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Nei maApokirifa Asina Kubatanidzwa muBhaibheri

Chii Chinonzi “Apokirifa”? 1

Shoko rekuti “apokirifa” rinobva mumashoko maviri echiGiriki anoti, apo (kubva) uye kruptees (akavanzika), uye rinoshandiswa kureva mabhuku asina chokwadi chekunyora, kwaakabva, uye ane masimba asina chokwadi. Zvikurukuru, shoko racho rinoreva pamutemo kuunganidzwa kwemabhuku vamwe vakabatanidza neTestamente Yekare neItsva.

Apokirifa YeTestamente Yekare

Mabhuku anotevera anowanzo kurongerwa seTestamente Yekare yemuapokirifa:

  • Bharuki
  • Ecclesiasticus (Uchenjeri hwaJesu Mwanakomana waSiraki)
  • Judith
  • 1 & 2 Maccabees
  • Tobit
  • Zvitsauko 6 zvakawedzerwa kuna Esther
  • 1 & 2 Esdras
  • Munyengetero waManase
  • Tsamba yaJeremiya
  • Uchenjeri hwaSoromoni
  • Kuwedzera kuna Danieri:
  • Susanna
  • Bheri neShato
  • Munamato waAzaria & Rwiyo rweMajaya Matatu

Ko iyo Apocrypha Inezvinodiwa Here Mumaitiro Ezvinyorwa?

(1) Jesu kana kuti Vaapostora havana kutora mashoko muzvinyorwa zveapokirifa. Nepo kungonokora mashoko kwaisazosimbisa kuti magwaro matsvene, zvakaoma kufunga kuti vanyori veTestamente Itsva vangatora 14 eTestamende Yekare yeApokirifa yakafuridzirwa asi vasingambotore mashoko kubva kwavari. Anosvika makumi matatu neshanu emabhuku eTestamende Yekare anokorwa mashoko muTestamende Itsva achibatanidza mashoko anosvika 275. Kwete chete hapana zvirevo zvakananga kubva kuApokirifa muTestamente Itsva, hapana zvirevo zvezviitiko kana mavara anowanikwa muApokirifa.

(2) Jesu akanongedzera kundaza yamanyoro eTestamende Yekare kupfurikidza namashoko akasanosimbiswa anokamuranisa “Mutemo waMosesi naVaporofita naMapisarema,”2 “Mutemo naVaporofita,”3 “Mosesi naVaporofita,”4 uye “Mutemo waMosesi neVaporofita.” Aya matauriro akafanana aiitirwa kusanganisa “24” mabhuku eTestamente Yekare ayo aizivikanwa nemaJuda seanogashira kubva kuna Mwari, akaiswa mumapoka matatu:

  • Tora (Mutemo)

Genesi, Eksodho, Revhitiko, Numeri, Dhuteronomi

  • Nevi’im (“Vaprofita”)

“Vaimbova Vaporofita”: Joshua, Vatongi, 1 ne 2 Samueri (bhuku rimwe), 1 ne 2 Madzimambo (bhuku rimwe) “Vaprofita Vekupedzisira”: Isaya, Jeremiya, Ezekieri, Vaprofita Vaduku 12 (bhuku rimwe chete)

  • Ketuvim (“Zvinyorwa”; chiGiriki, “Hagiographa”)

Mapisarema, Zvirevo, Jobho, Rwiyo rwaSoromoni (Canticles), Rute, Mariro, Muparidzi, Esteri, Danieri, Ezra-Nehemia (bhuku rimwe), 1 ne 2 Makoronike (bhuku rimwe)

Aya mabhuku 24 anonyatsoenderana nemabhuku 39 anotaura nezvemaBhaibheri emazuva ano. Zvimwe zviremera zvechiJudha gare gare zvinotaura nezvemabhuku 22 muBhaibheri rechiHebheru kupfurikidza nokubatanidza Rute kuna Vatongi, uye Mariro kuna Jeremia.

Mabhuku eApokirifa haana kumbobatanidzwa mumagwaro echiHebheru. Kutozosvikira Magwaro echiHebheru ashandurirwa muchiGiriki muzana remakore rechitatu B.C. (Septuagint), ivo vakabatanidzwa. Vanhu vakakurumbira vechiJudha vakaramba chokwadi cheApokirifa, kusanganisira Josephus, uyo akavaramba zvakasimba, 6 naPhilo, muzivi wechiJudha wokuAlexandria (20 B.C.-A.D. 50) asina kutora mashoko kana kuti kutaura nezveApokirifa, kunyange zvazvo aigara achitaura muTestamende Yekare. MaTargum (madimikira echiAramaic eMagwaro) haana kupihwa kuApokirifa. Kuva vachengeti ve“zvirevo zvaMwari” (VaRoma 3:2), zvinokosha kuziva kuti vaJudha havana kubatanidza kana kugamuchira Apokirifa nemabhuku makumi matatu namapfumbamwe eTestamende Yekare (kunyange zvazvo yakabatanidzwa muSeptuagint makore akawanda pashure pezvinyorwa zvechiHebheru. yakatsanangurwa zvakajeka).

(3) Pakasvika chiKristu, vanyori vechiKristu vepakutanga nemachechi vakaramba Apokirifa. Vavambi vepakuvamba kwemabhuku akafuridzirwa vakanga vasingabatanidzi. Origen (muzana ramakore rechi 2-3), Athanasius (muzana ramakore rechina), naJerome (muzana ramakore rechi 4-5) vakavaramba. Kunyangwe payakaverengerwa muzvinyorwa, kazhinji musiyano waiitwa uchitaura kuti kunyangwe maApokirifa aive akakodzera kuverenga, akange asingaenderane neRugwaro. Chechi yeRoma Katorike yakatanga kuzivisa Apokirifa sechokwadi paKanzuru yeTrent muna A.D. 1546, chiito chakapfuura nevazhinji vashoma, zvakadaro, kunyange zvakadaro, vakaramba 1 na 2 Esdras uye Munamato waManase.

(4) Zviratidzo zvemukati zvekufemerwa hazvipo zvinoshamisa. Vanyori veApokirifa, semuenzaniso, havana kutaura kuti kufuridzirwa. Vakaita kukanganisa kwenhoroondo, kwenzvimbo, uye kuverengwa kwenguva (semuenzaniso, Judith 1:1). Ane dzimwe ngano uye ngano, pamwe nekupokana kwedzidziso dzeMagwaro (semuenzaniso, Bharuki 3:4). Kupfuurirazve, ivo vakaderera pane Rugwaro, uye mwero wehunhu/wemweya unoratidzwa uri pasi pehukuru hweMagwaro.

(5) Mabhuku acho ndeemunguva yepakati petestamende—ose akanyorwa nguva refu pashure pokunge mabhuku eTestamende Yekare anyorwa uye mabhuku eTestamente Yekare avharwa. Zvimwe zvikamu zvakatonyorwa munguva yechiKristu.

Testamende Itsva yeApokirifa

Mabhuku anotevera anorongwa seTestamende Itsva yeApokirifa:

  • Evhangeri yaPetro
  • Zvakazarurwa zvaPetro
  • Mufudzi weHermasi
  • Tsamba yaBhanabhasi
  • Mabasa aPauro
  • 1 na2 Clemendi
  • Enoki
  • Nemamwe

Ko Iyo Apocrypha Inosangana Nezvinodiwa Here muMaitiro eZvinyorwa?

(1) Kuti rive romundaza yamanyoro matsvene, bhuku harifaniri kupokanidza dzidziso dzakajeka dzeTestamende Itsva—sezvinoita Apokirifa.

(2) Zvimwe zvakanyorwa kuti zvitsigire zvaida dzidziso.

(3) Vanotaura nezvezvinhu zvisina basa, zvisingakoshi, uye zvisina musoro.

(4) Dzinopesana nezvakaitika kare.

(5) Vanoratidza uchapupu hwokuedza kutevedzera mabhuku eTestamende Itsva.

(6) Manyorerwo acho akasiyana chaizvo nemanyoro echokwadi eTestamente Itsva.

(7) Havana kumbobvumwa sevechokwadi nevaya vaiva pedyo nezera revaapostora, kusanganisira Clement weRoma (1st century), Ignatius (1st century), Polycarp (2nd century), naHermas (2nd century).

(8) Ndaza dzapakuvamba dzamabhuku omundaza yamanyoro matsvene hadziabatanidzi.

(9) Kunyange vavengi vechiKristu, mukurwisa chitendero chechiKristu, vakanokora mashoko mumabhuku eTestamente Itsva—asi kwete Apokirifa.

Rondedzero yaJudha kuna Enoki

“Asi Judhasi 14-16 haisiriyo here inotorerwa mashoko mubhuku reapokirifa Enoki (1:9)?” Ndima yaJudha inoti:

Zvino Enoki, wechinomwe kubva kuna Adhamu, wakaporofitawo pamusoro pevarume ava, achiti: Tarirai, Ishe unouya nezvuru zvine gumi zvevatsvene vake, kuti atonge vose, nekupa mhosva vose vasingadi Mwari pakati pavo pamusoro pemabasa avo ose ekusada Mwari, avakaita. vakaita nenzira isingadi Mwari, nepamusoro pezvinhu zvose zvinorwadza zvakataurwa pamusoro pake nevatadzi vasingadi Mwari.” Ava vagunun’uni, vagunun’uni, vanofamba nokuchiva kwavo; uye vanotaura mashoko okuzvikudza, vachinyengera vanhu kuti vawane fuma.

Enoki 1:9 inoti:

Uye tarira! Anouya nezviuru zvine gumi zvevatsvene [vake] kuzotonga pamusoro pavo, uye achaparadza vasingadi Mwari, uye achapa mhosva nyama yose pamusoro pezvose zvakaitwa navatadzi nevasingadi Mwari nezvavakaita nezvake vasingadi Mwari.7

Kana Judha akataura mashoko ari mubhuku reapokirifa raEnoki, zvinoreva here kuti Judha, pachake, ibhuku reapokirifa, kana kuti bhuku raEnoki rakafuridzirwa? Funga nezvetsanangudzo mbiri dzinogona kuitika pachiitiko ichi. Kutanga, zvichida Judhasi naEnoki vanodudza chirevo chechokwadi kubva kumunhu wemubhaibheri Enoki chakachengetedzwa netsika dzaingotaurwa. Pashure pezvose, hazvisi zvose zvakataurwa nevaprofita nevamwe varume vakafuridzirwa zvakanga zvakachengetedzwa nenzira youmwari. Kana zvakadaro, Judhasi akanga achingodudza gamuchidzanwa rinotaurwa—kwete bhuku raEnoki.

Chechipiri, zvichida tsananguro inonzwisisika ndeyokuti Judhasi akataura zvechokwadi Enoki—asi kwete seMagwaro. Panzvimbo pezvo, akanga achingoziva kuti izvo Enoki akataura zvakava kutaura kwechokwadi mukurangarira mufambiro usiri woumwari wavadzidzisi venhema avo Judhasi akanga achinyora nezvavo. Judhasi aigona kutora mashoko aanotaura seanoiswa mune chimwe chiremera asingapi mucherechedzo wezvaaifunga nezverimwe bhuku rose. Aigona kugamuchira uchokwadi hwechimwe chiitiko chaanonongedzera kwachiri asingapi mvumo yakazara kukururama kwoumwari kwebhuku rose raEnoki.

Kunyora kupfurikidza nefuridziro hakuna kubvisa kana kuti kusabvisa rusununguko rwomunyori rwokushandisa manyuko asina kufuridzirwa. Asi, Mweya Mutsvene wakangotungamirira munyori nenzira yokuti munyori akashandisa mashoko echokwadi uye akarurama chete. Kunyange zvazvo munyori akafuridzirwa akashandisa mashoko ake pachake, manyorerwo, dzidzo, nezvimwewo mukunyora kweMagwaro, kushingaira kwake kwakasimudzirwa zvikuru zvokuti chigadzirwa chakapedzwa ndicho chaidiwa naMwari kuti chinyorwe (2 Petro 2:21). Ndima dzakawanda dzinoratidza chokwadi ichi:

Ruka 1:1-4—Ruka akatenderwa naMwari kuti abatanidze mamwe mabviro ebhaibheri.

Mabasa 17:28—Ruka akatanga kutora mashoko mubhuku raEpimenides vekuKrete (“maari tinorarama, tinofamba uye tiripo”), [8] uye akatora mashoko mumutsara wechishanu we Phaenomena (“tiri vana vake”)—nhetembo. paruzivo rwenyeredzi, rakanyorwa naAratus wekuKirikia (cir. 315–cir. 245 B.C.).9

1 VaKorinde 15:33 — Pauro akatora mashoko kubva mukomedhi Thais nemunyori wemitambo wechiGiriki Menander (342-291) B.C.10

Tito 1:12-13— Pauro akatora mudetembi wechihedheni ainzi Epimenides wokuKrete, uye akati: “Uchapupu uhwu ndohwechokwadi.”11

Cherekedza kuti mune chimwe nechimwe chezviitiko izvi, munyori akafuridzirwa ari kungonongedzera kumashoko asina kufuridzirwa anoitika kuti aenderane nechokwadi chiri kutsanangurwa. Pasina panikiro nzira iyi yaiitirwa kufambisa mukana mukuru wokugamuchira shoko rakafuridzirwa nevateereri.

Humwe ufakazi hwokuti vanyori vakafuridzirwa vakatungamirirwa naMwari kushandisa zvimwe zvinyorwa zvinooneka mundima dzinotevera:12

  • Numeri 21:14—Bhuku reHondo dzaShe
  • Joshua 10:13; 2 Samueri 1:18—Bhuku raJashari
  • 1 Madzimambo 11:41—Bhuku reMabasa aSoromoni
  • 1 Makoronike 9:1—Bhuku reMadzimambo aIsraeri
  • 1 Makoronike 29:29 BDMCS – Nhoroondo dzaSamueri muoni, nhoroondo yomuprofita Natani, nhoroondo yomuoni Gadhi.
  • 2 Makoronike 9:29 BDMCS – Nhoroondo dzaNatani muprofita, chiprofita chaAhija muShiro, nezviratidzo zvomuoni Idho.
  • 2 Makoronike 12:15 BDMCS – Nhoroondo dzaShemaya muprofita, nezvinyorwa zvomuoni Idho.
  • 2 Makoronike 20:34 BDMCS – Nhoroondo dzaJehu, Bhuku reMadzimambo eIsraeri.

Mhedziso

Hapana mubvunzo kuti akawanda emabhuku eapokirifa aikonzerwa nokuda kuziva kwevanhu nezvokusava nechokuita nemagwaro akafuridzirwa.13 Saka mabhuku angadai akagadzirirwa kupindura mibvunzo yakadai sokuti: “Zvakaitika muupenyu hwevanhu vanotaurwa muBhaibheri muzvikamu izvozvo/ nguva dzisina kutsanangurwa muBhaibheri?” uye “Chii chakaitika mukati menguva yekupindirana apo chinyoreso chekufemerwa chakanyarara?” Regiyoni ndevaya vakatarira kumashoko akawanda asina kuziviswa enhau yakafuridzirwa—kubva pazvakanga zvakaita Jesu paaiva muduku kusvika kune zvakazoitika kuvanhu vakakurumbira vomuBhaibheri. Kuguta kwekuda kuziva kwevanhu kunoratidzwa muApokirifa.14

Mashoko Okupedzisira

1 Zvinyorwa zviri mukuongorora kupfupi uku kweApokirifa zvakaunganidzwa kubva kune akati wandei anobatsira, anosanganisira: Gleason Archer (1974), A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago, IL: Moody Press), mapeji 72-77; F.F. Bruce (1960), Manyoro eTestamente Itsva: Akavimbika Here? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans); David Ewert (1983), Kubva paMahwendefa Ekare kusvika Kushanduro Dzazvinozvino (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan), mapeji 73-83; William Henry Green (1899), General Sumo yeTestamende Yekare: The Canon (London: John Murray), pp. 158ff.,195-200; R. Laird Harris (1977), Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan), pp. 131ff.; M.R. James (1924), The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press); Neil Lightfoot (1986), Mawaniro atakaita Bhaibheri (Abilene, TX: ACU Press), mapeji 68-75; Bruce Metzger (1957), An Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York: Oxford University Press); Merrill Unger (1951), Nhungamiro Yenhanganyaya kuTestamente Yekare (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan); Henry Vedder (1908), “Mabhuku Akarambwa” muTestamende Yedu Itsva: Takaawana Sei? ( Philadelphia, PA: American Baptist Publication Society), mapeji 207-240; Clyde Woods (hapana zuva), “Fact Sheet: Zvikonzero Zvokuramba Apokirifa Kubva kuCanon” (Henderson, TN: Freed-Hardeman College); G. Douglas Young’s “The Apocrypha” muna Carl F.H. Henry, ed. (1972), Zvakazarurwa neBhaibheri (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker).

2 Ruka 24:44.

3 Mateu 5:17; 7:12; 11:13; 22:40; Ruka 16:16; Mabasa 13:15; 24:14; VaRoma 3:21.

4 Ruka 16:29, 31; 24:27; 26:22.

5 Mabasa 28:23.

6 Against Apion, I.8.

7 R.H. Charles (1893), Bhuku raEnoki (Oxford: The Clarendon Press), p. 59.

8 Ona zvinyorwa zvitatu zvakanyorwa naJ. Rendel Harris muThe Expositor (ed. W. Robertson Nicoll): “The Cretans always Liars” (1906), October, 2:305-317; “Chimwe Chinyorwa pamusoro pevaKrete” (1907), Kubvumbi, 3:332-337; “St. Paul naEpimenides” (1912), Gumiguru, 8:348-353.

9 G.R. Mair, trans. (1921), Callimachus naLicophron, Aratus (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons), p. 380.

10 John Freese (1911), “Menander” muThe Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cambridge: University Press), 18:109.

11 Ona Mashoko Okupedzisira #8.

12 Ona Eric Lyons (2017), “Fungiro Yakashata Inoitwa nevakawanda NezveMadzimambo neMakoronike,” Apologetics Press, https://apologeticspress.org/a-flawed-assumption-many-make-about-kings-and-chronicles-5421 /; “Pane Mabhuku Akarasika eBhaibheri Here?” (2003), Apologetics Press, https://apologeticspress.org/are-there-lost-books-of-the-bible-66/.

13 Asi, humwe hwoumbowo hunoshamisa hwekufemerwa ndiko kusiiwa kweBhaibheri. Ona Wayne Jackson (1996), “Kunyarara KweMagwaro: Nharo Yekufemerwa,” Apologetics Press, https://apologeticspress.org/the-silence-of-the-scriptures-an-argument-for-inspiration-259 /.

14 Munhu anoyeuchidzwa nezvevana vekirasi yeBhaibheri vakanga vachigadzira mifananidzo yavo vamene yechidzidzo cheBhaibheri chezuva iroro. Sezvo mudzidzisi aifamba-famba mukirasi, akatarira pamapfudzi evadzidzi, akabvunza mumwe mukomana muduku, kuti: “Johnny, chii chauri kudhirowa?” Johnny akapindura kuti: “Ndiri kudhirowa mufananidzo waMwari.” Mudzidzisi wacho akati: “Asi Johnny, hapana anoziva zvakaita Mwari.” Johnny akapindura kuti: “Vachadaro kana ndapedza mufananidzo wangu.”

Yakabudiswa Kurume 1, 2024

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