:10 , VaKristu vapakuvamba vakatanga kudana Svondo kuti “zuva raShe” (Swete, 1911, p. 13). Ko kana muverengiwo zvake angapotsa sei kudzokorora uku? Pasina kupokana, zuva reSvondo rinozadzwa nerevo huru yorudzidziso.

Chimwe chinoreva kunyarara kusinganzwi kweTestamende Itsva maererano nekukosha kweMugovera (kana chero rimwe zuva). Kunze kweSvondo, Mugovera ndiyo yega inokwikwidza yakakomba yezuva rekukosha kwechitendero. Zvisinei, kuchengetwa kweSabata pasina mubvunzo kwaiva chinhu chechiJudha chete, kwete ChiKirisitu, kunyangwe kereke yevacheche yakanga iri yechiJudha chete uye pakutanga yaisada kusiya tsika yaMosesi (Mabasa 11:19; 15:1,5; 21:12). Zvimwechete ndezvechokwadi maererano nenhoroondo yekereke yekutanga. Kunyange zvazvo zvisiri izvo zvinosarudzira MaKristu eTestamende Itsva, nhoroondo yekereke yekutanga inosimbisa kuti Mabasa 20:7 haingori rondedzero yetsaona. Kuchengetwa kweChirairo chaShe nomusi weSvondo kunoratidzira muitiro wezvose zviri zviviri machechi omuzana rokutanga ramakore pamwe chete namachechi apamberi pezana ramakore rokutanga. Somuenzaniso, Didache, rakanyorwa chinguvana pashure pokupera kwezana ramakore rokutanga, rinotaura nezveVaKristu vanoungana zuva rimwe nerimwe raShe nokumedura chingwa (9:1-12; 14:1). Justin Martyr akanyora mubhuku rake First Apology (ch. 67), circa A.D. 152, nezvevaKristu vaisangana musi weSvondo uye vachidya chirairo (chikamu 67). Milligan akati: “Kuti VaKristu vepakutanga vaiwanzopemberera Kudya kweTafura yaShe pazuva rokutanga revhiki riri rose…. Mukati memazana maviri amakore ekutanga tsika yechirairo chevhiki nevhiki yakanga iri pasi rose, uye yakapfuuridzirwa muchechi yechiGiriki kusvikira muzana ramakore rechinomwe” (1975, p. 440). Johnson akapfupisa dhata repashure pekutanga:

[Va]nyori vekereke yekutanga kubva kuna Bhanabhasi, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, kuna Clement weAlexandria, Origen naCyprian, vese nemvumo imwe, vanozivisa kuti chechi yakachengeta zuva rekutanga revhiki. Vanobvumiranawo kuti Kudya kweTafura yaShe kwaiitwa vhiki nevhiki, pazuva rokutanga revhiki (1891, 1:505, emp. added).

Imwezve inotariswa kukosha kwedzidziso inobatanidza Kudya kweTafura yaShe neSvondo. Rufu rwaJesu nekumuka kwake zvakabatana zvakanyanya nekuchengetwa kweSvondo yeChirairo (1 Vakorinde 11:26). Munhu haakwanise kuita nharo dzegungano reSvondo pasina kuita nharo dzechirairo cheSvondo. Muna Dheuteronomio 5:12-15 , Sabata rairangarira Kubuda—kununurwa kwavaJudha muuranda hweEgipita. Svondo, nenzira yakafanana, izuva rechiKristu rokusunungurwa. Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunodyidzana nerudzikinuro urwu uye hunhu chaihwo hwekereke. Ichi chiito chemubatanidzwa nekudaro chinoitwa nenhengo dzese apo gungano rinoungana pamwe chete neSvondo. Kudya Kudya kweChirairi chaShe chero zuva ripi neripi kunonetesa revo yacho yedzidziso (ona Ferguson, 1976, peji 59-62). Sezvo Rex Turner akasimbisa zvine mutsindo:

Zuva rokutanga revhiki izuva rokumuka kwaKristu. Izuva guru muzvinyorwa zvose zvenhoroondo. Chii chaizova chakakodzera zvikuru, naizvozvo, kupfuura kuti vadzidzi vaungane pazuva rorumuko rwaKristu, zuva rokutanga revhiki, kuti vamedura chingwa uye vanwe chibereko chomuzambiringa mukurangarira rufu rwaKristu, ropa Rake rinoyananisa, rumuko Rwake? , uye chipikirwa Chake chokuuyazve? Uyo anokarakadza kuti VaKristu vanekodzero yakaenzana nechiremera vangadya Chirairo chaShe pane rimwe zuva risiri zuva rokutanga revhiki haana kunzwisisa revo chaiyoiyo yezvakaitika pazuva iroro rokutanga revhiki, uyewo haazivi. kuti zuva rokutanga revhiki iZuva raShe (Zvakazarurwa 1:10) (1972, p. 80, emp. yakawedzerwa).

Pakupedzisira, iyo nyaya yekucherechedzwa kakawanda inotsamira pamavhesi anonyatso kutaura nezvenyaya yacho. [Cherechedza: Kuti uwane mabatirwo akanakisa ezvikamu zveMagwaro zvinokanganisa mubvunzo weKudya kweChirairo chaShe, ona Warren, 1975, peji 148-156.]

MAGWARO AKANAKA

MABASA 2:42, 46

Muna Mabasa 2:42, tinosangana neshoko rokuti “kumedura chingwa.” Shoko rechiGiriki rokuti “kumedura chingwa” (klasai arton), shanduro chaiyo yedimikira rechiHebheru (paras lechem), rakanga riri dimikira rinowanzoreva “kudya zvokudya” (Bullinger, 1898, peji 839; Woods, 1976, p. 67; Harris, 1980, 2:736, 1847; Dimikira racho rakatanga kubva pakuti vaHebheru vaibika chingwa chavo muchimiro chemakeke matete akafuratira (panzvimbo pezvingwa) aizvikweretesa zvakanyanya kumedura pane kucheka (Bullinger, p. 839; McClintock naStrong, 1867, 1:882). Dimikira rinonyatsooneka muna Isaya 58:7, Jeremia 16:7, naMariro 4:4. Vanhu vekuAmerica vanoshandisa dimikira rakafanana kana tichitaura nezve “kuruma kudya.” Zvisinei, zvirungamutauro zvinowanzoita “basa rinoita kaviri” nokukudziridza zvimwe zvirevo. Kubva muchirevo chedimikira chekudya chikafu kwakauya kushandiswa kwehunyanzvi kweshoko iri muMagwaro. Sezvo Ishe akatora chingwa uye, maererano netsika yechiJudha apo baba vemba vaigadzira chingwa kuti chigoverwe kumhuri (ona Arndt naGingrich, 1957, p. 434; Rackham, 1901, p. 37; Behm, 1964, 1964). , 1:477 ), sezviri pachena akachimedura kuita zvidimbu (Mateu 26:26; Mako 14:22; Ruka 22:19; 1 VaKorinde 1:24). “kumedura chingwa” dzimwe nguva rinoshandiswa muMagwaro kureva Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru” (ona Behm, 1965, 3:730, Klappert, 1976, 2:530; Munhu haagoni kufunga kuti kuitika kwose kwedimikira kunoreva Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Mamiriro anofanira kuona kuti kudya kwakajairika here kana kuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunoitirwa (ona chati).

 Kutyora ChaikoKutyora Kwekufananidzira
Kudya KwakajairikaMateo 14:19; 15:36 Mako 6:41; 8:6,19 Ruka 9:16; 24:30 Mabasa 27:35Ruka 24:35 Mabasa 2:4
Tafura yaSheMateo 26:26 Mako 14:22 Ruka 22:19 1 VaKorinde 11:24Mabasa 2:42 Mabasa 20:7,11

Mamiriro ezvinhu ari muna Mabasa 2:42 anonongedzera kuzvinorehwa neKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru anosanganisira kushandiswa kweshoko rokuti “mu” (muchiGiriki), zvichiratidza kuti chimwe chiitiko, chinopesana nezvokudya zvakajairika, chiri kukurukurwa (enzanisa. 1 VaKorinde 10:16; Nicoll, n.d., 2:95). Ndima iyi inogona kunge yakaturikirwa ichiti, “Uye vakaramba vakasimba mudzidziso yevaapostora uye muruwadzano, pakumedura chingwa, uye paminamato. Ruka sezviri pachena akanga achitaura nezvemibato yokunamata yakarongwa yaMaKristu.

Chechipiri, “kumedura chingwa” kwakanyorwa pakati pemamwe mabasa echechi asingakanganisi: dzidziso yevaapostora, kuwadzana, uye munamato. Chechitatu, mashoko okuti “vakaramba vakasimba” (chinyakare chisina kukwana) anoratidza tsika, tsika, muitiro unopfuurira—kunyange zvazvo kuwanda chaiko kusingaonekwi munyaya ino. Munhu anofanirwa kuenda kumwe kunoona kana mabatiro chaiyo akarairwa. Bva, kubva mundima iyi munhu anogona kuona kuti chechi yapakuvamba sezviri pachena yaidya kazhinji kazhinji zvikuru kupfuura gore negore, sezvo gore rakanga risati rapfuura chifo chokutangwa kwechechi, uye vakanga vachitonamata “vakatsiga.”

“Kumedura chingwa” kunodudzwazve mundima ina gare. Panowo, mashoko akapoteredza anofanira kupa chiratidzo chokuti Mabasa 2:46 inoreva kuchengetwa kweChirairo chaShe kana kuti kungodyawo zvako. Arndt naGingrich vanodana ngwariro pakushandiswa kwechinhu chinonzi chinobatanidza chiito, te, chinowanzoitika muTestamende Itsva mubhuku raMabasa. Rinooneka kaviri munaMabasa. 2:46 kuburitsa pfungwa yokuti “kwete chete…asi” (1957, p. 807; enzanisa. Robertson, 1934, p. 1179—“Asi tete ine sungano chaiyo”). Thayer anoratidza izwi iri sechinyorwa chebatanidzo chinoburitsa hukama hwemukati nezvinotangira. Nokudaro, kushandiswa kweshoko kaviri mumutsara mumwe chete, semuna Mabasa 2:46, kunopa pfungwa dzinofambirana kana kubatanidza —“se…so” (Thayer, 1901, mapeji 616-617; Blass, nevamwel., 1961, p. 230). Nokudaro kushandiswa kwechibatanidzo chebvumirano (te) mundima 46 kunoshanda sekupamuka kwemufungo—musiyano—kungwarira fungidziro yokuti vadzidzi vaigara mutemberi maawa 24. Ruka akataura pfungwa yokuti vadzidzi vaiungana pamwe chete mutemberi dzose pashure pezviitiko zvinokosha zvePentekosta, pasina mubvunzo vasingadi kupotsa chero mibato yomweya mikuru ine chokuita nokutangwa kwechechi. Zvisinei, vakaenda kudzimba dzavo kuti vaenderere mberi nezvinhu zvenguva dzose zvaiva nechokuita nezvokudya zvakajairika. Saka Jamieson, nevamwe.: “pachivande, zvichienzaniswa nekunamata kwavo kutemberi” (1871, peji 176, mabhii akatsveyama mumabviro).

Mufungo wakafanana unopiwa nokushandiswa kaviri kweshoko, kunooneka mumashoko akapoteredza, kubatana kana kubatana uko vadzidzi vaifarikanya. Nepo vaiita pamwe chete muzviito zvavo zvechinamato, vakaenderera mberi nekubatana kwavo muzviito zvavo zvisiri zvechitendero zvekugarisana mudzimba. Shanduro dzechiRungu dzinotora misiyano yegirama yendima yacho dzinosanganisira NIV inoti: “Zuva rimwe nerimwe vairamba vachiungana pamwe chete mutemberi. Vakamedura chingwa mudzimba dzavo umo vakadya pamwe chete nomufaro uye nomwoyo wakanaka.” Barnes akati: “[Ku]taura kwokuti ‘vakadya nyama yavo’ kunoita sokureva kuti izvi zvinoreva zvokudya zvavo zvakajairika, uye kwete chirairo chaShe” (1847, p. 59, emp. yakawedzerwa). “Kumedura chingwa” (ndima. 46) naizvozvo hakurevi Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, asi kuzvokudya zvakajairika. Izwi rekuti “chikafu” (trophe; enzanisa. “nyama,” KJV), harina kumboshandiswa kureva Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, rinotsanangudza izwi rekuti “kumedura chingwa”—humwe humbowo hwekuti kudya kwese kuri kutariswa (Jackson, 1991, p.3)

Kuti aratidze kuti Mabasa 2:46 inoreva kuchengetwa kwezuva nezuva kweKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, munhu aizofanira kuziva uye kubvumikisa pfungwa mbiri dzisingabvumirwi: (1) kuti “zuva nezuva” chigadziriso chenguva yeshoko icho chinotonyatsochinja mashoko okuti “kumedura chingwa kumba,” uye (2) kuti mutsara wokuti “kumedura chingwa kumba” unoreva chaizvo uye chete Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru (Warren, 1975, p. 151). Munhu aizofanira kuziva zvinhu zviviri izvi asati aita mhedziso yokuti Mwari anobvumira kudya Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru pane rimwe zuva kunze kweSvondo. Asi munhu haakwanisi kuziva kana kuratidza mapoinzi maviri aya. Zvirokwazvo, umboo hwegirama hunovarwisa. Mabasa 2:46 haipe simba kana humbowo hunotsigira mhedziso yokuti chechi inogona kutora Chirairo chaShe pane rimwe zuva kunze kweSvondo.

MABASA 20:7

Muna Mabasa 20, ruzivo rwakakura maererano nemabatiro eChechi yekutanga Chirairo chaShe anoburitswa. Mundima iyi kana kuti mune mamwe mashoko hapana chinoratidza kuti “zviedza zvizhinji,” “imba yepamusoro” (ndima 8), kana kuti “nhurikidzwa yechitatu” (ndima 9) zvine chokuita neKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Saka nzvimbo uye zvakatenderedza zvinhu (semuenzaniso, nhamba yematireyi / makapu) zvinofanirwa. Saizvozvo, ivo vanosarudza zvachose (enzanisa. Warren, 1975, p. 140). Mamwe maumbirwo echinyorwa anobatsira kutsanangura maparamendi endima.

Kutanga, izwi rekuti “kumedura chingwa” ndeyekutanga Aorist infinitive. Infinitives muchiGiriki neChirungu anoreva chinangwa chechiito chezwi guru (Summers, 1950, p. 132; Dana and Mantey, 1927, p. 214). Shoko rechiito riri mundima iyi rinoti “vakaungana.” Nokudaro chinangwa chikuru chegungano chaiva chokudya Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Iyi mhedziso inorehwawo mukutsiura kwaPauro kuVaKorinde: “Saka kana muchiungana panzvimbo imwe, hakusi kudya Chirairo chaShe” (1 VaKorinde 11:20). Alexander Campbell akacherechedza kuti mashoko aPauro anoratidza kuti kudya, Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kwaiva “chinhu chikuru chekusangana” (1972, p. 32). Cherekedza nokungwarira kuti kunyange sezvo donzo reungano richiziviswa zvakananga kuva kugoverana paKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, naizvozvo rugwaro rwunotaura zvakajeka kuti ichi chiito chakaitwa pazuva rokutanga revhiki. [Cherechedza: Kuti uwane kukurukurwa kweshoko rechiGiriki rinotsigira shanduro yokuti “zuva rokutanga revhiki,” ona McGarvey, 1910, mapeji 306-307.]

Chechipiri, Ruka akashandisa izwi rokuti” rini” sechishandiso chemaitiro kuratidza nzira yenguva dzose iyo muverengi anofanira kuziva nekunzwisisa (ona Dungan, 1891, 1:245-246; Gibson, 1990, pp. 4-5). Shoko rinotangira shoko rokuti “rini” rinoumba tsinhiro yakaitwa naRuka yakanangana nokuratidza chiitiko chinonyatsozivikanwa, chinotarisirwa zvizere. Zvinorehwa nechikamu ichi zvinoratidzwa muchidimbu chinotevera: “Zvino pazuva rokutanga revhiki—iro rinozivikanwa nomunhu wose kuti izuva chairo rinoungana VaKristu kuti vachengete Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru—Pauro, akagadzirira kuenda mangwana acho, akataura naye.….” Kufambirana netsika dzemuAmerica kunogona kuonekwa muchitaurwa chinoti: “Musi wechina waChikunguru, vanhu vekuAmerica pavanopemberera kuzvarwa kwenyika yavo, Mutungamiriri wenyika akapa hurukuro inonyandura kurudzi” (enzanisa. Nichol naWhiteside, 1920, 1:171) Pfundo guru iro Ruka akanga achityaira kwairi rakanga riri kuparidza kwaPauro uko kwakatora kusvika pakati pousiku. Zvisinei, kuisa chiito chokuwedzera mukati mechikamu chakasiyana, chinotangira kuti “rini,” kunoratidza kuti Ruka akanga achitaura nezveicho chaizivikanwa senheyo yetsika pakati peVaKristu: kuchengetwa kweSvondo yeKudya kweChirairo chaShe. Chokwadi,

[Ti]nofanira kurangarira kuti 1 VaKorinde zvakanyorwa kare, uye kuti chirevo chiri muna1 VaKorinde. xvi.2 kusvika ku“zuva rokutanga revhiki” rokuunganidzwa kwezvipo zvinongozvibatanidza nemashoko ari pano kuratidza kuti zuva iri rakanga racherechedzwa neChechi yeMaKristu sezuva rinokosha rokunamata kweruzhinji,  ne“kumedurwa kwechingwa” (Nicoll, n.d., 2:424, emp. yakawedzerwa).

Chechitatu, Pauro akapedza vhiki rose ari muTroasi—kunyange zvazvo akanga ari papurogiramu yokukurumidzira, achimhanyira kuJerusarema (20:16). Munhu aisazononotsa rwendo rwokumhanya kuti angodyawo zvokudya zvakajairika—izvo zvingave zvakadyiwa pamazuva api neapi akanga anonoka. Zvinoita sokuti aida kusangana nekereke yose pagungano rekunamata revhiki nevhiki—chiitiko chaakadzokorora kuTire (Mabasa 21:4) nePuteori (Mabasa 28:14). Jamieson, Fausset, naBrown vanotsanangura nguva yacho:

[Va]kasvika neMuvhuro, vakagara paSabata revaJudha nezuva raIshe raitevera; achizvibatikana, pasina kupokana, mukuzorodza nekusimbisa kuyanana nehama mukati menguva…. Izvi… zvinoratidza pachena kuti kuchengetwa kwechiKristu kwezuva raizotevera kwainzi “Zuva raShe,” kwakanga kwatova tsika yemachechi (1871, p. 208, emp. anovedzera).

Manheru eMugovera Here kana kuti Manheru Svondo?

Kubva murugwaro zviri pachena kuti panguva iyi vadzidzi vakaungana manheru. Sezvo tichiudzwa kuti vakaungana “pazuva rokutanga revhiki,” mubvunzo unoramba uripo wokuti manheru acho akanga ari manheru udu oMugovera here kana kuti manheru eSvondo. Mhinduro inotsamira panhau yokuverengwa kwenguva muzana rokutanga ramakore, zvikurukuru, kana rondedzero yaRuka ichishandisa nguva yechiJudha kana kuti yechiRoma. Ruzivo rwekumashure rwunotevera ruchagadzirisa mubvunzo uyu.

Mazuva  neMaawa

Munhau yose, tsika dzakasiana mukuverengwa kwadzo maawa namazuva. Shoko rokuti “zuva” rine revo dzakasiyana-siyana pakati petsika kunyange muBhaibheri. Kutenderera kweawa makumi maviri nemana kweNyika paaxisi yayo ndiyo imwe chirevo chezwi rekuti “zuva,” kureva zuva rezuva kana renyeredzi. Asi panotangira munhu kuverenga shanduko imwe chete iyi yakasiyana kubva patsika nemagariro. Nyanzvi dzinobvumirana zvikuru kuti vaBhabhironi vaiverenga mazuva avo kubva pakubuda kwezuva kusvika pakubuda kwezuva, vaUmbrian kubva masikati kusvika masikati, vaAtene nevaHebheru kubva pakuvira kwezuva kusvika pakudoka kwezuva, uye vaEgipita nevaRoma kubva pakati pousiku kusvika pakati pousiku (Pliny, 1855, 2.79.77; Smith , 1868, 1:567, 1979b, 1:878, 1843, p. Europe, America, uye budiriro yekuMadokero zvakawanzoenderana nenguva yeRoma. MuBhaibheri rose, vaJudha vaitanga zuva ravo manheru—sezvaitaurwa noMutemo waMosesi mumutsara wokuti “kubva manheru kusvikira manheru” (Revhitiko 23:32 ; enzanisa Eksodho 12:18). Nokudaro, kuvaJudha Sabata (Mugovera) raitanga pakunyura kwezuva (inenge 6:00 p.m.) pane zvatinorondedzera seChishanu manheru. Sabata ravo (Mugovera) rakasvika pakupera panenge 6:00 p.m. pamanheru edu eMugovera, uye Svondo yavo yakatanga panguva iyoyo (onawo Nehemia 13:19; Mapisarema 55:17; enzanisa ereb boqer [mangwanani-mangwanani] muna Danieri 8:14). Sezvo kereke yekutanga pakutanga yaive nemaJuda, uye sezvo maJuda aive akapararira kunze kwePalestine muhushe hweRoma, “makereke ekutanga… kazhinji aitevera tsika yemaJuda” (Johnson, 1891, 1:506) yekuverengera nguva.

Imwe revo yeshoko rokuti “zuva” inowirirana neshoko redu rokuti “masikati.” Mashoko okuti “usiku nemasikati” (Mako 5:5) anoreva zvikamu zverima uye chiedza zvezuva rimwe chete, remaawa 24—neshoko rokuti “zuva” richireva hafu yezuva remaawa 24 (Gibbs, 1982, 1982). 2:769; Hasel, 1979a, 1:877, mapeji 362,507 Jesu akajekesa izvi paakabvunza kuti, “Hapana maawa gumi nemaviri pazuva here?” (Joh. 11:9, mufananidzo wakawedzerwa). Akanga achishandisa shoko rokuti “zuva” achireva nguva dzechiedza dzemasikati dzinosiyaniswa neusiku. Ruka anoshandisa izwi iri nenzira imwechete. Muna Mabasa 16:35 , iye akanyora, kuti: “Zvino kwakati kwaedza, vatongi vakatuma vatariri, vachiti, ‘Regai varume ivavo vaende.’” Iye anoreva kuti “pakwakanga kwaedza,” sezvo zvinoitika zvinotungamirira kukutaura kwake zvaiva. zvinoitika zvepashure pepakati peusiku (ndima. 25).

VaJudha vomuzuva raJesu vakakamura rutivi rwechiedza che“zuva” kunyange zvikamu zviduku zvikuru, ndiko kuti, zvikamu zvina zvamaawa matatu chimwe nechimwe kutanga munenge muna 6:00 a.m. (Hasel, 1979b, 1:878; Robinson, 1881, peji 338 Robertson, 1922, peji 284). Iyi modhi inopinda muTestamende Itsva. Rima rakapararira panguva yekurovererwa kwaKristu “kubva paawa yechitanhatu kusvika paawa yepfumbamwe” (Mateo 27:45; enzanisa na. Mako. 15:33) izuva redu kusvika 3:00 p.m. Kunyange zvazvo Ruka sezvingabvira akanga asiri muJudha, uye kunyange mugamuchiri wokutanga webhuku racho, Tiofiro, sezvingabvira zvikuru akanga ariwo Wemamwe Marudzi, kunyanguvezvo kuri pachena kuti Ruka akashandisa nzira yechiJudha—kwete yechiRoma—yokuverenga nguva muna Ruka naMabasa. “Nguva yechitanhatu” ne“awa yechipfumbamwe” muna Ruka 23:44 inguva dzamasikati na3:00 p.m. zvichiteerana. “Awa yechitatu yezuva” iri muna Mabasa 2:15 inoreva 9:00 a.m. “Awa yechitanhatu” iri muna Mabasa 10:9 ndi 12:00 masikati. “Nguva yechipfumbamwe” muna Mabasa 3:1 naMabasa 10:3, 30 inguva dza3:00 p.m. Naizvozvo vamwe veiyi kuverenga vaiva vashanduri veNIV zvokuti vakashandura “awa yechipfumbamwe” kuiri yazvino uno kuti vabetsere muravi wechiNgezi: “Koneriyasi akapindura, kuti: ‘Mazuva mana apfuura ndakanga ndiri mumba mangu ndichinyengetera paawa ino, rechitatu masikati. ” (Mabasa. 10:30, emp. yakawedzerwa; enzanisa ne. ndima. 3). Kunyange chiremera cheRoma Claudius Lysias akanga “achitevera nzira yechiJudha yokuverenga nguva” (Jackson, 2005, p. 298) muna Mabasa 23:23 paakataura nezve“awa yechitatu yousiku” (kureva, 9:00 p.m.). Ziva kuti zvirevo zvese zvaRuka zvemazuva nemaawa muna Mabasa zvinotora maverengerwo enguva echiJudha. [Cherechedza: Mateo naMako vakateverawo nguva yechiJudha, ukuwo Johane—uyo akanyora zana remakore rokutanga rava kunopera—anoita sokuti akatevera nguva yeRoma (enzanisa na. Smith, 1869, 2:1102; Robertson, 1922, p. 285; Lockhart. , 1901, p. 28; Brewer, 1941, pp. 330-331, 1892, 2:181-182). Zvimwe chetezvo zvinogona kutaurwa kunyange nezvenongedzero dzaRuka kumwaka, seizvo Reese anocherekedza noungwaru mutsinhiro dzake pana Mabasa 27:9:

Zvinofanira kucherechedzwa kuti Pauro ari kushandisa nguva yechiJudha pano (sezvaanoita muna Mabasa 20:16; 1 VaKorinde 16:8; naMabasa 18:21, KJV); kana kuti tichati Ruka ari kushandisa nguva yechiJudha munhoroondo yake yezvakataurwa naPauro? Panzvimbo pokutaura nezvokufamba nechikepe kuva kune ngozi kubva paIdes yaNovember kusvika kuIdes yaMarch, Ruka anoshandisa nzira yechiJudha yokuverenga nayo. Mumutauro wechiJudha, mwaka wekufamba nechikepe waiverengwa kubva kumutambo wePaseka kusvika pamutambo weMatumba (mazuva mashanu mushure meZuva Rokuyananisira) (1976, p. 897, emp. yakawedzerwa).

Kupfuurirazve, munhu anofanira kusiyanisa nokungwarira zvikuru pakati perevo yokuti “nhambo yamaawa 24” ne“chiedza chamasikati” mukushandiswa kweBhaibheri kwe“zuva.” Somuenzaniso, Ruka anotiudza kuti Herodhi akaita kuti Jakobho aurayiwe uye aida kuita zvakafanana kuna Petro: “Zvino aiva pamazuva eZvingwa Zvisina Kuviriswa. Zvino wakati amubata, akamuisa mutirongo, akamukumikidza kumapoka mana evarwi kuti vamurinde, achida kumuisa pamberi pevanhu mushure mePaseka” (Mabasa 12:3-4 , emp. anowedzera). Paseka yakatanga paChishanu manheru kuma 6:00 p.m. Paakanga akagara mujeri usiku ihwohwo (ndima 6), Petro akasunungurwa nengirozi, saka akaenda kumba kwaMariya (ndima 12) kunomhan’ara nyaya yacho, achibva aenda kumwewo. Ruka anobva ati: “Kwakati kwaedza, pakava nebope guru pakati pevarwi pamusoro pezvakanga zvaitika kuna Petro” (ndima. 18, emp anowedzera). “Zuva” mundima 18 rinonongedzera kuchiedza chamasikati, ndiko kuti, mangwanani—kwete rimwe kana kuti zuva rechipiri.

Mumwe muenzaniso unooneka mukutaura kwaRuka pamusoro pevakuru vakuru vechiJudha: “Zvino vakaisa maoko pamusoro pavo [vaapostora—DM], vakavaisa muchitokisi kusvikira mangwana, nokuti akanga atova madekwana.” (Mabasa 4:3 , NW. akawedzera). Cherekedza kuti, “nezuva raitevera,” Ruka akanga asingarevi kunongedzera kune rimwe zuva, sokunge kuti aitaura kuti vaapostora vakasungwa noMuvhuro, asi vakaiswa muchitokisi kutozosvikira Chipiri. Panzvimbo pezvo, achishandisa nguva yechiJudha, Ruka akanga achitaura kuti vaapostora vakasungwa na6:00 p.m kana kuti pashure pacho. (“ainge atova manheru”) nerimwe zuva, ndokuzoiswa muchitokisi kusvikira zuva rakatevera racho, kureva, mangwanani ezuva rimwe chetero. Kuenzanisira, kana vaapostora vakasungwa pashure pa6:00 p.m. patoti, Muvhuro wedu, yakanga yatove Chipiri chavo, uye “zuva raitevera” apo Zuva rakabuda chichiri Chipiri. [Cherechedza: Kuti uwane mumwezve muenzaniso wekushandiswa kwe“zuva,” ona Mabasa 23, apo Pauro akapa kuzvidzivirira kwake pamberi peDare revaJudha (ndima. 1-10). Ruka anobva ati: “Asi usiku hwakatevera Ishe akamira naye…” (ndima. 11). “Husiku hunotevera” hahurevi husiku hwezuva rinotevera, asi nguva dzerima dzakatevedzana mushure mekuzvidzivirira kwaPauro mukati menguva yechiedza chemasikati (sezvinoratidzirwa mushanduro yeNASB: “Asi nousiku hunotevera…”). Ndima 12 inobva yati: “Zvino ava masikati…”—ichinongedzera kuchiedza chemasikati chakatevera usiku hwendima 11. Onawo Mabasa 23:31-32; 27:27-29.]

Kushandiswa kwemutauro uku kunowanikwa muna Mabasa 20. Sezvo Ruka aishandisa nguva yechiJudha (sezvaanoita kwose kwose muna Mabasa), ipapo vadzidzi vakaungana manheru eMugovera wedu—Svondo yavo—naPauro “akagadzirira kuenda zuva raitevera. ,” kureva kuti, nguva yaitevera yechiedza chezuva, iyo yaizova imwe nguva kunze kwoedza mangwanani aitevera—inenge ichiri Svondo yavo (uye yedu) . Conybeare naHowson vanotsinhira, kuti: “Akanga ari manheru akatsiva Sabata rechiJudha. Mangwanani eSvondo ngarava yakanga yava kuda kufamba” (1899, peji 592-593).

Cherechedza zvakare kuti nzira yechiJudha (mukuenzanisa neye. ChiRoma) yekuverenga nguva inobatanidzwa mumashoko ari mundima dziri pamusoro apa, umo maawa gumi nemaviri anotevedzana anoenzaniswa ne”zuva,” kureva masikati. VaRoy Lanier, vanotsanangura:

Asi tichiverenga zuva remaawa makumi maviri nemana kubva na6 p.m. kusvika 6 p.m. ndiyo chete nzira iyo munhu anogona kuwana maawa gumi nemaviri ehusiku nemaawa gumi nemaviri ezuva ovaita muhurongwa ihwohwo. Kutanga nhambo yapakati pousiku kunotipa anenge maawa matanhatu erima, ipapo maawa ane gumi namaviri echiedza, uye ipapo mamwe maawa matanhatu erima, munhevedzano iyoyo. Zuva remuBhaibheri rakatanga nemaawa gumi nemaviri erima uye rakateverwa nemaawa gumi nemaviri echiedza (1984, 2:108).

Mabasa 20:11

Apo kunamata kwakavhiringidzwa nokuwa kwaYutiko pahwindo rokumusoro, uye Pauro akamumutsa nenzira inoshamisa, tinorava mundima 11, kuti: “Zvino wakati akwira, akamedura chingwa, akadya, akataura nguva refu kusvikira kwaedza. , akaenda.” Vatsinhiri vakakamurwa maererano nerevo ye“chingwa chakamedura” mundima iyi. Vamwe vanoomerera pakuti “chingwa chakamedurwa” uye “chidyiwa” anoreva zvokudya zvakajairika (zvichida “mutambo worudo”) izvo hama dzakagoverana naPauro asati aenda. Vamwe vanoomerera pakuti “chingwa chakamedurwa” chinoreva Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru.

Chimwe chikonzero chikuru chokuenzanisa “chingwa chakamedurwa” mundima iyi nokudyiwa kweChirairo chaShe imhaka yokubatanidzwa kwacho neshoko rimwe chetero rakamboshandiswa mundima yechinomwe. ChiGiriki chinoisa chinyorwa pamberi pe“chingwa” mundima 11, kureva, “chingwa,” sezvinoratidzwa muASV neNASB. G.C. Brewer akapedzisa nechikamu ichi chegirama: “Mundima yechinomwe tinoudzwa kuti vakaungana kuti vamedure chingwa, uye mundima 11 tinoudzwa kuti mushure mekuvhiringidzwa vakauya zvakare kuimba yepamusoro uye vakamedura chingwaton arton” (p. 331). Pfungwa yaBrewer yakanga isiri yekuti chinyorwa chinotangira “chingwa” chinongoratidza kuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunoitirwa. Asi pfungwa yake yaiva iyoyo

sezvo chingwa chaidudzwa mundima 7 (ndima 7), uye ichi, sokubvuma kunoita vose, chaiva Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, uye hapana chimwe chingwa chakakurukurwa mundima yacho, saka “chingwa” chiri mundima 11 chaizongoreva chingwa chakambotaurwakare. Kana tikabvumira mashoko akapoteredza kuti atsanangure chinorehwa nechingwa, hatingavi nepanikiro pamusoro pokuva kwacho Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru (p. 336, tatsveyamisa mabhii mumavambo., emp. anowedzera, onawo Hackett, 1852, p. 283; cf. Johnson , 1891, 1:505).

MuGreek Grammar yeTestamente Itsva yavo yakakurumbira, Blass, Debrunner, naFunk vanotsigirazve dudziro iyi yeMabasa 20:11, mukukurukurirana kwavo kushandiswa kwechinyorwa chine mazita chaiwo (1961, peji 135-136). Vanocherekedza kuti kunyangwe mazita chaiwo “asingaite zvakadaro kutora chinyorwa,” vanogona kuzviita semhedzisiro ye “anaphora” (kureva, “kushandiswa kwechikamu chemitauro … kureva kumashure kune chimwe chikamu” – American Heritage…, 2000, peji 65). Nemamwe mashoko, kana zita chairo rikashandiswa, arton (chingwa) mundima yechinomwe, uye zita rimwe chetero rozoshandiswa muchirevo chimwe chetecho chinotangirwa nechinyorwa, ton arton (chingwa) mundima 11, ndipo panoitika kechipiri zita rinowanzoreva chiitiko chekutanga. Blass, nevamwe., vanopa mienzaniso yezviitiko zviviri zvakadaro—zvose zviri zviviri naRuka: (1) kushandiswa kwechinyorwa naSauro (“Sauro”) muna Mabasa 9:1 maererano nokududzwa kwokutanga kwake muna Mabasa 8:3 uko chinyorwa chisingashandiswi, uye (2) kushandiswa kwechinyorwa cheDhamasiko (“Dhamasiko”) muna Mabasa 9:3 chine anaphora kusvika kundima yechipiri apo Dhamasiko rinowanika pasina chinyorwa.

Achishandisa mashoko mana uye chiito chimwe chete mundima 11, Ruka akataura zviito zvishanu chaizvo zvakatevera kumutsidzirwa kwaYutiko. MuASV, zviito izvozvo ndezvi: (1) kukwira (kureva, kudzokera kuimba yechitatu), (2) kumedura chingwa, (3) kudyiwa, (4) kutaura kwenguva refu, uye (5) ndokuenda. Nyatsocherechedza kuti izwi rokuti “kudyiwa” ishoko rakasiyana rinotora chikamu kubva pakumedura chingwa. Zvingaita sekuti “kudyiwa” kunoreva kudya kwaiwanzodyiwa naPauro pashure pakuyeuka Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Guy N. Woods akati: “Tinodavira kuti kumedura chingwa mundima 11 kunonongedzera kuchirairo chaShe; uye kuti kutaurwa kwezwi rekuti kudyiwa kunoratidza kudya kunofanana” (Woods, 1976, p. 351, muzvinyorwa zvakatsveyama.). Conybeare naHowson vanobvumirana kuti: “[A]kapemberera Mutambo weChidyo. Chiito cheChirairo Chitsvene chakabatanidzwa, senguva dzose muzera reVaapostora, nechikafu chakafanana” (1899, p. 594). Vakataura zvakare kuti “Akati adya, ndima. 11…inosiyaniswa muchiGiriki nekumedura chingwa” (p. 594, chinyorwa 3, tatsveyamisa mabhii mumabviro; onawo Robertson, 1930, 3:342; Jamieson, newamwe., 1871, peji 208). Chirambidzo chokuti nongedzero yokumedura chingwa chinhu chimwe uye kuti naizvozvo haigoni kunongedzera kuKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, sezvo Pauro angadai asina kutora Chirairo chaShe ari oga, chaizvoizvo haina simba, sezvo chirambidzo chimwe chetecho chaizoshanda kumufungo wokuti chirairo chakafanana. kudya kunoda. Pauro angadai akadyawo kudya kwamazuva ose ari oga here—kunyanya sezvo aiperekedzwa nevamwe vaaifamba navo vakawanda vangadai vakatodawo chokurarama nacho vasati vaenderera mberi nerwendo naPauro (enzanisa. McGarvey, 1863, p. 249)?

Tichifunga nezvekushandisa kwaRuka nguva yechiJudha, hazvinei nokuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kana kuti kudya kumwewo kunoratidzirwa. Muchinoitika chipi nechipi, vadzidzi vakaungana kuti vadye Chirairo chaShe “nezuva rokutanga revhiki”—kwete Mugovera kana kuti Muvhuro. Kunyange nyanzvi dziya dzinoda kudavira kuti Ruka akashandisa nguva yeRoma, kunyanguvezvo, vanotaura nechidokuva chimwe mukusimbisa kuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kwaichengetwa neSvondo—kwete Muvhuro. Sezvo H. Leo Boles akasimbirira: “[Ka]na vakadya Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru neMuvhuro, havana kuita zvavakasangana kuti vaite pazuva rokutanga revhiki” (1941, p. 319). Akatsanangurawo:

Ehe VaJudha nevaRoma vaive nenzira dzakasiyana dzekuverenga nguva. Hazvinei kwatiri kuti vaiverenga nguva sei. Tine nguva yakasarudzwa se“zuva rokutanga revhiki,” uye vanhu vaShe vanofanira kusangana pazuva iroro. Nguva yavo yakakamurwa kuva mazuva, mavhiki, mwedzi, uye makore, sezvakaita redu. Vhiki dzavo dzaiva nezuva rokutanga, uye vhiki dzedu dzine zuva rokutanga. Tinogona kuziva zuva rekutanga resvondo redu, uye tinogona kusangana nekunamata pazuva iroro uye togashira chikomborero chaMwari (1985, p. 112).

Kunyange zvazvo DeWelt achitora rondedzero yechiJudha, akati: “Tingataura kuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunonzi ‘kumedura chingwa’ kwaidyiwa musi weSvondo pasinei nokuti inguva ipi yokuverenga nguva inoshandiswa. Kana ukaverenga nguva kubva pakunyura kwezuva kusvika pakuvira kwezuva (yechiJudha) wakanga uri musi weSvondo. Kana kubva pakati pehusiku kusvika pakati pehusiku (KuRoma) paiva neSvondo” (1958, p. 271, emp. anowedzera).

ZVINHU ZVIVIRI

Vamwe vanotaura kuti sezvo VaKristu vechiJudha vaigona kuve vakachengeta Chirairo chaShe pamanheru edu oMugovera, isuwo tinogona kudaro. Zvisinei, manheru oMugovera akanga asiri manheru oMugovera kumuJudha—wakanga uri musi weSvondo! Nguva yekuchengeta kwedu Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru inofanira kuenderana nemaverengerwo enguva yemuno netsika dzedu. Mwari anotarisira kuti VaKristu vachengete Kudya Kwemanheru pazuva rokutanga revhiki—zvisinei kuti zuva iroro rinorangarirwa munzanga yakati. Hazvizoiti kutaura kuti tinogona kutora Chirairo chaShe neMugovera muTexas sezvo panguva iyoyo muAustralia yatova Svondo. Munhu anogara muTexas anofanira kuchengeta Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru neSvondo sekuverengwa kunoitwa Svondo muTexas. Zvikasadaro, kuvhiringika kunenge kuripo hakuperi, uye kusimbisa kunoiswa paSvondo muTestamende Itsva kwaizoitwa kusina zvazvinoreva. Mwari achaita kuti mumwe nomumwe wedu azvidavirire nokuda kwokuchengeta Chirairo nomusi weSvondo sezvo zuva iroro richiverengwa mutsika dzedu nenzvimbo dzedu.

Imwe nharo inotaura kuti sezvo Jesu akatanga Chirairo chaShe nomusi weChina—achitora Iye amene pamwe chete navadzidzi Vake—tinogona kudya mamwe mazuva asiri eSvondo. Ichokwadi kuti Jesu akatanga Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru paChina manheru—zuva rokutanga apo vaJudha vakatanga kugadzirira mutambo, kwaiva kuurayiwa kwegwayana rePaseka. Asi kufunga kunoti, “Kana Akazviita neChina, isu tinogona, zvakare” kunokundikana pazvinhu zviviri. Kutanga, Jesu angadai akadzidzisa vadzidzi vake nezvetsika rimwe zuva, asi achida kuti vazviite pane rimwe, pasina kupindirana. Chechipiri, chinyorwa chacho chinotaura zvakajeka kuti kutora rutivi kwaJesu mumuitiro uyu kwaizoitika “patsva . . . muumambo hwaBaba vangu” (Mateo 26:29). Nemamwe mashoko, Akanga achivapa murayiridzo wokuchengeta Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kwaizoitwa muchechi pashure pokutangwa. Naizvozvo, munhu aifanira kutarisira mushure mechitsauko chechipiri cheMabasa kuti aone kana Jesu aida chero nguva yakatarwa kana rimwe zuva. Tinowana chaizvoizvo izvozvo—kuchengetwa kweSvondo kweChirairo chaShe.

1 VAKORINDE 11:23-39

Nongedzero yaPauro yokugadzwa kweChirairo chaShe naJesu mukutaura kwake kuVaKorinde kunobatanidza aya mashoko:

Nenzira imwecheteyo akatorawi mukombewo ndokurayira, achiti: Mukombe uyu isungano itsva muropa rangu itai izvi, nguva dzose pamunounwa, muchindirangarira.” Nokuti nguva dzose kana muchidya chingwa ichi nokunwa mukombe uyu, munoparidza rufu rwaShe kusvikira achiuya (1 VaKorinte 11:25-26).

Vamwe vakapomera zvinotevera: “Mashoko okuti ‘nguva dzose’ anoreva kuti VaKorinde vaibvumirwa kudya Chirairo chaShe kakawanda sezvavaizosarudza kuita kudaro—nguva ipi neipi yavaisarudza kudaro pasina ganhuriro dzipi nedzipi pazuva kana kuti kakawanda sei. ”

Maonero aya anoratidzwa nezvikanganiso zviviri: (1) anotadza kunzwisisa girama nechirevo chendima uye (2) anotadza kufunga nezvese zvinotaurwa naMwari nezvenyaya yacho kumwewo muTestamende Itsva.

Girama/Zvinyorwa

Mazwi akati wandei ari mundima anoratidza pfungwa yenguva: “ita izvi” (ndima. 24, 25), “nguva dzose” (ndima. 25, 26), “kusvikira” (ndima. 33). Zvisinei, hapana kana nerimwe remashoko aya rinopa rubatsiro pakuziva kuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunofanira kuchengetwa rini kana kuti kangani. Kudzokororwa, kudzokororwa, uye kusachinja-chinja zvamazvirokwazvo mukuvaka kwemazwi akadai, asi mitsara yakadaro isingaperi uye haitsanangure maparamendi chaiwo ehuwandu. Matauriro aPauro muna 1 VaKorinde 11 haangopi chero rubatsiro mukuona kucherechedzwa chaiko, kunyangwe achijekesa nyaya yacho muchitsauko 16 apo anobatanidza chimwe chiito chekunamata neSvondo. J.W. McGarvey anoratidza kuziva uku mukutaura kwake pa11:26—“Kuchengetwa kwenguva dzose kwemutambo uyu kwemazana emakore ndechimwe cheumboo hwakasimba hwekunze hwechokwadi chenhoroondo yevhangeri. Neketani yevhiki nevhiki zvinozobatanidza kuuya kwekutanga nekwechipiri kwaShe wedu; mushure mezvo hapazodazve zviratidzo” (McGarvey, 1916, p. 118, emp. anowedzera).

Chirevo chemamiriro ezvinhu chiri pachimiro chekusingaperi cheKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kusvika pakupera kwenguva. Nokudaro, pakunoitwa (pasina chinoratidza kuti kuchengeta ikoko kunoitika rini, ingava Svondo kana kuti rimwe zuva revhiki), pese pakunoitwa, kunofanira kuitwa nechinangwa chokuyeuka zvakaitwa naJesu. Mwari aida kuti Chirairo chaShe chive chiziviso chinopfuurira, chinodzokororwa kumaKristu uye kunze kwevacherekedzi chokwadi chezvakaitwa naJesu pamuchinjikwa uye kuti Iye achauya zvakare. Findlay anodimikira: “Pauro anofunga kuti kupembera kuchange kuchiitwa kakawanda, nokuti anorayira kuti, zvisinei nokuti kakawanda sei, kunofanira kutungamirirwa nemirayiro yaShe, kuitira kuti varambe vachiyeuka Iye pasina kukanganisa” (2:881, tatsveyamisa mabhii.).

Shoko rechiGiriki rakasarudzwa noMweya Mutsvene muvhesi 25 ne26, rakashandurwa kuti “nguva dzose” muNKJV, ndihosakis. Chirevo cheukama ichi chinoshandiswa katatu (Moulton, nevamwe., p. 712) muTestamende Itsva nekaviri pamatatu anowanikwa mundima mbiri idzi. Maererano nenyanzvi yegirama yechiGiriki inoremekedzwa A.T. Robertson, izwi iri “rinoshandiswa chete nepfungwa yekudzokorora kusingaperi” (1934, p. 973, emp. anowedzera; Robertson, 1931, 4:165). Muhurukuro yake yezvimiro zvenguva dzose, anoronga izwi racho nemamwe “Panisangana zvirewo'” (1934, p. 971). Nokudaro, izwi racho haripi nzwisiso iyo munhu anogona kuona nayo chero chaiyo kudzokororo. Izvo chaizvo zvinopa hapana chiratidzo chekuti muverengi akasununguka kusarudza mabatiro ake; uyewo hairevi kutaurwa kwokuwanda kungaratidzirwa kune imwe nzvimbo muTestamende Itsva. Vanyori vamaduramanzwi vanopa zvirevo zvinotevera zvakafanana: “nguva ipi zvayo,” “kazhinji,” “kazhinji sei,” “kangani,” “kangani,” “kanganiko,” “kazhinji sei” (Wallace , p. 209; Ona kuti mazwi ese aya ari kungoreva chiitiko chirikuitika pasina kudoma maitikiro.

Shanduro dzeChirungu dzinoratidza kuti hosakis haaipa pfungwa yokuti Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kunogona kutorwa chero nguva yaasarudza kana kuti Svondo harisi iro zuva rimwe chete rakarongwa naMwari. Funga nezvechati inotevera inopfupikisa kushandiswa kweshanduro yeChirungu:

Shanduro1 VaKorinde 11:251 VaKorinde 11:26
CEBNguva dzose paunonwaNguvadzose unodya
CEVImwai unyuPaunodya
ERVKana womwaNguvadzose unodya
EXBKana womwaNguvadzose unodya
GWNguva dzose paunomwaNguvadzose unodya
GNTPose pauchamwaNguvadzose unodya
ICBKana vomwaNguvadzose unodya
PHILIPSPose pauchamwaPose paunodya
JUBNguvadzose pauchamwaNguva imwe neimwe yaunodya
NOGNguvadzose pauchamwaNguvadzose unodya
NCBPose pauchamwaNguva imwe neimwe yaunodya
NCVKana vomwaNguvadzose unodya
NETNguva dzose uchamwaNguvadzose unodya
NIRVNguva dzose uchamwaPaunoita izvi
NIVPose pauchamwaPose unodya
NTEPose pauchamwaPose unodya
VOICEPose pauchamwaPese paunoravira
WENguva dzose uchamwaNguvadzose unodya

Ona kuti “nguva dzose,” “nguva,” “nguva ipi neipi,” uye “nguva imwe neimwe” mashoko akafanana. Anopa dzokororo dzisingadudzi zuva kana nguva yokuchengeta. Rugwaro rwacho harurevi kuti VaKristu vakasununguka kusarudza nekusarudza mazuva avo. Panzvimbo pezvo, mutauro wakasarudzwa nomweya mutsvene 1 VaKorinte 11:25-26 haupi rubatsiro pakuona kana Mwari achida kuti Kudya kweChirairo chaShe kuchengetwe pazuva rakati kana kuti panguva yakati. Kana Akatsanangura kudaro, Testamente Itsva yaizofanira kuratidza kumwewo.

Muchidimbu

ChiGiriki kana kuti chiNgezi hachipi pfungwa yokuti VaKristu vakasununguka kuzvisarudzira nguva yavo yokudya Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Muverengi anofanira kuverenga pfungwa iyoyo muchinyorwa. Kudai Testamende Itsva isina kupa mimwe mirairidzo ine chokuita nokuwanda kana kuti zuva reKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, muverengi aizova akasununguka kusarudza nhambo dzake amene dzokuchengeta, achisarudza kuti ndeapi mazuva evhiki uye kuti chaizochengetwa kakawanda sei. Asi Ishe vakatipa mimwe mirairo pamusoro penyaya iyi.

Mimwe Mirayiridzo inobva kuna Mwari

Kuti ave akarurama uye akatendeseka neMagwaro, munhu anofanira kuunganidza zvose zvinotaurwa neBhaibheri pamusoro penyaya uye kufunga nezvemashoko iwayo nenzira yakarurama kuti asvike pakuzara kwekuda kwaMwari panyaya iyoyo. Kunyanya, munhu anofanira kuongorora Testamende Itsva kuti azive kuda kwaMwari maererano nekuchengetwa kweChirairo chaShe. Sezviri maererano nokuchengetwa kakawanda, ndima dzinotevera dzinojekesa nyaya yacho nokupa mufananidzo wakakwana: Mabasa 2:42,46; Mabasa 20:7; Mabasa 20:11; 1 VaKorinde 16:1-2 . Nepo 1 VaKorinte 11:23-39 ichipa udzame hwakawanda, chinangwa chikuru chechikamu chacho chine chokuita nemaitirwo eKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, kwete kuti rini, munhu anofanira kutarisa kumwe kunhu kuti aone kana chero mabatiro chaiyo yakarairwa. Chinongodiwa chete kuverengerwa kuchitsauko 16. VaKorinde vaiziva kuti vaifanira kusangana zuva rega rega rekutanga revhiki—sezviri pachena kubva mukushandiswa kwakaitwa muna 1 VaKorinde 16:2 (“vhiki imwe neimwe”—ona pazasi). Pauro paakanyora kuti, “Panguva ipi neipi yamunosangana, munofanira kuita zvakati nezvakati,” aiziva kuti varavi vake vakanga vatonzwisisa chinangwa chaicho chezuva re(Svondo).

Zvazvinoreva

Chimbofunga zvinorehwa nezviri pamusoro apa. Kana Mwari asina kujekesa vavariro Dzake maererano nokuchengetwa kweKudya kweTafura yaShe kakawanda, munhu aigona kudya kamwe chete pashure pokunge atendeuka oita zvaitarisirwa naMwari. Kana MuKristu akararama makore 90 okukura, aizofadza Mwari nokuchengeta kamwe chete.

Uyezve, vaJudha vangadai vakachengeta Sabata here nemamwe mazuva asiri eSabata/Mugovera? Maererano naDheuteronomio 5:12-15 , Sabata raipemberera Kubuda—kununurwa kwevaJudha muuranda hweIjipiti. Vangadai vasina kufunga here—saavo nhasi vanobvisa Kudya kwechirairo chaShe  kubva musi weSvondo—kuti kuchengetwa kusingagumi kwoKubuda kwaigonawo kuitwa pamamwe mazuva asiri Mugovera? VaJudha vangadai vasina kuziva nguva yokuchengeta Kubuda kunze kwokunge Mwari akanga arayira kudaro. Kudai Mwari akanga asina kupa chiratidzo chipi nechipi chezuva racho, vaJudha vangadai vakasununguka kurichengeta chero zuva ripi neripi uye kuchengeta kwavo kwaisazofanira hazvo kuva kwaiitwa vhiki nevhiki. Asi kupfurikidza nokubatanidza kuchengetwa kwoKubuda noMugovera, vaJudha vakanga vari musengwa wokutsinhirana nomurayiro waMwari uye kuita zvakasiyana kwaizova kutadza.

Chokwadi ndechokuti vazhinji veChiKristu—kunyange zvazvo vachiwanzobatanidza kuchengetwa kweChirairo chaShe neSvondo—vakanzwa vakasununguka kuchinja nokugadziridza mirairidzo yaMwari panhau dzakasiana-siana mumazana amakore, kubatanidza kudzongonyedza nhungamiro yomuMagwaro pamusoro peSvondo. Asi ziviso Dzake dzine simba dzinoramba dzichishanda uye dzinopa nyevero yakaoma kune avo vangada kuchinja mirairo Yake: “Usawedzera pamashoko ake, kuti arege kukutsiura, ukawanikwa uri murevi wenhema.”— Zvirevo 30:6 .

1 VAKORINDE 16:1-2

Muna 1 VaKorinde 16:2, izwi rokuti kata rinogovera uye rinoreva “zvose.” Macknight anotsanangura kuti: “Uye sokureva kunoita kata polin kuguta rose; uye kata menamwedzi woga woga; uye, Mabasa xiv. 23 kata ekklesian, muchechi imwe neimwe: saka kata mian sabbatou rinoreva zuva rokutanga revhiki yoga yoga” (n.d., p. 208, zvakanyorwa zvakatsveyama uye emp. mumavambo.; enzanisa na Arndt naGingrich, 1957, p. 407; muhurukuro yeshanduro chaiyo yesabbatou, ona Lyons, 2006 McGarvey, 1910, pp. Shanduro dzeChirungu dzinoratidza chimiro ichi chechiGiriki dzinosanganisira NIV neNASB. Nokudaro Pauro pasina mubvunzo akakumbira mipiro yevhiki nevhiki nokuda kwechechi: “nezuva rokutanga revhiki imwe neimwe.” Nenzira yakafanana, vaJudha vakanzwisisa kuti kuchengeta Sabata—“rangarira zuva reSabata, kuti urichengete rive dzvene” ( Eksodho 20:8)—kwaishandiswa paSabata rimwe nerimwe. Pauro akataura kuti akapa murayiro mumwe chete iwoyo wekuunganidza vhiki nevhiki kukereke dzevaGaratiya (ndima. 1). Heuno mupostora akafemerwa, ari pasi pesimba rinotungamira reMweya Mutsvene Uyo wakataurwa naJesu kuti uchauya, achigadza kuwanda kwemakereke ekutanga. Makereke aya sezviri pachena akaungana kwete kungopa mupiro wemari vobva vaenda kumba. Asi vaisangana kuti vaite mabasa ose okunamata—Chirairo chaShe chichitanga kuratidzwa pakati pavo. Mudzidzi webhaibheri anozivikanwa, mushumiri wePentecostari ane mukurumbira, naPurofesa Emeritus paRegent College, Gordon Fee, anobvumirana nekupokana uku, paanotaura nezveSvondo se-

kuverenga kwevhiki nevhiki kune kukosha kwechitendero…. Mutauro uyu unonyatsorangarirwa mutsika dzeEvhangeri maererano nekumuka kwaJesu kubva kuvakafa. Nzvimbo isingachinji yemazwi aya muzvinyorwa izvozvi inoreva kuti yaingove nezvaingofarira nhoroondo yekereke yekutanga. Izvi zvinosimbiswazve nemashoko ari muna Mabasa 20:7, anoratidza zvakasimba kuti Pauro nevamwe vakamirira muTroasi kutozosvikira “pazuva rokutanga revhiki” chaizvoizvo nokuti ndipo apo vaKristu vakaungana kuti vamedura chingwa, kureva kuti. , kudya kwavo mukukudza Ishe (1987, p. 814, emp. yakawedzerwa).

MHEDZISO

Kuburikidza nekuunganidza zvese zvinotaurwa neTestamende Itsva pamusoro pechidzidzo uye nekuzvibatanidza pamwe chete zvine mufungo munhu anogona kusvika pachokwadi. Mhedziso inotorwa kubva muruzivo urwu ndeyechokwadi uye haina kupokana. Sezvo vaKristu vaisangana Svondo yoga yoga (1 VaKorinde 16:2), uye chinangwa chikuru chemagungano akadaro chaiva chokuchengeta Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru (Mabasa 20:7) nguva dzose uye nguva dzose (Mabasa 2:42), zvinoreva kuti kereke yokutanga yaidya chirairo. Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru Svondo yega yega—uye vaichidya neSvondo chete. H. Leo Boles vakagumisa zvakanaka vachiti: “Hapana muenzaniso wemagwaro kana murairo unobvumidza kudyiwa kweChirairo chaShe pazuva ripi neripi kunze kwezuva rokutanga revhiki” (1985, p. 37). Rex Turner anopa pfupiso yakakodzera: “[Mhe]dziso inokosha uye isinganzvengeki ndeyokuti vadzidzi vanofanira kusangana, uye chete pazuva rokutanga revhiki kuti vamedura chingwa” (1972, p. 77).

REFURENZI YEZVINYORWA

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000), (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin), edition yechina.

Anthon, Charles (1843), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: American Book).

Arndt, William naF.W. Gingrich (1957), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

Atchley, Rick (1989), in Monroe Hawley, “Acts As A Pattern for the Church Today (Part 3),” Audio Cassette (Searcy, AR: Harding University Lectures).

Barnes, Albert (1847), Notes on the New Testament: Acts (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2005 reprint).

Behm, Johannes (1964), “artos,” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Gerhard Kittel (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Behm, Johannes (1965), “klao, klasis, klasma,” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Gerhard Kittel (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Blass, F., A. Debrunner, naRobert Funk (1961), Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

Boles, H. Leo (1941), A Commentary on Acts of the Apostles (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate).

Boles, H. Leo (1985), Questions and Answers, Sermon Outlines and Bible Study Notes (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate).

Brewer, G.C. (1941), Contending For the Faith (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate).

Brownlow, Leroy (1945), Why I Am A Member of the Church of Christ (Fort Worth, TX: Brownlow Publishing).

Bullinger, E.W. (1898), Figures of Speech Used in the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1968 reprint).

Campbell, Alexander (akadhindazve muna 1972), “Lord’s Supper A Divine Institution,” In Around the Lord’s Table, ed. John Hinds (Nashville, TN: Mumiriri weVhangeri).

Conybeare, W.J. uye J.S. Howson (1971 reprint), The Life and Epistles of Paul (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Dana, H.E. naJulius Mantey (1927), A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Toronto, Canada: Macmillan).

DeWelt, Don (1958), Acts Made Actual (Joplin, MO: College Press).

Didache (hapana zuva), mupepeti. Roberts-Donaldson, [Pamhepo], URL: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/didache-roberts.html.

Dungan, D.R. (1891), “The Lord’s Supper,” in The Old Faith Restated, mupepeti. J.H. Garrison (St. Louis, MO: Christian Publishing). Rakadhindwazve muna John Hudson, mupepeti, The Pioneers on Worship (Kansas City, MO: The Old Paths Book Club), mapeji 93-114.

Fee, Gordon (1987), The First Epistle to the Corinthians, New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Ferguson, Everett (1976), “The Lord’s Supper and Biblical Hermeneutics,” Mission, September.

Findlay, G.G. (1900), “St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians,” in The Expositor’s Greek Testament, mupepeti. W. Robertson Nicoll (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Gesenius, William (1847), Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1979 reprint)

Gibbs, J.G. (1982), “Hour,” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. Geoffrey Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans)

Gibson, Steve (1990), “Ruminations on Acts 20:7,” The Restorer, 10[1]:4-5, January.

Hackett, H.B. (1852), A Commentary on the Original Text of the Acts of the Apostles (Boston, MA: J.P. Jewett).

Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr., and B.K. Waltke (1980), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago, IL: Moody).

Hasel, G.F. (1979a), “Day,” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. Geoffrey Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Hasel, G.F. (1979b), “Day and Night,” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. Geoffrey Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Hood, Kregg (1990), “Establishing Biblical Authority: A Fresh Look at A Familiar Issue (Part 2),” Image 6, May/June.

Jackson, Wayne (1991), “The Lord’s Supper in the Early Church,” The Edifier, 11:3, November 28.

Jackson, Wayne (2005), The Acts of the Apostles from Jerusalem to Rome (Stockton, CA: Christian Courier), second edition.

Jamieson, Robert, A.R. Fausset, and David Brown (1871), A Commentary on the Old and New Testaments (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan), [On-line], URL: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/jamieson/jfb.i.html.

Johnson, B.W. (1891), The People’s New Testament (St. Louis, MO: Christian Board of Education).

Klappert, Bertold (1976), “Lord’s Supper,” The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, ed. Colin Brown (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).

Lanier, Roy, Sr. (1984), 20 Years of the Problem Page (Abilene, TX: Quality Publications).

Liddell, Henry and Robert Scott (1901), A Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford: The Clarendon Press).

Lockhart, Clinton (1901), Principles of Interpretation (Delight, AR: Gospel Light), revised edition.

Lyons, Eric (2006), “The First Day of the Week,” Apologetics Press, [On-line], URL: https://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/3157.

MacKnight, James (no date), Apostolical Epistles (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).

Martyr, Justin (no date), First Apology, ed. Roberts-Donaldson, [On-line], URL: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/justin.html.

Mayeux, Randy (1989), “Letter to the Editor,” Christian Chronicle, 46:6, June.

McClintock, John and James Strong (1867), Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1968 reprint).

McGarvey, J.W. (1863), A Commentary on Acts of Apostles (Bowling Green, KY: Guardian of Truth Foundation).

McGarvey, J.W. (1892), New Commentary on Acts of Apostles (Cincinnati, OH: Standard).

McGarvey, J.W. (1910), Biblical Criticism (Cincinnati, OH: Standard).

McGarvey, J.W. (1916), Thessalonians, Corinthians, Galatians and Romans (Cincinnati, OH: The Standard Publishing Co.).

Miller, Dave (2003), “Legalism,” Apologetics Press, [On-line], URL: https://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2265.

Milligan, Robert (1975 reprint), The Scheme of Redemption (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate).

Moule, C.F.D. (1961), Worship in the New Testament Church (Richmond, VA: John Knox Press).

Moulton, W.F., A.S. Geden, and H.K. Moulton (1978), A Concordance to the Greek Testament (Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark), fifth edition.

Nichol, C.R. and R.L. Whiteside (1920), Sound Doctrine (Clifton, TX: Nichol Publishing).

Nicoll, W. Robertson (no date), The Expositor’s Greek Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Pickering, John (1839), A Greek and English Lexicon  (Boston: Hilliard, Gray, Little, & Wilkins).

Pliny the Elder (1855 edition), The Natural History,ed. Bostick, John and H.T. Riley (London: Taylor & Francis), [On-line], URL: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. 02.0137%3Ahead%3D%2382.

Rackham, Richard (1901), The Acts of the Apostles (London: Methuen & Co.).

Reese, Gareth (1976), New Testament History—Acts (Joplin, MO: College Press).

Robertson, A.T. (1922), A Harmony of the Gospels (New York: Harper & Row).

Robertson, A.T. (1930), Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville, TN: Broadman).

Robertson, A.T. (1931), Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville, TN: Broadman).

Robertson, A.T. (1934), A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press).

Robinson, Edward (1881), The Comprehensive Critical and Explanatory Bible Encyclopedia (Toledo, OH: H.W. Snow).

Robson, Charles (1839), A Greek Lexicon to the New Testament (London: Whittaker & Co.).

Smith, William (1868/1869), Dictionary of the Bible, ed. H.B. Hackett (New York: Hurd & Houghton).

Summers, Ray (1950), Essentials of New Testament Greek (Nashville, TN: Broadman).

Swete, Henry (1911), Commentary on Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1980 reprint).

Thayer, Joseph H. (1901), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1977 reprint).

Turner, Rex (1972), Sermons and Addresses on the Fundamentals of the Faith (Montgomery, AL: Rex Turner).

Wallace, Daniel (2000), The Basics of New Testament Syntax (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).

Warren, Thomas B. (1975), When Is An “Example” Binding? (Jonesboro, AR: National Christian Press).

Woods, Guy N. (1976), Questions and Answers (Henderson, TN: Freed-Hardeman College).

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero bedzi zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


Published

A copied sheet of paper

REPRODUCTION & DISCLAIMERS: We are happy to grant permission for this article to be reproduced in part or in its entirety, as long as our stipulations are observed.

Reproduction Stipulations→