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Rubhabhatidzo rweVacheche

Yakadzika midzi mupfungwa yokuti vacheche vanotakura chivi chaAdhamu (“chivi chepakutanga”) ndicho chikonzero chinoonekwa chekubhabhatidza vacheche kuti vasunungurwe kubva kune “chimiro chezvivi” uye “kubva kusimba rerima” (Katikisimu …, 1994, 1250). Zvakaziviswawo kuti

[K]usununguka kwenyasha dzeruponeso kunonyanya kuratidzwa muRubhabhatidzo rwevacheche. Chechi nevabereki vaizoramba mwana nyasha dzinokosha dzekuva mwana waMwari dai vaisazopa Rubhabhatidzo mushure mekuzvarwa (1250).

Vamwe vanhu vane vavariro dzakanaka vasingabvumirani norubhabhatidzo rwevacheche vanoramba rubhabhatidzo rwacho nokuti vanokuona sokumanikidzira kuda kwomunhu asingakwanisi kuita zvisarudzo zvake pachake. Kunyange zvazvo kuzvisarudzira kuchikosha maererano noruponeso, nharo dzokuisa zvishuvo zvevamwe pane mumwe munhu hadzifaniri kuva chinhu chinosarudza kuti rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche ruchiitwa here kana kuti kwete. Chinhu chimwe chete chinofanira kuva chekuti Mwari anotendera kana kuti anozvida. Pamusoro pazvo, kana Mwari akatirayira kubhabhatidza vacheche, tinofanira kuteerera murayiro wake, kunyange kana nyika ichiudaidza kuti kumanikidza. Asi, kana pasina chikonzero chebhaibheri chekutevera tsika iyi, hatifanire kuisa chimwe chinhu chisina chinangwa pavana vedu. Nekunzwisisa uku, kuenderana kunotevera kwakadhirowewa:

Kana mwanakomana wangu achangoberekwa akaberekwa aine chirwere, ndomunyima mushonga here ndichiti haasi kuuwana achiziva hake? Ndingati zvingava nani here kumirira kusvikira ava nemano akakwana okufunga? (Domínguez, 2006, akawedzera).

Zvamazvirokwazvo, rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche rungava chinhu chinodiwa kana chivi chokutanga chakapfuudzwa muzvizvarwa. Zvisineyi, vana havagari nhaka yezvivi zvevabereki vavo, naizvozvo, pakupedzisira, hakuna angagara nhaka yechivi chaAdhamu (tarisa. Ekisodho. 32:32-33; Dhuteronomi 24:16; 2 Madzimambo 14:6; 2 Makoronike. 25:4 Jeremiya 31:30;  Pinedo, 2009; Naizvozvo, vacheche nevana vaduku havana “mweya inorwara,” uye havadi kubhabhatidzwa kuti vaporeswe pakunamata. Hapana angapa penicillin kumwana asingarware uye asingaide. Hapana aizoendesa mwanakomana wake achangoberekwa kuchipatara kuti avhiyiwe kubvisa bundu risipo. Zvimwechetezvo, hakuna munhu anofanira kuisa mwana rubhabhatidzo rwakaitirwa kuregerera zvivi zvaasingakwanise kuita (tarisa. Mako. 16:16; Mabasa. 2:38; 22:16; 1Petirosi 3:21).

Bhaibheri harimbopi murayiro, rinopa muenzaniso, kana kuti rinoreva kuti rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche runofanira kuitwa. Hapana kana vhesi rimwechete remuBhaibheri rinotaura nezvazvo. Naizvozvo, mamwe maRoma akaedza kutsvaga tsigiro yebhaibheri yerubhabhatidzo rwevacheche nekuita nharo kubva mukunyarara kweMagwaro. Achishandisa Mateo 28:19 naMarko 16:15 , apo Jesu akapa vadzidzi vake basa rokuparidzira nokubhapatidza, zvakakapa pfungwa yekuti vadzidzi vaizo“pfuurira mberi mumuitiro worubhabhatidzo rwavacheche, kunze kwokunge vadziviswa uye vachirambidzwa nomutemo unokosha” (NW), kana kuti kubhapatidzwa kwaJesu. Hibbard, 1843, p. Iyi nharo ndeyenhema nokuti inoratidza kuti apo Bhaibheri risina kunyora kurambidza, zvose zvinogamuchirwa. Bhaibheri harirambidzi “kubhabhatidzwa nemhuka.” Saka, tinofanira kuenderera mberi ne“kuvabhabhatidza”?

Vamwe vakapa pfungwa yekuti shoko rokuti “chisikwa” munaMako 16:15 ringabatanidza vacheche. Zvisinei, shoko iri rinoganhurirwa nendima yarinooneka. Izwi rechiGiriki rekuti “kusikwa” (ktisis) rinoshandiswa kuratidza chiitiko chekusika kana zviito zvekusika zviri kuitika. Inorevawo chigadzirwa chekusika (tarisa Vine, 1966, 1:254,255). Mukushandiswa kwaro, izwi iri rinosanganisira kwete vacheche chete, asiwo kuzara kwezvakagadzirwa, kureva, mhuka nemiti, pamwe chete nezvose zvisina upenyu. Sezvineiwo, mashoko akapoteredza anotibatsira kunzwisisa kuti rubhabhatidzo runofanira kuitwa pa“zvisikwa zvose” zvinokwanisa kudzidziswa Evhangeri nokuitenda (Mako 16:15-16). Izvi zvinongoerekana zvasiya mhuka, zvinomera, uye zvinhu zvisina upenyu pamwe chete nevacheche nevana vaduku vasati vanzwisisa kana kuti kudavira Evhangeri.

Muna Mateo 28:19 , Jesu akaudza vaapostora kuti “[n]aizvozvo muite vadzidzi vemarudzi ose” Mudzidzi munhu anodzidza patsoka dzemumwe. Izvi zvechokwadi hazvigoni kusanganisira vacheche. Mundima 20, Jesu akaudza vaapostora vake kuti vadzidzise vadzidzi vatsva kuti “vachengete zvinhu zvose” zvaakarayira. Vadzidzi vaisafanira kungodzidza chete, asiwo kuti vaone kana kuita zvavakanga vadzidza. Chokwadi chiri pachena: Vhangeri rakaparidzirwa, rakanzwika, uye rakatendwa nevanhu vaigona kunzwisisa, kutenda, uye kuteerera.

Asi, zvakadini nenhoroondo dzeBhaibheri dzemhuri dzose dzakabhabhatidzwa? Zvinoita here kuti vacheche vaiva nhengo dzemhuri idzodzo, uye kuti vakabhabhatidzwawo? Katikisimu yeRoma inoongorora “zvinobvira” izvi uye inoti:

Pane umboo hwakajeka kuuyu muitiro kubvira muzana ramakore rechipiri zvichienda mberi, uye zvinobvira zvikuru kuti, kubvira pamavambo okuparidza kwavaapostora, apo “veimba” yose vakagamuchira rubhapatidzo, vacheche vangave vakabhapatidzwawo (1994, 1252,)

Vamwe vatungamiriri veRoma vakatoenda kure. Mubhuku rake, The Faith of our Fathers, Mukuru veMabhishopu James C. Gibbons akati:

Mabasa eVaapostora Somuenzaniso, tinoudzwa kuti Ridhia “akabhabhatidzwa, neimba yake,”  nekuti murindi wetorongo “akabhabhatidzwa, nemhuri yake yose.” MuApostora mumwecheteyo akabhabhatidzawo “veimba yaStefanasi” (1891, p. 308, yakawedzerwa).

Kunyangwe pekutanga kutarisisa gakava iri ringaita serinoshanda, fungidziro inoshaya rutsigiro rwebhaibheri. Kutanga, kunokurumidza kugumisa kuti apo vanyori veBhaibheri vakanongedzera ku“imba” yomumwe munhu, nguva dzose vaibatanidza mutezo uri wose wemhuri. Chechipiri, hapana humbowo hwebhaibheri hunoratidza kuti dzimba idzodzo dzaisanganisira vacheche kana vana vadiki. Sezvo pasina nzira yokubvumikisa nayo kuti kwakanga kune vacheche mudzimba dziri kutaurwa, kana kuti shoko rokuti “veimba” raibatanidzawo vacheche, idzi ndima hadzitsigiri rubhapatidzo rwavacheche.

Zvamazvirokwazvo, mashoko akapoteredza eidzi ndima muna Mabasa anotaura zvine mutsindo pamusoro porubhapatidzo rwavacheche. Nezvemuchengeti wetorongo weFiripi, Ruka anotiudza chaizvo kuti ndevapi nhengo dze“mhuri yake yose” (Mabasa 16:33) dzakabhabhatidzwa. Vakanga vari avo vakadzidziswa Shoko naPauro naSirasi (16:32), uye avo vakafara nomuchengeti wetorongo, “vachitenda muna Mwari” (16:34). Vacheche vanogona kudzidziswa Shoko uye kutenda muna Mwari, kunzwisisa chibayiro cheMwanakomana Wake, uye pakarepo kuita maererano nokutenda? Vanogona kufara here somugumisiro wokutenda kwavo kwokuteerera? NezvaRidhia, Ruka anotiudza kuti “Ishe akazarura mwoyo wake kuti ateerere zvinhu zvakataurwa naPauro” (Mabasa 16:14). Avo vakabhapatidzwa vakanga vane mwoyo nendangariro zvakazaruka kuShoko. Vacheche vane mwoyo yakazaruka uye pfungwa dzinonzwisisa here? Testamende Itsva inodzidzisa zvakajeka kuti rubhabhatidzo rwaiitwa pavanhu vakadzidziswa Shoko, vaiva nemwoyo yakazaruka, vainyatsoteerera nokuteerera Shoko, uye vaifara nokuti vakaita chisarudzo chokutevera Kristu.

Tichishandisa VaKorose 2:11-12 , kumwe kuedza kudzivirira rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche kwakavakirwa papfungwa yokuti rubhabhatidzo “runotsiva” kudzingiswa. Maererano neiyi nharo, sezvo “kudzingiswa kwaiitwa kuvacheche,” ipapo rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche itsika yebhaibheri (“Kubhabhatidzwa kweVacheche,”). Kunyange zvazvo Pauro akashandisa kudzingiswa kuenzanisira nguva apo vanhu vano“bvisa” chivi vova vaKristu (parubhapatidzo—VaRoma 6:3-4; VaGaratia 3:27), haana kutongodzidzisa, kusimudzira, kana kuti kurayira rubhapatidzo rwavacheche (tarisa. Lyons, 2003). Funga nezvepfungwa idzi: (1) Pauro akaenzanisa kudzingiswa nokubhabhatidzwa, kwete kubhabhatidzwa kwevacheche. Kuenzanisa kwaiva pakati pe“kuchekwa” (kwenyama) mukudzingiswa uye “kuchekwa” kwemweya (kwechivi) kunoitika pakubhabhatidzwa. (2) Kudzingiswa kwairayirwa bedzi kuvazukuru vaAbrahama, uye vaproserite (Genesi 17:12-13; Eksodho 12:48), asi rubhapatidzo ndorwemarudzi ose (Mateo 28:19-20; Marko 16:15-16). (3) Kuchecheudzwa kwaiitwa chete pavacheche vechirume (Genesi 17:10), asi rubhabhatidzo nderwevarume nevakadzi (VaGaratiya 3:28; Mabasa 8:12). (4) Kuchecheudzwa kwaiitwa pazuva rechisere romucheche (Genesi 17:12), asi rubhabhatidzo runofanira kuitwa kana munhu atenda opupura (Mako 16:16; Mabasa 2:38). (5) Vanhu vazhinji vakadzingiswa vasati vava vaKristu (VaFiripi 3:5), uye vamwe vakadzingiswa pashure kunyange zvazvo kwaiva kwokuda (Mabasa. 16:3; enzanisa. 15:1-29). Kana rubhabhatidzo rwakatsiva kudzingiswa, zvose zvaizoitwa sei panguva imwe chete, pakati pevanhu vakafanana, uye pasi pesungano imwe chete (Brents, 1874, mapeji 345-347)? (6) Pauro akazivisa kuti muna Kristu Jesu kudzingiswa kana kusadzingiswa hazvina maturo (VaGaratia 5:6). VaKorose 2:11-12 haipembedzi kana kutsigira rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche.

Kana Bhaibheri risingatsigiri rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche, tsika iyi yakatanga rini uye sei? VaKaturike vanobvuma kuti “[mu]zana ramakore rechina kwakava kunozivikanwa zvikuru kuti vanhu vaberekerwe mumhuri dzechiKristu, uye pakasvika zana ramakore rakatevera, munyika yose yeMedhiteriyeni, uyu wakanga uri muitiro wakakurumbira. Izvi zvinoreva kuti nzira yekubhabhatidzwa yakashanduka zvikuru. Rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche rwakava nzira huru” (Orlandis, 1993, p. 35; tarisa. Koch, 1997, p. 116). Muna A.D. 418, Kanzuru yeCarthage yakatambira zviri pamutemo tsika iyi uye ikaisa mutongo kune avo vaiipikisa (tarisa “Canons,” n.d., 2). Uhwu ndihwo humwe humbowo hwekuti rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche haruna kurairwa naMwari, asi itsika yakaitwa nevanhu.

Pakupedzisira, maererano nechiKaturike, chii chinoitika kuvacheche vasingagamuchiri kubhabhatidzwa vachangobereka? Maererano neKatekisimu yeKaturike, vacheche vanozvarwa vaine chivi, uye vanofanira kubhabhatidzwa kuitira kuti “vasunungurwe kubva musimba rerima uye vapinzwe munzvimbo yerusununguko rwevana vaMwari” (1994, 1250). Namamwe mashoko, vacheche vanoshurikidzwa murima romudzimu ndokuparadzaniswa nechikomborero chipi nechipi chomudzimu. Kanzuru yedunhu reCologne yakatozivisa kuti “[f]kutenda kunotidzidzisa kuti vacheche…vanodzingwa muumambo hwekudenga kana vakafa [vasina kubhabhatidzwa]” (zvakatorwa mu“The Existence of Limbo…,” 2006, chinhu chakaiswa mumabhurakete muorig. ) Kunyange zvakadaro, zvinonziwo izvozvo

[Ma]ererano nevana vakafa vasina rubhabhatidzo, Chechi inogona chete kuvaisa kutsitsi dzaMwari, sezvainoita mutsika dzemariro avo. Zvamazvirokwazvo, ngoni huru dzaMwari uyo anoshuva kuti vanhu vose vaponeswe, uye unyoro hwaJesu kuvana izvo zvakamuparira kuti: “Regai vana vauye kwandiri, musavadzivisa,” zvinotibvumira kukarira kuti kune . . . nzira yeruponeso yevana vakafa vasina Rubhabhatidzo (Katekisimu…, 1994, 1261,yakawedzerwa).

Kune rumwe rutivi, chiKaturike chinotsinhira kuti vana vaduku, vasina rubhapatidzo, vari muusungwa hwomudzimu, nepo, kune rumwe rutivi, chinoda kuti tidavire kuti “kune nzira yoruponeso nokuda kwaavo vana vakafa vasina kubhabhatidzwa.” Izvi zvinoreva here kuti vana vaduku vanosvibiswa nechivi chepakutanga pavanoberekwa asi vosunungurwa pachivi ichi parufu? Kana paine “nzira yoruponeso nokuda kwaavo vana vakafa vasina kubhabhatidzwa,” nei vaKaturike vachifanira kubhapatidza vacheche vavo zvachose?

Kusapindirana kwakadaro kunogona chete kuve mugumisiro wedzidziso isina simba reBhaibheri. Vacheche zvipo zvinobva kuna Mwari, zvakachena uye zvisina gwapa nenyika (Mapisarema 127:3). Pavanenge vachikura, vadiki vanokosha vanogona kudzidza kuti chivi chii, nekuti chii chinokonzera. Tinovimba, sevanhu vanozvidavirira vachaziva kuda kwavo kuregererwa naMwari, uye, pakupedzisira, vachasarudza pakati pekutenda nekubhabhatidzwa kuti vaponeswe (Mako 16:16), nekusateerera nekurarama vakaparadzaniswa naMwari nekusingaperi (2 VaTesaronika 1:9).

Zvinyorwa

Brents, T.W. (1874), Hurongwa hweVhangeri reRuponeso (Bowling Green, KY: Guardian of Truth Foundation, 1987 rakadhinda zvakare).

“Canons” (hapana zuva), Kanzuru yeCarthage [On-line], URL: http://www.seanmultimedia.com/Pie_Council_Of_Carthage_Chivabvu_1_418.html.

Katekisimo yeChechi yeRoma (1994), (Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press).

Domínguez, J. (2006), “Kubhabhatidzwa kweVana, Vacheche, nendumurwa” [“Bautismo de los Niños, de los Infantes, de los Bebés”], [On-line], URL: http://biblia.com /cpb/bautismo.htm.

“Kuvapo kweLimbo: Dzidziso Yakafanana Kubva Iyo Ingave Inokurumidza Kubva …” (2006), [On-line], URL: http://www.tldm.org/news8/Limbo.htm#_ednref20#_ednref20 .

Gibbons, James C. (1891), Kutenda kwaMadzibaba Edu (Baltimore: John Murphy).

Hibbard, F.G. (1843), Rubhabhatidzo rwechiKristu: Muzvikamu Zviviri (New York: G. Lane & P.P. Sandford).

“Rubhabhatidzo rwevacheche” (hapana zuva), Mhinduro dzeKaturike, [On-line], URL: http://www.catholic.com/library/infant_baptism.asp.

Koch, Carl (1997), Nhoroondo Yakakurumbira yeChechi yeRoma (Winona, MN: Saint Mary’s Press).

Lyons, Eric (2003), “Kubhabhatidzwa Kunotsiva Kuchecheudzwa Here?,” [On-line], URL:  https://apologeticspress.org/articles/2287

Orlandis, José (1993), Nhoroondo Pfupi yeChechi yeKaturike, trans. Michael Adams (New York: Tsvimbo).

Pinedo, Moisés (2009), “Vana Vanoberekwa Vane Chivi Here?,” [On-line], URL:  https://apologeticspress.org/articles/240109.

Vine, W.E. (1966), An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell).

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