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“Sayenzi neBhaibheri”

Kazhinji, sainzi kudzidza nezvezvinhu zvakasikwa. Kubudirira kwesainzi kunoburitsa matekinoroji anoshamisa anotitendera kukanda maroketi muchadenga, kugadzira mishonga yekudzivirira inoponesa hupenyu, inoshandura zvirimwa kuti zviwedzere goho, nezvimwe zvakawanda. Chinhu chimwe chatinonzwisisa pamusoro pesainzi ndechokuti zviwanwa zvazvino uno zvinowanzobvumikisa kuti mifungo isina kururama iyo vanhu vaiva nayo munguva yakapfuura. Vanoita nezvefiziki veNewtonian vakachinja maonero aiita nyika zvisikwa, uye dzidziso dzaEinstein dzehukama dzakawedzera kunzwisisa kwedu. Uwand vezveFiziki nemakanika zvinoramba zvichidzika kudzika kwezvikamu zvidiki-diki, uye tsvakiridzo yezvekurapa yazvino inoratidza kuti mazhinji emazano ekare en vogue makore apfuura aive asina kururama. Nekuda kwehunhu hwekutadza kwemunhu, asbestos, iyo yataimbofunga kuti inodzora murazvo wakakwana, yakatsiviwa nekuda kwenjodzi dzehutano. Pendi ine mutobvu yaimboita sepfungwa yakanaka kudaro, inofanira kubviswa mudzimba kuitira kuti vacheche vasawane chepfu yemutobvu. Pane chikonzero chakanaka chokuti mabhuku akawanda esayenzi ari mushanduro yawo yechi10th, yechi11th, uye yechi12.th Zvinyorwa zvekutanga zvaida kugadziridzwa nekuvandudzwa. Sainzi yazvino uno kazhinji kazhinji ndiyo yakarurama zvikuru, uye kunyange yakawanda yacho ichatsiviwa sezvo zivo yose yavanhu inopfuurira kuwedzera.

Bhaibheri, kune rumwe rutivi, ibhuku rekare. Mabhuku ekutanga eTestamente Yekare akanyorwa naMosesi makore akapoteredza 1450 B.C. Bhuku rokupedzisira reTestamente Itsva, Zvakazarurwa, rakapedzwa makore zana okutanga asati apera. Izvi zvinoreva kuti Bhaibheri rose rava nemakore anoda kusvika 2 000 uye zvimwe zvikamu zvaro zvatova nemakore anenge 3 500. Kudai mabhuku 66 anonyora Bhaibheri akanyorwa nevanhuwo zvavo, sezvinotaura vamwe vanhu, taizotarisira kuwana utera hwose uye zvikanganiso zvinotambudza mamwe mabhuku. Tichifunga nezvokufambira mberi kunokurumidza kwesayenzi, zvamazvirokwazvo tingatarisira kuwana mashoko echinyakare pamusoro pechisiko; mashoko akaratidzwa nesayenzi yemazuva ano kuti haana kururama. Kana, kune rumwe rutivi, Bhaibheri rakafuridzirwa noMusiki weChisiko Chapose pose, sezvinotaura vanyori, tinofanira kuwana mamiriro ezvinhu akasiyana zvachose. Kana Mwari Akasika Nyika akafemera Bhaibheri tinofanira kuona kubvumirana kwakakwana pakati pemashoko ese esainzi ari muBhaibheri nezvose zvinopupurirwa kuti ndezvechokwadi. Mukuwedzera, sezvo Mwari anoziva zvose aine zivo inopfuura iya yomunhu upi noupi panguva ipi neipi munhau, tingakarirawo kuwana kuti mamwe amashoko esayenzi ari muBhaibheri aizoratidzira kunzwisisa kwesayenzi kwakanga kuri mberi zvikuru kwazvo. chinhu chipi nechipi icho vanyori vaiziva panguva yacho—pfungwa yaizivikanwa sokufanoziva kwesayenzi.

Ipapo, nhano inorongwa nokuda kwerwisano pakati pomupokanidzi, anoti Bhaibheri harina kufemerwa, nomuKristu, anodavira kuti rakafuridzirwa. Munhu asina chokwadi anofanira kungoratidza kuti Bhaibheri, bhuku rava nemakore 3 500, rakazara nemhosho dzesayenzi dzinowanzoitwa nevanhuwo zvavo. Kana Bhaibheri rakagadzirwa nomunhu, izvozvo zvinofanira kuva nyore zvikuru kuita. MuKristu, kune rumwe rutivi, anofanira kuratidza kuti Bhaibheri harina kana chikanganiso chimwe chesayenzi. Kupfuurirazve, kwaizowedzera kutendeka kunhau yokufuridzirwa kana kwaigona kubvumikiswa kuti Bhaibheri rinoratidzira mashoko esayenzi akanga ari pamberi pechinhu chipi nechipi icho vanyori vavanhu vaigona kudai vakaziva ivo vamene. Ndeipi yenzvimbo mbiri idzi inosimbiswa nekuenzanisa kwechokwadi pakati peBhaibheri nenzvero yesainzi yemazuva ano? Nguva nenguva, Bhaibheri rinoratidzira nzwisiso yakarurama zvakakwana yezvinoitika zvomusikirwo, kunyange kusvikira kupfundo rokufanoziva kwakarurama kwesayenzi, pasina kubudisa pfungwa imwe chete inopesana neidi rinozivikanwa resayenzi. Ngatiisei pfungwa dzedu kune rondedzero yezvimwe zvezviwanikwa izvi.

Mutemo weKutanga Kwezvipenyu (Bhayogenesisi)

Mubiology, imwe yemitemo inonyanya kushandiswa yesainzi Mutemo weKuvopo kwezvisikwa zvinorarama munezveupenyu vezvakasikwa zvipenyu. “Bhayogenesisi” inoumbwa nemashoko maviri — “bhayo,” zvinoreva upenyu, uye “genesisi,” zvinoreva kutanga. Nokudaro, mutemo uyu unobata nekutanga kwehupenyu. Inongotaura kuti hupenyu hwepasi rino hunouya chete kubva kuhupenyu hwekare hwerudzi rwayo. Isu tinoona mutemo uyu uchiitwa mazuva ese pasi rese. Kwemakore akawanda, chokwadi chemutemo uyu chakanyorwa nezviuru zvemasayendisiti, mumwe weakanyanya kuzivikanwa aiva Louis Pasteur. Basa rake rakabata kutsanangura kukuru kupfungwa yechizvarwa chinongoerekana chaitika (pfungwa yokuti upenyu hunovapo pachahwo kubva kune hupenyu). Mumazana emakore akanga apfuura, pfungwa yokuti upenyu hwakabva mumakemikari asiri mhenyu yakanga yakakurumbira zvikuru.

Vadzidzisi nemapurofesa vanonyatsoratidza nhasi kuti Pasteur akakunda iyi “ngano” paakaramba pfungwa yechizvarwa chinongoerekana chavapo kuburikidza nekuedza kwake kwesayenzi kwakasanogadzirwa. Kutaura idi, zvisinei, dzidziso yomusikirwo yemhindumupindu yaisagona kuva yakaitika pasina rudzi rwakatwa rwechizvarwa chinongoerekana chaitika. Nokuda kwechikonzero ichi, masayendisiti akawanda akaita ongororo achiedza kusika upenyu kubva muzvinhu zvisiri zvipenyu. Asi mushure mekuedza kwese uku, hupenyu hahuna kumbosikwa kubva kuchinhu chisiri chipenyu. Kana zviuru zvesaenzi zvakagadzira kuedza kwakarongwa nokungwarira kusika upenyu kubva muchimwe chinhu chisiri chipenyu, asi pazvakundikana zvinosiririsa nguva dzose, tingakarirwa sei kudavira kuti chisiko chakazviita kupfurikidza, netsaona, uye masimba asingaoni? Mukupesana, mungave muzvakasikwa kana kuti murabhoritari, masayendisiti haana kumbobvira anyora chiitiko chimwe chete chokuzvarwa nacho! Upenyu hunongobva paupenyu hwekare hworudzi rwahwo pachahwo, zvinova ndizvo chaizvo zvakadzidziswa neBhaibheri kwemakore 3 500. Kuzviisa mumashoko aGenesi 1:24 : “Ipapo Mwari akati, ‘Nyika ngaibereke zvisikwa zvipenyu zvine marudzi azvo: mombe, nezvinokambaira, nemhuka dzenyika, zvina marudzi azvo’; zvikaita saizvozvo.”1

Mitemo yeShanduko

Kudzidza kwezvinhu nesimba uye mabatiro avanoita kunowanzo kunzi thermodynamics. Kune mana ekutanga Mitemo yeThermodynamics, uye maviri acho anonyanya kukosha. Yekutanga inozivikanwa seMutemo weKuchengetedza Simba. Inongotaura kuti muhurongwa hwakavharwa, hwakadai seNyika yedu, nesimba zvinogona kuchinja mafomu, asi hapana nyaya kana simba rinogona kugadzirwa kana kuparadzwa. Kuti unzwisise izvi, funga nezvebepa rinopiswa. Pepa rinopiswa uye rinoshanduka kuita madota, uku kupisa nemagasi zvichiburitswa mumhepo, asi huwandu hwese hwezvinhu / simba huchiri hwakafanana. Mutemo Wechipiri weShanduko unotaura kuti masisitimu akavharwa ari kufamba akananga kunzvimbo yekusagadzikana, inozivikanwawo sechiyero chechirwere. Funga nezvebepa rinopiswa. Simba nemagasi anoburitswa mushure mekutsva haashandiswe pane zvazvaimboita. Mutemo Wechipiri unotaura kuti makamuri anowedzera kuipa nekufamba kwenguva, mota dzinosakara, uye zvinhu zvinosakara.

Sezvatinotarira muBhaibheri, tinoona kuti rinowirirana zvakakwana neMitemo iyi. Sezvakataurwa naDr. Jeff Miller:

Mitemo yeShanduko, iyo sainzi pachayo inoziva mune tsananguro dzayo dzezvinoitika MuNyika, yakagadzirwa neMukuru Injiniya. Sezvinotarisirwa, dzinoratidza kuti dzinonyatsoenderana nekuvapo Kwake…. Mwari, pachake, akataura mitemo iyi mazana emakore akapfuura. Pakuvamba chaiko kweBhaibheri, Mutemo Wokutanga weShanduko wakataurwa apo Mosesi akanyora, kuti: “Saka denga nenyika, nehondo dzazvo dzose, zvakapera. Zvino nezuva rechinomwe Mwari akapedza basa rake raakanga aita, akazorora nezuva rechinomwe pabasa rake rose raakanga aita.”— Genesi 2:1-2 . Mushure memazuva matanhatu eKusikwa, maitiro ekugadzira misa/nyaya/simba akamiswa…. Kupfurikidza noruoko rwomunyori weVaHebheru, Mwari akadeya kutaurawo mazana amakore akapfuura icho masayendisiti anodana kuti Mutemo vechipiri weShanduko: “Imi, Ishe, makateya nheyo dzenyika pakutanga, uye denga ndiro basa ramaoko enyu; zvichaparara, asi imwi mucharamba muripo; uye ose achasakara senguo” (1:10-11).2

Nyeredzi Dzisingaverengeki

Ndiani angakanganwa zvipikirwa zvaMwari kuna “baba vavakatendeka”? Mwari haasati achizongokomborera bedzi marudzi ose kupfurikidza naAbrahama ndokupa vazukuru vake nyika yakanga yatsikwa netsoka dzaAbrahama, asi Mwari aizoparirawo kuti vana vaAbrahama vawande zvokuti vaizova vasingaverengeki senyeredzi dzokudenga. Muna Genesi 15:5 , tinorava chipikirwa chaMwari kushamwari Yake Abrahama: “Ipapo [Mwari] akamubudisa, akati: Tarira zvino kudenga, uverenge nyeredzi kana uchigona kudziverenga iye, ‘Ndizvo zvichaita vana vako.’” Chokwadi chokuti nyeredzi hadziverengeki hachishamisi kune avo vedu vakaona mifananidzo yakatorwa muMwedzi, kana kuti kudongorera mune mamwe mapoka enyeredzi kupfurikidza neteresikopu yemamiriyoni emadhora.3

Asi pfungwa yekuti nyeredzi dzinogona kuverengerwa yakaramba yakasimwa mupfungwa dzevamwe kusvika pakutanga kwema1900. Kare, vanhu vekare (uye kwete-saka-kare) vakaedza kuverenga nyeredzi. Mumwe muzivi wenyeredzi wechiGiriki akadaro, Hipparchus, anenge mazana maviri emakore Kristu asati auya, akanyorwa mumanyuko akawanda ekare aine nhamba kubva pa800 kusvika ku1 080 yenhamba yose yenyeredzi. Chang Hing, vakaisa nhamba inosvika zviuru zviviri nemazana mashanu “tisingasanganisire izvo zvinocherechedzwa nevafambisi vengarava.” Pfungwa yokuti kwaiva nenhamba shoma yenyeredzi dzaigona kuverengwa nevanhu yaiva pfungwa yakapararira.4

Zvinosetsa nhasi kuenzanisa nhamba chaiyo inofungidzirwa yenyeredzi nenhamba idzo dzakatorwa kubva mukare. Neruzivo rwedu rwemazuva ano takafungidzira kuti kune zvingangoita zviuru zvemabhiriyoni enyeredzi! Zvamazvirokwazvo, Bhaibheri rakanga rakarurama apo rakatsinhira kuti nyeredzi “hadzigoni kuverengwa.” Uye, kunyange zvazvo zvipikirwa kuna Abrahama naDhavhidhi zvisina kutaurwa namashoko esayenzi seizvisina hanya, ichokwadi kuti nguva ipi neipi apo Bhaibheri rinotaura pamusoro penhau dzakadaro, nguva dzose rakarurama musayenzi.

Kugadzirwa KweChikepe

Muna Genesi 6:15, Mwari akarayira Noa kuti avake areka yakanga yakareba makubhiti mazana matatu, yakareba makubhiti makumi mashanu, uye yakareba makubhiti makumi matatu. Iyi ireshiyo ye30 kusvika 5 kusvika 3 (kureba kusvika pahupamhi kusvika pakukwirira). Maererano nekunzwisisa zviri nani, areka yakanga yakareba mamita anenge 450, yakafara mamita 75, uye yakakwirira mamita 45. Sezvazvinoitika, zviyero izvi ndidzo chiyero chakakwana chechikepe chihombe chakavakwa kuti chikodzere mugungwa uye kwete chekumhanya. Zviri pachena kuti areka haina kuvakwa kuti imhanye, sezvo yakanga isina kwekuenda! Uyezve, vagadziri vengarava muHondo Yenyika II vakashandisa reshiyo yakafanana kugadzira chikepe chainzi S.S. Jeremiah O’Brien, chakasvika pakuzivikanwa se“dhadha rakashata”—igwa rakaita segwara rakagadzirirwa kutakura zvinhu zvakawanda zvikuru.5 Noa akaziva sei mwero wakakwana wokufamba negungwa wokushandisa mukuvaka areka? Vagadziri vengarava vemazuva ano vaiva nezvizvarwa zvakawanda zveruzivo rwekugadzira ngarava dzekushandisa, asi chaNoa ndicho chaiva chekutanga cherudzi rwacho chati chambonyorwa.

Tsvina neKuraswa Kwayo

Munyika dzemazuva ano dzeNyika Yekutanga, zvinonyatsonzwisiswa kuti tsvina yetsvina inotakura zvirwere. Munhau, zvisinei, uye kunyange mune dzimwe nzvimbo nhasi, vanhu havanzwisisi idi iri. Mamiriyoni chaiwo avanhu akafa nemhaka yezvirwere zvinokonzerwa nokuraswa kwetsvina zvisina kufanira. Denda rekorera muLondon muna 1846, umo vanhu 16 000 vakafa, unongova mumwe muenzaniso weichi chokwadi chisingafadzi.6

Dai vanhu veLondon vakavhura maBhaibheri avo pana Dheuteronomio 23:12: “Uyewo, unofanira kuva nenzvimbo kunze kwomusasa, kwaungabuda; unofanira kuva nenhumbi pakati penhumbi dzako; kana wogara pasi kunze, unofanira kuchera nayo, wotendeuka, wofusira marara ako. Anopfuura makore 3 300 denda reLondon risati raitika, Ishe, kupfurikidza nomuranda wake Mosesi, akaita chirongwa chokumisa denda rakadaro risati ratanga. Matambudziko akadai seayo akawira London angadai akadziviswa kudai vanhu vakangogamuchira bedzi Shoko raMwari panhau yacho ndokucherekedza rudzi rworucheno urwo vaIsraeri vakanga vashandisa makore akawanda kwazvo akanga apfuura. Chokwadi ndechokuti, mirayiridzo yaMosesi ichiri kushandiswa kuponesa upenyu nhasi munyika dziri munyika yose dzisina pombi dzemvura kana kuraswa kwemarara zvakakodzera.

Ropa: Mvura yeHupenyu

Ropa ragara riri chinhu chinoshamisa icho chakavanzika chikuru uye kugona kwacho kusati kwanyatsoongororwa. Vanachiremba muzana remakore rechimakumi maviri nerimwe vanoisa ropa, kuidhirowa, kuipatsanura, kurongedza, kuichengeta, kuitumira, uye kuitengesa. Uye, kunyange zvazvo vezvesayenzi vomuzuva razvino uno vasina kufumura chose chose chezvishamiso zvose zveropa, vakawana kuti ndiro kiyi youpenyu. Munguva yakapfuura, kusaziva ukoshi hweropa kwakaparira vamwe varume “vakadzidza” kuita zvinhu zvinosuruvarisa. Somuenzaniso, mumazera apakati, uye kunyange kutozosvikira muzana ramakore rechigumi namapfumbamwe, vanachiremba vaidavira kuti “mhute” inokuvadza yaipinda muropa ndokuparira kurwara. Nokuda kwechikonzero ichi, zvikwevaropa zvakaiswa kune vakabatwa nefivha nezvimwe zvirwere mukuedza kuburitsa ropa rine hutachivana. Zvakare, tsinga netsinga dziri pamusoro pegokora zvakavhurwa, uye maoko omurwere akabudiswa ropa kuti adzime ropa rine utachiona. George Washington, Mutungamiriri wekutanga weUnited States, akafa nekuda kweshingairo yezvokurapa isina kufanira.7

Zviuru zvamakore tsika inouraya yokuteura ropa isati yanambwa, vanhu vakanga vaudzwa naMwari kuti ropa rakanga riri kiyi youpenyu zvamazvirokwazvo. Muna Revhitiko 17:11, Mosesi akanyora, kuti: “Nokuti upenyu hwenyama huri muropa.” Nhasi, tinonzwisisa zvizere chokwadi chemashoko aMosesi okuti “upenyu hwenyama huri muropa.” Mosesi akaziva izvi, mumakore anokwanisa kusvika 3 500 akapfuura, kuti upenyu hwakanga huri muropa, nepo zvakatora rutivi rwose rwasara rweboka yesayenzi neyezvokurapa zviuru zvamakore (uye zviuru zvoupenyu!) kuwana iyi zvokwadi?

Majemusi, Fivha Yevashandi, neKubata Nemitumbi Yakafa

Muna 1847, mumwe chiremba wepamuviri ainzi Ignaz Semmelweis aiva mutungamiriri wewadhi yechipatara muVienna, Austria. Vakadzi vazhinji vane pamuviri vakatarisa muwadhi yake, asi 18% yevakadzi ivavo havana kumbobuda. Mumwe chete pavanhu vatanhatu voga voga vakarapwa muwadhi yaSemmelweis akafa nechirwere chefivha. Kuongororwa kwezvitunha kwairatidza urwa huri pasi peganda ravo, mumhango dzechipfuva, mumasokisi avo, nezvimwewo. Semmelweis ainetseka pamusoro pehuwandu hwevanhu vaifa muwadhi yake, uye mamwe mawadhi echipatara akafanana nawo muEurope yose. Kana mukadzi asununguka mwana achishandisa nyamukuta, rufu rwunosvika pazvikamu zvitatu chete kubva muzana. Asi kana akasarudza kushandisa ruzivo rwekurapa rwepamusoro uye zvivakwa zvemazuva ano, mukana wake wekufa wakakwira kusvika pa18%!8

Paaifunga nezvedambudziko rake, aiona vadzidzi vechidiki vezvokurapa vachiita mabasa avo enguva dzose. Zuva rega rega vadzidzi vaiita kuongorora zvitunha pavanaamai vakafa. Ipapo vaigezesa maoko avo mundiro yemvura ine ropa, voapukuta pataurowo zvaro, rinogoveranwa, uye nokukurumidza vanotanga kuongorora mukati mevakadzi vachiri vapenyu. Somucherekedzi wezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri nerimwe, zvimwe unokatyamadzwa kufunga kuti miitiro yakadaro chaizvoizvo yakaitika mumasangano panguva iyoyo yakanga iri “tekinoloji yazvino uno.” Ndeupi chiremba ane pfungwa dzakanaka angabata munhu akafa ozoongorora varwere vapenyu—asina kutanga ashandisa miitiro miduku yorucheno inoitirwa kuuraya utachiona? Asi kuvaEurope muzana remakore rechigumi nemapfumbamwe, utachiona hwaiva pfungwa yokumwe. Vakanga vasati vamboona utachiona, zvikuru kwazvo kukwanisa kufanotaura simba rahwo rinoparadza. Maererano nedzidziso dzavo, chirwere chakakonzerwa ne” nemamiriro ekunze” kana “nepesedzero yezvizirwa zvepanyika.”

Semmelweis akaudza munhu wese wewadhi yake kuti anyatsogeza maoko ake nemushonga wekororini mushure mekuongororwa kwega kwega. Mumwedzi mitatu, huwandu hwerufu hwakadonha kubva pa18% kusvika 1-3%. Semmelweis akanga awana chinhu chinoshamisa. Kana kuti akanga? Dr. Semmelweis “vakangowanazve” zvakanyorwa zviuru zvemakore zvakapfuura. Makore anoda kusvika 3 300 Semmelweis asati ararama, Mosesi akanga anyora kuti: “Ani naani anobata chitunha chomunhu upi noupi anofanira kuva asina kuchena mazuva manomwe. Iye anofanira kuzvinatsa nemvura nezuva retatu nerechinomwe; ipapo achava akachena. Asi kana asingazvinatsi nezuva retatu nerechinomwe, haangavi akanaka.”— Numeri 19:12 . Bhaibheri raitaura chokwadi nguva yose iyi.9

Kuiswa Kunzvimbo Yausingasangani Nevamwe

Mosesi akadonongodza matanho okudzivirira kupararira kwoutachiona hunobva mumitumbi yakafa kuenda kuvanhu vapenyu kare zvisati zvanzwisiswa uye kutaurwa mukurapa kwemazuva ano. Asi Testamende Yekare yakawedzera mumwe muitiro unobatsira zvikuru mumunda wezvokurapa mutsananguro dzayo dzine udzame dzezvirwere izvo vanhu vapenyu vanofanira kugariswa kwavo voga. Bhuku raRevhitiko rinoronga nhevedzano yehosha nenzira idzo muIsraeri aigona kubata nadzo utachiona. Avo vaiva nezvirwere zvakadai semaperembudzi vakarairwa kuti “vagare vari voga… kunze kwemisasa” (Revhitiko 13:46). Kana munhu airwara akasvika pedyo nevaya vakanga vasingarwari kana munhu airwara, airayirwa kuti “afukidze ndebvu dzake, ashevedzere kuti, ‘Handina kuchena! Handina kuchena!” (13:45). Zvinofadza kuti kuvhara ndebvu dzomunhu kunodzivirira kupfira nokupfapfaidza kubva mumuromo womunhu kupfuura zvakasununguka mumhepo, kungofanana nokuvhara muromo panguva yokukosora kana kuti kuhotsira.

Nezvemiitiro yakadaro yokuisa vanhu vari voga, S.E. Massengill akanyora mubhuku rake rinonzi A Sketch of Medicine and Pharmacy:

Mukudzivirira hosha, zvisinei, vaHebheru vekare vakaita fambiro mberi chaiyoiyo. Dzidziso dzaMosesi, sezviri muMutemo weVapirisita weTestamende Yekare, dzine pfungwa mbiri dzakajeka dzeutsanana hwemazuva ano—kukosha kworucheno uye mukana wokudzora hosha inopararira nokuzviparadzanisa nevamwe uye nokuzvigadzika.10

Nezvekunzwisiswa kwekutapurira kunorehwa mumitemo yokugarisa vanhu vari voga muTestamende Yekare, McGrew akati muEncyclopedia of Medical History: “Pfungwa yokutapurirana yakanga isiri yetsika dzechinyakare dzokurapa uye haina nzvimbo muzvinyorwa zvakawanda zveHippocratic. Testamende Yekare, zvisinei, manyuko akapfuma epfungwa dzinotapuriranwa, zvikurukuru dzine chokuita namaperembudzi nehosha yeropa.”11 Pano zvakare, Testamende Yekare inoratidza zivo yezvokurapa yakarurama zvinoshamisa inopfuura unyanzvi hupi nohupi hunozivikanwa hwomunhu hunowanika panguva yainonyorwa.

Mitemo Yekudyiwa KweChikafu

Mitemo yezvokudya yakanyorwa mumabhuku mashanu ekutanga eTestamende Yekare yakaongororwa kakawanda nenyanzvi dzinozivikanwa muminda yezvekudya uye tsvakurudzo yezvirwere. Mitemo yakaratidza kuti inopindirana nekunzwisisa kwesainzi yemazuva ano emhando dzakasiyana dzehutano nekudzivirira zvirwere. Mitemo yechikafu yeTestamente Yekare inoratidza ruzivo rwebhakitiriya, kugadzirira kwechikafu, uye kuziva patojeni inodarika chero chinhu kubva kutsika dzemazuva ano nevaIsraeri vekare. Uyezve, hapana humbowo hunoratidza kuti ruzivo rwuri mumitemo rwakaunganidzwa, kana kuti rungadai rwakaunganidzwa mukuedzwa norudzi rwevaIsraeri. Nokudaro, vaIsraeri vaisagona kukopa iyi mitemo kubva kumarudzi akanga akavapoteredza, kana kuti kusvika pairi kupfurikidza nokunzvera kwavo vamene, kwesayenzi. Saka, mitemo yakadaro yakarurama yakabva kupi? Mosesi akabvuma kakawanda kuti mitemo yakabva kuna Jehovha (Dhuteronomi 10:4-5). Mitemo iyi yaisanganisira kurambidza kudya nyama yenguruve, nyama inozivikanwa kuti inotapukirwa zvakanyanya kupfuura mimwe yakaita seyemombe kana yemombe.12  Yairambidzawo kudyiwa kwechiremwaremwa, mhuka ine mukana wakanyanya wekutakura zvirwere zvinokuvadza vanhu. Pfungwa yokuti mhuka dzomumvura dzaifanira kuva namakwande nezvimbi kuratidza kuti dzinodyiwa zvakabetsera vaIsraeri kuziva hove dzakaremerwa namabhakitiriya nehove dzine chepfu/ dzine uturu dzakadai seblowfish ne lionfish. Mukuwedzera, chenjedzo pamusoro pekubata uye kudya mhuka dzinokambaira dzingadai dzakaderedza kupararira kwesalmonella, sezvo ruzhinji rwezvinokambaira zvinotakura utachiona.13

Zvirwere Zvepabonde

Nyika dzepasi rose dziri kusangana nedenda huru rezvirwere zvepabonde. Somuenzaniso, awa yoga yoga muChina mwana anoberekwa aine njovhera, uye “mwero wokutapurirwa kwenjovhera kubva kuna amai kuenda kumwana wakakwira kubva pa7 kusvika ku57 pavana 100 000 vanozvarwa vari vapenyu pakati pa2003 na2008.”14 Mumakore achangopfuura, chirwere chenjovhera muChina. vakanga “vachikwira ne30 muzana gore negore.” Utachiona hweSifirisi inotyisa kuwedzera hwaivedzera muUnited States zvakare. Vanamazvikokota vanoti kuwedzera kwechirwere chesifirisi kunokonzerwa nei? “Pfambi pamwe chete nengochani nevarume vane mitezo miviri yevatano, vazhinji vavo vakaroora vane mhuri, ndivo vari kufambisa denda iri” muChina. Uye muUnited States, “inopfuura 60 muzana yezviitiko [zvine] chokuita neungochani.”15

Chii chinopedza denda rezvirwere zvepabonde senge sifirisi? United States Center for Disease Control yakatsanangura nzira iri nyore, inoshanda yekupedza zvirwere zvakadaro:

Nzira yechokwadi yekudzivisa kutapurirwa kwezvirwere zvepabonde, kusanganisira njovhera yesifirisu, ndeye kurega kusangana pabonde kana kuva neukama hwepabonde nevanhu vazhinji vanoziikanwa kuti ane utachiona.16

Maitirwo ekubvisa zvirwere zvenjovhera ane kufanana kunoshamisa nemirayiro yeBhaibheri pamusoro pevatano yakachengeterwa pavanhu vakaroorana hwoupenyu hwose pakati pomurume mumwe nomukadzi mumwe (ona Mateo 19:1-4; VaHebheru 13:4; 1 VaKorinde 6:15-20).

Chokwadi, mirayiro yaMwari ine chokuita nebonde uye zvimwe zvinhu zvose zvoupenyu hwevanhu yagara ichiitirwa kubatsira vanhu kuti vafare zvechokwadi. Muna Dheuteronomio 6:24 , Mosesi akanyora, kuti: “Jehovha akatirayira kuchengeta iyi mitemo yose, kuti titye Jehovha Mwari wedu, kuti zvitinakire nguva dzose, kuti atichengete tiri vapenyu, sezvatakaita nhasi. Mirayiridzo yebhaibheri maererano neizvi inobvumirana zvakakwana netsvakiridzo yakanakisa yesainzi yatinayo panhau iyi.

Kudzingiswa

Mubhuku raGenesisi, ndima yacho inorondedzera kuti Mwari akasarudza Abrahamu nevazukuru vake kuti vave vanhu “vakatsaurwa” vakanga vakatsaurwa kubva kune mamwe marudzi ose. Sungano yakaitwa naMwari naAbrahamu yaisanganisira “chiratidzo” chaicho chaizoshandiswa muzvizvarwa zvose zvaizotevera zvevazukuru vaAbrahamu. Maererano norugwaro rwacho, Mwari akati: “Une mazuva masere pakati penyu unofanira kudzingiswa, chirume chose pamazera enyu, unoberekerwa mumba mako, kana unotengwa nemari kumutorwa upi noupi, asati ari wembeu yako.” 17:12).

Kubatanidzwa kweBhaibheri neiyi tsika yokuvhiya kunopa mumwe muenzaniso wakaisvonaka wokururama kwesayenzi kwerugwaro.17 Zuva iro rekodhi yeBhaibheri inorayira kuti tsika yacho iitwe rinokosha zvikuru. Muviri wemunhu unoda prothrombin, Vitamin K, uye maplatelet kuitira kuti ropa rigwambe. Kuwanda kweprothrombin inowanikwa mumwana achangoberekwa inonyudzwa kubva pa90% yenguva dzose pazuva raakaberekwa kusvika pa35% pazuva rechitatu rehupenyu kunze kwechibereko. Mushure mezuva rechitatu, prothrombin inowanikwa inotanga kukwira. Pakazosvika zuva rechisere rehupenyu hwemwana, inowanikwa yeprothrombin inenge 110% yenguva dzose, inenge 20% kupfuura yayaive pazuva rokutanga, uye inenge 10% kupfuura ichava mumazuva anotevera nemakore ehupenyu hwake.18 Dhata rakadaro rinoratidza kuti zuva rechisere ndiro zuva rakakwana rekuita mavhiya makuru akadai sekuchecheudzwa. Kururama kunoshamisa kwezvokurapa uku hakugone kuverengerwa pahwaro hwehuchenjeri hwevanhu munyika yekare. Kutarisira kwouMwari kunoramba kuri mhinduro bedzi.

Mafashamo Epasi Pose

Genesi ganhuro 6-9 dzinotaura nhau yaNoa neMafashamo enyika yose ayo akafukidza masikweyamita ose epasi. Funga nezveushingi hwekutaura kwakadaro. Pangadai pasina nzira inobvira yekuti murume mumwechete kana mhuri yekuziva zvakaitika paNyika yese. Iyo yakanyanya chero munhu angaite kutsanangura zvakaitika munharaunda yavo chaiyo. Nhasi tine kukurukurirana kwepasi rose uye koingorora kwesetiraiti kunotibvumira kuziva zviri kuitika kune rumwe rutivi rwenyika, asi hapana chakadaro chaivapo munguva yaNoa kana Mosesi akanyora nyaya yacho. Kuti munhuwo zvake atsanangure chokwadi nezveMafashamo enyika yose angadai asina ruzivo rwokuzviwanira. Asi ndizvo chaizvo zvakaitwa naMosesi.

Patinotarira pasi, tinowana umboo hwemafashamo makuru, enyika yose here? Chokwadi tinodaro.  Nyanzvi yezveMatombonenakoma Andrew Snelling inopa runyorwa rwemitsara mitanhatu ine simba yehumbowo hunosimbisa chokwadi cheMafashamo epasi rose:

1. Zvisaririra zvezvisikwa zvomugungwa zvakakwirira pamusoro pemwero wegungwa

2. Kukurumidza kuvigwa kwezvirimwa nemhuka

3. Nekukurumidza kuiswa sedimentary layers yakapararira munzvimbo dzakakura

4. Sediment yakatakurwa madaro marefu

5. Kukurumidza kana kusakanganiswa kwevhu pakati pe strata

6. Mazhinji strata akaiswa pasi nekukurumidza kutevedzana19

Snelling akatsanangura zvakare kuumbwa kwemakomo nepasi kunozivikanwa seseisimite iyo inowanzoitika mumvura panguva yekudengenyeka kwenyika. Iwo akaumbwa munguva dzazvino uno kazhinji angori masendimita mashoma. Idzo dzaanotsanangura dzakakora 30 tsoka, dzakakura zvakanyanya kupfuura chero chinhu muongorori vezvepasi nemstombo akamboona chimiro. Akataura kuti avo vanoramba Mafashamo havana tsananguro nokuda kweidzi kudengenyeka kukuru. Mafashamo, zvisinei, anofanotaura zvakakwana uye anotsanangura kuvapo kwavo.20

Chokwadi Chevadzidzi Vezvekuongororwa Kwezvisariridzwa Kuburikidza neKuchera

Chirango chesainzi chezvekuchera matongo chinobata nekudzidza kwezvigadzirwa zvevanhu kubva kare. Zvigadzirwa izvi zvinopa ruzivo uye humbowo hwezviitiko zvenhoroondo. Sezvatinogona kudzidza zvakasiyana-siyana zvegiyorogi uye kuziva zvakaitika kare kuti zvikonzere mamwe maumbirwo, tinogona kudzidza zvakawanikwa zvekuchera matongo uye kuunganidza ruzivo rwechokwadi nezvevanhu vekare uye budiriro. Iyi nharaunda yenzvero inopa nhandare yakaisvonaka mukuzama kururama kweBhaibheri. Kana Bhaibheri rakanyorwa navanhuwo zvavo, vanyori vanofanira kuva vakaita zvikanganiso zvakasiana-siana mukuronga vanhu vekare, nzvimbo, uye zviitiko. Kana Mwari akafuridzira rugwaro, runofanira kuva rwakarurama chose chose mukukurukura kwarwo kwezvinoitika zvose zvomunguva yakapfuura. Patinoshandisa fundo yezvinocherwa mumatongo kuBhaibheri, tinowana kuti ibhuku rakarurama zvikurusa renhau risati rambonyorwa, risina kana chikanganiso chimwe chete.21

Mhedziso

Dambudziko ronoitwa nyore. Kudai vanhu vekare vakanyora Bhaibheri, raizozadzwa nemikwende yose nezvikanganiso zvinouya nokuva munhu. Isu taizowana ruzivo rwechokwadi, asi huwandu hunoonekwa hweruzivo rwusina chokwadi. Nekuda kwemwero unowedzera zivo yesainzi, bhuku rekare seBhaibheri rinofanira kuzadzwa nemashoko esainzi akasakara uye akaonekwa kuti ndeenhema. Handizvo zvatinowana. Panzvimbo pezvo, tinowana nhevedzano yamabhuku 66 ayo ane zviuru zvamakore ekare ane udzame hwokururama kwesayenzi kusina kumboonekwa mukunyora kupi nokupi kwekare. Hakusati kuchingova bedzi kuti zvikanganiso zvesayenzi hazvipo chose chose pamapeji aro, asi vanyori vanowanzoratidzira nzwisiso yenyika yakanga isingawaniki nouchenjeri hwomunhu kana kuti kunzwisisa panguva iyoyo. Munyori wepisarema wekare, achitaura nezveShoko raMwari, akambonyora kuti: “Shoko renyu rose ichokwadi, uye zvose zvamakatonga zvakarurama zvinogara nokusingaperi” (119:160). Kuongorora kwake kwaive kwakarurama, kubva pangarava huru kusvika kuutachiona hudiki.

Mashoko Okupedzisira

1 Kuti unzwe zvakadzama nyaya iyi, ona bhuku raJeff Miller ra2017 Science vs. Evolution (Montgomery: Apologetics Press), mapeji 61-110.

2 Miller, mapeji 19-39.

3 Hazvifaniri kunzwisiswa kuti mashoko okuti “zvisingaverengeki” kana kuti “kusaverengeka” anoratidza nhamba isingaperi yenyeredzi. Iri ishoko rakashandiswa nemunyori weBhaibheri kureva kuti vanhu havagoni kuverenga nhamba yacho nokuti yakakura kwazvo. Chokwadi chokuti vakawanda munguva yakapfuura vakaedza kudziverenga chinoratidza uchenjeri hwemashoko omunyori weBhaibheri. Kupfuurirazve, kwakaratidzika kuva kuri pachena kuna Abrahama mukurukurirano yake naMwari kuti aisagona kuverenga nyeredzi. Uyu muenzaniso wesayenzi uri muBhaibheri ungasave uchifanoziva zvikuru somumwe wezivo yakarurama iyo yakafuratirwa navazhinji.

4 Kenny Barfield (1997), Nei Bhaibheri riri Nhamba 1 (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock), chitsauko 12.

5 Walter W. Jaffee (1993), The Last Liberty: The Biography of the SS Jeremiah O’Brien (Palo Alto, CA: Glenncannon), mapeji 2-3. Zvakare Harry Butowsky (1985), SS Jeremiah O’Brien, “Zvikepe Zvehondo Zvinobatanidzwa neHondo Yenyika II muPacific” National Park Service, http://npshistory.com/publications/nhl/world-war-ii-warships.pdf.

6 Ona S.I. McMillen naDavid Stern (2000), Hapana cheZvirwere Izvi (Grand Rapids, MI: Revell), chinyorwa chechitatu, p. 31.

7 Nepo chiri chokwadi kuti nyika yekare yaigona kunzwisisa zviri nyore kukosha kweropa, zvinoita sokuti vakawanda vavo havana. Kungofanana nemimwe mienzaniso yokururama kwesayenzi kweBhaibheri, chiitiko ichi chingasava hacho chokufanoziva kukuru sezvakaita zivo yakarurama iyo yakafuratirwa nevakawanda. Mienzaniso yakadaro inosimbisa pfundo rokuti Bhaibheri harina kutambudzwa nezvikanganiso zvesayenzi zvinozivikanwa zvikuru pakati pamamwe mabhuku nezvinyorwa.

8 McMillen naStern, p. 19.

9 Kutaura kwakadzama, kwakadzama kwenyaya iyi ona Tarirai! Shoko raMwari (Montgomery: Apologetics Press), mapeji 108-111. Zvinofadza zvakare kuti mvura yeKunatsa inokurukurwa muChiverengo. pp.111-114.

10 S.E. Massengill (1943), A Sketch of Medicine and Pharmacy (Bristol, TN: S.E. Massengill Company), p. 252.

11 Roderick McGrew (1985), Encyclopedia of Medical History, (London: Macmillan Press), pp. 77-78.

12 Testamente Yekare yakatsiviwa neTestamente Itsva, uye Mwari zvino anobvumira vateveri Vake kudya marudzi ose emhuka (1 Timotio 4:1-5). Ruzivo runowanikwa mumitemo yezvokudya muTestamende Yekare, zvisinei, rungadai ruchiri kukosha munzvimbo umo kugadzirira kwakakodzera uye tsika dzehutsanana dzisinganzwisiswi kana kuwanikwa.

13 Kutaura kwakadzama, kwakadzama kwemusoro wenyaya ona Onai! Shoko raMwari (Montgomery: Apologetics Press), mapeji 115-126.

14 Margie Mason (2010), “Mwana 1 wekuChina Anozvarwa Aine Syphilis Nguva Yese,” http://www.nbcnews.com/id/36967341/ns/health-infectious_diseases/t/chinese-baby-born-syphilis-every- awa/#.W4BQbWRKgr8.

15 Ibid.

16 “Syphilis—CDC Fact Sheet” (2008),  http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/STDFact-Syphilis.htm#protect, emp. akawedzera.

17 Kutaura kwakadzama, kwakadzama kwenyaya iyi ona Tarisa! Shoko raMwari (Montgomery: Apologetics Press), mapeji 126-129.

18 L.E. Holt naR. McIntosh (1953), Holt Pediatrics (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts), edition yechigumi nembiri, p. 126.

19 Andrew Snelling, “Transcontinental Rock Layers” (2008), https://assets.answersingenesis.org/doc/articles/pdf-versions/flood_evidence_3.pdf.

20 Snelling, “When Continents Collide” (2017),  Answers Magazine, https://answersingenesis.org/geology/plate-tectonics/when-continents-collide/.

21 Kunzwa kwakadzama, kwakadzama kwemusoro wenyaya ona Tarisa! Shoko raMwari (Montgomery: Apologetics Press), pp. 57-103.

Yakabudiswa Mbudzi 4, 2018

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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