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Nei Kutenda Muna Mwari Kwakaiswa Kuvanhu?

Musi waChikumi 18, 2012, blogger ane mukurumbira uye anoverenga zvakanyanya asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari Leah Libresco akabudisa chinyorwa chakanzi: “Iyi Ndiyo Nyaya Yangu Yekupedzisira Kutumira yeVasingatendi kuna Mwari” (Merica, 2012). Muchiposvo, Libresco akatsanangura kuti akange asisanyoreri kune asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari nekuti akanga asisiri muAtheisti. Pakati pemwedzi isati yasvika, kunetsekana kwake kwepfungwa uye kuferefetwa kwakamuita kuti agumise kuti Mwari ariko (Libresco, 2012).

Chii chaive chinhu chikuru chakamanikidza Libresco kupa iyi mhedziso yematheisti avo vanotenda kuna mwari mumwechete? Akatsanangura kuti tsika ndidzo dzaikosha. Munguva yake yose asingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, ainetseka kuti anzwisise kuti vanhu vangarambira sei kutsika dzinoita sedzisina chinangwa kana pasina Mwari. Sezvaaitsvaka mhinduro pakati pevazvonafundo nevanyori vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, akabvuma kuti mhinduro dzavo dzakanga dzisina kukwana.

Mubvunzurudzo nemutori wenhau weCNN, Libresco akaona kuti kutendeuka kwake kubva mukusatenda kuvapo kwaMwari kuenda kudzidziso yezvesayenzi “kwakanga kwakafanana nedzidziso chero ipi zvayo yesainzi, inenge, kuti yakanga ine simba rinotsanangura zvakawanda rokutsanangura chimwe chinhu chandaiva nechokwadi nacho. Ndine chokwadi chekuti hunhu hune chinangwa, kuzvimiririra kwevanhu; chimwe chinhu chatinofukunura sevanochera matongo kwete chatinovaka sevavaki” (Merica, 2012).

Kutendeseka kwehungwaru kwaLibresco maererano nehunhu kunozorodza kuona. [Cherechedza: AP haitsigire hukama hweLibresco nechechi yeRoma. Tarisa,  Pinedo, 2008.] Kutendeuka kwake kunosimbisa chikamu chakakosha chemaitiro ekutsvaga chokwadi: kukosha kwekutsanangura. Nechiverengero chinoramba chichiwedzera chavapanikiri, vasingatendi, vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari, uye vanodavira kuti Mwari ariko muUnited States uye kupota pasi rose, zvinokosha kuti VaKristu vatsvake nzira dzokuvadzidzisa nadzo nezvaMwari, uye ipapo Jesu Kristu. Imwe nzira inobudirira yokuita izvozvo ndeyokuratidza kuti pfungwa yaMwari inoramba iine simba guru rokutsanangura pane kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari pazvinhu chaizvo zvatinoona zvakatipoteredza. Nokudaro, pakusvika pachokwadi icho vose vari vaviri vasingatendi navasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari vanobvumirana pachiri, mubvunzo waizova wokuti: “Ipfungwa ipi, yekusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari, inotsanangura ichi chiitiko chakanakisisa?” Kuzvironga nenzira yakanaka, “Kana kuna Mwari chaizvoizvo, tingatarisira kuti nyika iite sei?” Leah Libresco akaziva chokwadi chetsika dzakanangana uye akagumisa kuti kana kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari kwaiva kwechokwadi, kwaisazova netsika dzakaipa; asi kana kuna Mwari, ipapo tsika dzakanaka ndizvo chaizvo zvatingatarisira kuwana.

Nheyo iyoyo inogona kupfuudzwa kune zvakawanda chaizvo zviripo munyika yedu. Iyo inotaura nezvenyaya ino idi rokuti vanhu vane kasika yokuziva kuti kune Musiki ane simba guru, akangwara. Ichi chinyorwa chinosimbisa chokwadi chekuti chokwadi ichi chinowanzo zivikanwa nevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari uye vanotenda kuna Mwari mumwechete. Ichabva yagadzirisa kuti ndeipi yemazano maviri aya, kusatenda Mwari mumwechete asi vamwari vazhinji, chinonyanya kuverengera chokwadi ichi. Chinangwa chiri chekuedza kusvika munharaunda yevasingatendi nehumbowo hwakasimba hunogona kuvaunza kuti vasvike pakutenda muna Mwari, uye kuvaswededza mukutenda kunoponesa muna Jesu Kristu.

Vanhu “Vanotenda Kuna Vanamwari Vazhinji”

Zvinogona kushamisa muverengi kuti vose vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari mumwechete uye vasingatendi vanobvuma zvikuru kuti vanhu vanofanotendwa kuti vatende kune musiki akangwara weimwe rudzi. Richard Dawkins, sezviri pachena mufungi mukuru wenyika asingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, mudzidzisi, uye munyori, akabvunza mubvunzo, wokuti: “Neiko, kana zviri zvenhema, tsika dzose dziri munyika dzine rudzidziso? Chokwadi kana kuti chenhema, chitendero chinowanikwa kwose kwose, saka chinobvepi?” (2006, peji 159). Kutaura kwake kwokuti rudzidziso ndokwenhema hakuna kururama, asi kutaura kwake kunosimbisa idi—chokwadi—chokuti rudzidziso rwuri munyika yose kurudzi rwomunhu, uye rwakanga rwuri mutsika iri yose yomunhu yati yambodzidzwa.  Akaenderera mberi achiti, mapeji mashoma gare gare: “Kunyangwe ruzivo rwakasiyana pasirese, hapana tsika inozivikanwa isina imwe nzira yemitambo inopedza nguva, inodya upfumi, inomutsa ruvengo, fungidziro dzinopesana nezvokwadi, dzinopesana nezvibereko. zvechitendero” (p. 166). Saka vanhu vakadzama mune zvechitendero, Dawkins anoreva chishuvo chavo chekuona imwe mhando yemusiki se“ruchiva rwevamwari” (p. 169). Mushakabvu munyori asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari Christopher Hitchens akanyora, kuti: “Sigmund Freud akanga akarurama zvikuru kurondedzera kusundwa kworudzidziso, Ramangwana Rekunyepedzera, sezvisingadzivisiki chaizvoizvo kutozosvikira kana kuti kutoti rudzi rwomunhu runogona kukurira kutya kwarwo rufu nekombamiro yarwo yokushuva kufunga. Hapana kana zvingangoita sezvingabvira” (2007, p. 247).

Anozivikanwa asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari Sam Harris akamanikidzwa kubvuma chokwadi chekuti pfungwa yaMwari hunhu hwemunhu. Akanyora kuti: “Saizvozvowo, ongororo dzakati wandei dzinoratidza kuti vana vanofanofungira dhizaini uye vavariro seri kwezviitiko zvechisikigo-kusiya vazhinji vepfungwa nenyanzvi dzeanthropologist kuti vatende kuti vana, vakasiiwa kuita zvavanoda, vangagadzira imwe pfungwa yaMwari” (2010, p. 151).

Tsvagiridzo inotaurwa naSam Harris yakakura. Paul Bloom naDeena Skolnick Weisberg vakanyora nyaya, ine musoro unoti “Hudiki Mavambo eVakuru eKupokana neSainzi,” yakabudiswa mumagazini eSainzi muna Chivabvu 2007, vanyori vanodana “kutadza tereroji” ([316]:996). Bloom naWeisberg vakati: “[Pa]akabvunzwa nezvekwakabva mhuka nevanhu, vana vanongoerekana vapa uye vanoda tsananguro dzekusika” (p. 996).

Muchinyorwa chakanzi “Vanhu ‘Vanotenda muhumwari huzhinji’ here?” Deborah Keleman akanyora tsvakurudzo iyo yakamuita kuti apedzisire kuti “chirevo chokuti vana vangave vane hunyanzvi hwechitendero chinowedzera kushanda,” uye “pamwe chete, izvi zvakawanikwa patsvagurudzo zvinoratidzira kuti nzira yekutsanangura yevana inogona kunyatso kuratidzwa kutenda kuzvinhu zvizhinji” (2004, 15: 299). Muchinyorwa chakadzama chine mapeji 49 muKubatanidzwa kwezveFirosofi, Margaret Evans akashamisika kuti: “Sei pfungwa dzemunhu (zvichida pfungwa dzechiPurotesitendi dzokuMadokero) dzichida kusika zvinhu uye dzisinganyatsopindirana netsananguro dzechisikirwi dzekwakabva mhuka?” (2001, 42:252).

Tichifunga nezvetsvakurudzo yazvino uno, iyo Bloom akabvuma kuti: “Pari zvino pane tsvakurudzo dzakawanda dzinoratidza kuti vanhu vanodavira kuti zvinhu zvakaita zvokusikwa. Kana tikaona magadzirirwo nemagadzirirwo asiri emusikirwo, tinofungidzira kuti akasikwa nemunhu akangwara” (Bloom, 2009, p. 16-19). Akatsinhira, kuti: “Mudzidzisi wezveshanduko Richard Dawkins akanga akarurama kunyunyuta, ipapoka, kuti zvinoratidzika ‘sokunge kuti uropi hwomunhu hwakagadzirirwa zvakananga kusanzwisisa Darwinism’” (p. 16-19). Vamwe vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, saDavid Mills, vachinyorera vateereri vakakurumbira zvikuru, vanotaura kuti “tinofanira kuziva kuti vana vose vanoberekwa vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari. Hapana mwana anozvarwa ane chitendero chechitendero “(2006, p. 29). Asi kutaura ikoko kunopotsa pfungwa yokuti vanhu vanoberekwa vaine chido chokusvika pamhedziso dzechitendero. Zvikurusa, nzanga isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari inoziva chokwadi chokuti vanhu vanoberekwa vaine “ruchiva rwavamwari,” “ruzivo rwokuzviwanira rwounzenza,” uye che“kutenda vamwari vazhinji.”

Vanodavira dzidziso dzenhema vanobvumiranawo kuti vanhu vane chido chokuzvarwa nacho chokugumisa kuti kune Musiki akangwara. Mudzidzisi wechitendero Paul Copan anotsanangura maitiro evanhu kune zvisikwa se”chido chechitendero” icho “chakanyura” mumafungiro evanhu pasi rose (2011, p. 30). Tinogona kugovera zvirevo zvakawanda zvakafanana zvinobva kune vanodavira kusikwa izvo zvaizosimbisa mhedziso iri pachena yokuti, kazhinji kazhinji, nzanga inodavira kusikwa inobvumirana nenzanga isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari kuti kune muitiro wepasi rose, wakavakirwa mukati, mukuzvarwa, une mufungo wohunhu wokudavira dzidziso. Musiki akangwara. Mubvunzo unobva wamuka, ndeipi nzwisiso yemabviro, ekusatenda Mwari kana vamwari vazhinji, inotsanangura zvakanyanya kuti sei vanhu vachiratidzira “kutenda vamwari vazhinji”? Imwe kiyi yokusvika pamhinduro kumubvunzo uyu kunzwisisa zvinetso izvo chokwadi ichi chinopa nokuda kwokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari, tsananguro dzechisiko dzeChisiko Chapose pose.

Kutendwa kwevamwari vazhinji neChitendero “Zvinopesana” Mafungiro.

Mukuwirirana nefungidziro yomusikirwo, yokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari nokuda kwamavambo eChisiko Chapose pose uye fungidziro yechiito cheshanduko yemavambo omunhu, chinhu chiri chose chiripo chinofanira kuva nechisakiso chomusikirwo. Naizvozvi, zvinonzwisiswa kuti vanodavira chiitiko cheshanduko vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vanofanira kupa chikonzero chokutsanangura chikonzero nei vanhu vari “vanodavira zivo” izvo zvinowirirana nezvitendero zvavo zvokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari zvokuti Chadenga chinooneka ndicho chose chiripo. Dambudziko iro nzanga yevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari inopinda mairi mune izvi nderekuti pfungwa dzechitendero uye matheismu dzinopokana neizvo munhu angatarisira kuwana kana kusatenda kuti kuna Mwari uye kushanduka kwezvisikwa zvaive zvechokwadi. Mukuwirirana nemhindumupindu [naikoku tinoreva kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari, mhindumupindu yomusikirwo umo pasina mugadziri akachenjera akaita rutivi rwupi norwupi], kusarudzwa kwomusikirwo kunobvisa zvimiro zvomuviri nezvimiro zvendangariro zvinodhura mukuwirirana noukoshi hwazvo hwokurarama. Semuyenzaniso, kana pakamuka mune rimwe boka diki revanhu pfungwa inonzwisisika yekuti mabheya eKodiak akagadzira mhuka dzakanaka dzinovaraidza, boka iro raizokurumidza kuurayiwa nemapere akadaro, uye chero chikamu chehuropi chaichengeta kutenda chaizobviswa huwandu hwevanhu pamwe chete.

Kuenzanisirazve, kana boka rakati ravanhu raikombamira kupedza nhamburiko yakawanda pamitambo yorudzidziso yakanga isina chokuita nokupukunyuka kwavo kwomuviri, uye rimwe boka rikasa“pambadza” pfuma yaro pachinhu chipi nechipi kunze kwokurarama kwavo kwomuviri, kusarudzwa kwomusikirwo kungakarakadza. kuti vanhu ivavo “vechitendero” vaka“pambadza” pfuma yavo pakupedzisira vaizorasikirwa munhangemutange yokurarama munyama. Uye boka “risiri rorudzidziso” raizosarudzwa nomusikirwo kuti rive rakapararira zvikuru ndokutsiva boka rorudzidziso “rinopambadza”. Asi, tinoona zvakapesana.

Richard Dawkins akabvuma dambudziko iri rakatarisana nepfungwa dzokuti hakuna Mwari. Iye akati: “Chitendero chinoparadza, chinonyanyisa; uye kusarudzwa kwaDarwin kunogaro kunanga uye kubvisa tsvina” (2006, p. 163). Mumwe muzivi asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari Daniel Dennett akati: “Chero chimwe chitendero chiri sechiitiko chevanhu, ibasa rinodhura zvikuru, uye biology yemhindumupindu inoratidza kuti hapana chinodhura kudaro chinongoitika” (2006, p. 69). Vanyori ava vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vanorevei pavanoti chitendero “chinopambadza” uye “chinodhura kwazvo”? Dennett akatsanangura pfungwa iyi paakati kana vanhu vakatarisa vanhu pasi rose

chavanoona nhasi chiverengero chavagari vapasi chevanhu vanopfuura mabhiriyoni matanhatu, vanenge vose vanopa chikamu chikuru chenguva yavo nesimba kurudzi rwakati rwemibato yorudzidziso: miitiro yakadai somunyengetero wezuva nezuva (zvose zviri zviviri pamhene napachivande) kana kuti kupinda mhemberero nguva dzose, asiwo kuzvipira kunodhura—kusashanda pane mamwe mazuva zvisinei kuti dambudziko ririkuuya rinoda kutariswa sei…uye kutevedzera zvirambidzo nezvinodikanwa zvakawanda zvinocherechedzwa (p. 75).

Dawkins akawedzera pfungwa dzake dze”kupambadza” zvakare, paakati:

Chitendero chinogona kuisa mungozi hupenyu hwemunhu anonamata, pamwe nehupenyu hwevamwe. Zviuru zvevanhu zvakatambudzwa nekuda kwekuvimbika kwavo kuchitendero, vachitambudzwa nevanoshingairira izvo zviri muzviitiko zvakawanda zvisingagone kusiyanisa kutenda kumwe…. Vanhu vanoda Mwari vakafira vamwari vavo uye vakavauraya; vakarova ropa kumisana yavo, vakazvipikira vamene kuupenyu hwose hwokusaroora kana kuti kunyarara kwakasurukirwa, vose vari mubasa rorudzidziso. Zvose ndezvei? Chii chinobatsira? (p. 164-165).

Mukurukurirano dzavo nezvinyorwa, vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari pane dzimwe nguva vakakarakadza kuti rudzidziso sezvingabvira rune betsero dzoutano dzakakura kwazvo zvokuti “runokosha” mari yacho. Vanocherekedza zvinhu zvakadai semiuyo yeimwe nzvero yokukarakadza kuti munyengetero unogona kuderedza mwero wepfungwa kana kuti BP. Kana kuti vanotsinhira pamusoro pebetsero dzemirangariro dzokupinda munzanga, iyo miitiro yorudzidziso ingasimudzira nokukurudzira. Zvisinei, vakaramba pfungwa yokuti rudzidziso runobetsera chaizvoizvo nokuda kwokupukunyuka kwokunyama kworudzi rwomunhu. Vanopikisa kuti betsero duku dzakadai semwero wakaderera wetsungiriro kana kuti kuderera kweBP zvirokwazvo haigoni kupembedza kushandiswa kukuru kwepfuma parudzidziso. [Cherechedza: Zviri nyore kuona kuti sei vakaramba tsananguro idzodzo. Kana chitendero chichigovera zvomenemene betsero dzaizova huru zvikuru kupfuura miuyo ipi neipi yakashata, ipapo kwaizova kuri nani kuti vanhu vangoomerera kumifungo yorudzidziso pasinei zvapo nouchokwadi hwawo kana kuti uchokwadi. Sezvo vakawanda vazvino uno vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vachikurudzira kubviswa kworudzidziso, ivo vanomanikidzirwa kurerutsa betsero dzarwo ndokutsvaka imwe mhinduro inogona kusunda vanhu kuda kubvisa rudzidziso. Nepo zvamazvirokwazvo tisiri kukarakadza pfungwa yokuti rudzidziso runobatsira uye ndokusaka “chakashanduka-shanduka,” zviri pachena kuona chikonzero nei nzanga yazvino yavasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari yakarusiya.]

Sam Harris akapikisa achiti, “Uye kunyangwe kana marudzi anga achimbove nzira dzekusarudza zvisikwa, uye chitendero chikaramba chichienderana, zvingaramba zviri mubvunzo wakavhurika kuti chitendero chinowedzera kusimba kwevanhu nhasi here” (p. 151). Ikozvino kubvumirana kwekusatenda kuti kuna Mwari ndekwekuti chitendero hachipi vanhu bhenefiti yakakwana ye”kuwedzera kusimba kwevanhu.” Saka, vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari vanopindura sei kuzvinhu zviviri izvo (1) vanhu vane kutenda vamwari vazhinji uye (2) vetheismu yechitendero yakadaro inodhura zvakanyanya uye haipi kusimba kwekupona kwenyama kumarudzi edu?

Mhinduro Yevasingatende Mwari Mazuvaano: Vanoti Chitendero Utachivana kana kuti Chigadzirwa

Itsanangudzoi yomusikirwo inogona kupiwa kuzvidavirira nokuda kwechimiro chiri kwose kwose uye chakakosha zvikuru chechitendero? Mukuedza kwavo kuratidza kuti theismu haina basa uye pakupedzisira inokuvadza, nharaunda yevasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari yakagadzira pfungwa yekuti pfungwa dzechitendero dzakafanana nemavhairasi epfungwa anotapurira munhu, kwete kuti zvibatsire munhu, asi kuti zvibatsire pfungwa- utachiona. Mune mamwe mazwi, theismu hutachiona hwepfungwa hwakapfuudzwa kubva kumunhu anogashira kuti agamuchire munhu kuti ararame, uye kwete kubatsira kwezvipenyu zvevanhu zvavanogara. Dawkins akatsanangura, kuti: “Idi rokuti rudzidziso runowanikwa kwose kwose zvimwe rinoreva kuti rwakashanda kubetsero yechimwe chinhu, asi tingasava isu kana kuti majini edu. Zvingangobatsira chete pfungwa dzechitendero pachadzo, kusvika pakuzvibata neimwe nzira yakaita semajini, sevanodzokorora” (p. 165).

Dawkins akatsanangura pamusoro pepfungwa iyi uye akashandisa izwi rekuti “tsika” kutsanangura pfungwa dzaanoti dzinozvibata nenzira dzakafanana nemajeni. Anopokana kuti theismu “itsika” inoshanda sehutachiona hwepfungwa, ichitapurira vanhu uye kuvamanikidza kuti vadzokorore tsika nekudzidzisa vamwe nezvayo nekushandisa zviwanikwa zvakawanda pairi. Panyaya iyi, Dan Dennett akakurudzira kuti “dzihwa rinopararira kuvanhu vose sezvakaita chitendero, asi hatingadi kutaura kuti dzihwa rinotibatsira” (p. 165). Dennett, achishandisa pfungwa yetsika, akati: “Dzidziso yetsika ndiyo inokonzeresa izvi. Zvinoenderana nedzidziso iyi, vabatsiri vekupedzisira mukugadziriswa kwechitendero ndiwo stika pachawo…” (p. 186).

Asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari Darrell Ray akanyora bhuku rose, Hutachivana hwaMwari: Mapindiro Anoita Chitendero Upenyu Hwedu Netsika, zvichibva papfungwa iyi. Akavhura achiti:

Pakatozosvikira pfungwa yaRichard Dawkins ye“mavhairasi epfungwa” patakawana nzira yakagadzirira yekuongorora chitendero zvakanyanya sezvatinotarisa padenda reutachiona hwefuruu. Bhuku rino richaratidza kuti zvitendero zvemarudzi ose zvinokwana sei munyika yechisikigo, kuti zvinoshanda sei mupfungwa dzedu netsika dzedu uye kuti zvakafanana sei nemajemusi, utachiona nemavhairasi anogara mumiviri yedu (2009, p. 13).

Kuti avake nyaya yake yepfungwa ye”chinamato -sehutachiona”, akataura zvinhu zvakawanda zvaanoona seumboo hunosimbisa hwezvaakataura. Iye akanyora, kuti: “Kana munhu angotendeukira kurudzidziso, kwakaoma kuva nekurukurirano ine mufungo pamusoro pamativi asina mufungo orudzidziso rwake. Zvinoita sechinhu chapinda mumunhu chikatora chikamu chehunhu hwake” (p. 20). Akapfuurira kukurukura mamiriro ezvinhu umo shamwari yakafirwa nababa vake nekenza. Pamberi pokurasikirwa, shamwari yacho yakanga “isiri yorudzidziso.” Asi pashure porufu rwababa, shamwari yacho “yakawana mhaka yakakomba yorudzidziso iyo yakachinja hunhu hwayo nomutoo unoshamisa.” Ray anoti “pakanga pasina nzira yekukurukura naye chero nyaya pasina chitendero chaipinda mukati” (p.19). Vakaenderera mberi vachiti “kushushikana kunogona kufambisa utachiona hwechicken pox muvanhu vakuru, zvoita kuti munhu aite chirwere chinonzi shingles. Zvimwechetezvo, kushushikana mupfungwa kunowanzoita kuti hutachiwana hwemwari huve muvanhu vazhinji” (p. 25).

Zvimwe zvinonzi zviratidzo zve“hutachivana vamwari” zvinosanganisira pfungwa yekuti “chinamato chinogara chichishanda kuti chirambe chichirarama,” sezvinoita utachiona (Ray, p. 36). Kuti asimbise kutaura uku, Ray akati: “Enda muchitoro chipi nechipi chemabhuku echiKristu, uye uchawana mabhuku anotaura nezvokurarama munyika isina vanhu, kugara nowavakaroorana naye asina kuponeswa kana kuti matendeurwo angaitwa shamwari nehama dzokunyama. Utachiona hwamwari hunogara huine hanya nekuchengetedza nekuwedzera nzvimbo yahwo—ndizvo zvinoreva mabhuku aya” (p. 176). Ray atora Dawkins ‘tsika / pfungwa yehutachiona pfungwa kune mhedziso inonzwisisika.

Mhinduro Yakareruka paPfungwa yeHutachivana kuna Mwari

Imwe pfungwa yakapfava inonyatso ratidza zvikanganiso mune iyo Mwari hutachiona pfungwa. Kudai mifungo kana kuti pfungwa dzaive dzinozvitsigira, dzinozvidzokorora “tsika” dzaive dzakangomirira kuzviraramisa, izvozvo zvaizoreva kuti pfungwa yekusatenda kuvapo kwaMwari yaizowira pasi pekutongwa kumwe chete se“tsika ine udyire” inovimbisa kupona kwayo pachayo kusvika zvinogona kukanganisa mugamuchiri wayo. Ndezvipi izvo zvinowa nzira munhu angaziva pakati pe”chaiwo” mazano anotapukira huropi. Kana mumwe munhu akaronga zvakatemwa, ndiani angati maitiro akadaro haasi, ivo pachavo, tsika inotyisa iyi kukanganisa pfungwa dzemunhu ari kuedza kusakura tsika? Uye taizoziva sei kuti pfungwa yetsika haingori tsika muruzivo rwemukati uye pachayo ichikanganisa pfungwa dzevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari vanopa pfungwa iyi? Muverengi anogona kuona kuti kurukurirano yakadaro ingakurumidza sei kupinda munyongano youngwaru. Uyezve, vanhu vaigona sei kuva nomutoro wechinhu chipi nechipi chavanofunga kana kuti kuita? “Tsika yangu yakaita kuti ndizviite!” yaizova mantra yemarudzi ose emhosva dzakaipa. Uye nepo vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vakaedza kupa mhinduro kuzvinetso zvakadaro, kana tsika aripo zvechokwadi semasangano ega ega, ndiani angati “mhinduro” dzakadaro dzinopfuura tsika?

Muchokwadi, kana uchiongorora zvinyorwa zveavo vanopa iyo “tsika” pfungwa, muverengi anogona kukurumidza kuona kukanganisa mukufunga kwavo. Somuenzaniso, Ray akataura kuti apo utachiona hwechitendero hwakabata shamwari yake pashure porufu rwababa vake, shamwari yacho yakataura nezvechitendero mune dzinenge kurukurirano dzose. Asi zvimwe chetezvo zvinogona kutaurwa nokuda kwechiverengero chipi nechipi chavanhu vakava vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vakananga, vanoomerera pakuisa kusatenda kwavo mune dzinenge kurukurirano dziri dzose dzavanoita.

Ray akati: “Mumashoko eutachiona, zvinoreva kuti vanhu vane hutachiwana hwakadzama zvokuti havagoni kufurirwa uye kazhinji vanofuratira humbowo hupi nohupi hunopesana nezvavanotenda” (p. 39). Zvakadaro zvinogona kuratidzwa kuti humbowo hwesainzi huripo hunopesana nedzidziso huru dzekushanduka-shanduka kwevasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari, chokwadi chisingawanzofuratirwa nevanhu vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari (ona Miller, 2012; Miller, 2013). Uyezve, takataura kuti Ray akati: “Enda muchitoro chipi nechipi chemabhuku echiKristu, uye uchawana mabhuku anotaura nezvokurarama munyika isingafadzi, kugara nowawakaroorana naye asina kuponeswa kana kuti machinjire shamwari nehama dzokunyama. Utachiona hwamwari hunogara huine hanya nekudzivirira uye kuwedzera nharaunda yahwo—ndizvo zvinorehwa nemabhuku aya.” Nyengetera uudze kuti mabhuku, maturakiti, maDVD, uye tubhuku tunotaura nezvokuti hakuna Mwari zvakagadzirirwa kuitei? Haana kunyorwa nokuda kwedonzo chairoiro rokudzivirira nokuwedzera “nharaunda” yokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari here?

Teerera kune vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari pachavo sezvavanotsanangura nhamburiko dzavo dze“chitendero”. Munyori uye mutsigiri wegakava, Dan Barker, akafananidza dzidziso yake pamusoro pokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari no“kuparidza evhangeri” uye akati: “Ndichimirira Freedom From Religion Foundation, ndinopinda mu‘kutumwa’ kwokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari kwakafanana mukondinendi yose yeAmerica . . . Pane imwe nguva akati, “Kuparidza kwemaAtheisti’ haingoitike pamberi pevateereri” (2008, p. 325).

Ona kushamisa kwenyaya yekuti chitsauko chekutanga chebhuku raDawkins rakanzi Mwari Kunyengedza “Munhu Asingatendi Ane Chitendero Zvakadzama.” Muchitsauko ichocho, anotora zvinyorwa zvaCarl Sagan kubva mubhuku rine musoro unoti Doti reBhuruu Rakachenuruka. Sagan akanyora kuti: “Chitendero, chekare kana kuti chitsva, chaisimbisa kunaka kweChisiko Chapose pose sezvinoratidzwa nesayenzi yemazuva ano chingakwanisa kuunza ruremekedzo uye rutyo rusingatombowaniki nezvitendero zvagara zvichiitwa.” Dawkins akabva ati: “Mabhuku ose aSagan anobaya mwoyo yezvinoshamisa zvokuti chitendero chave chichitonga mumazana emakore apfuura. Mabhuku angu pachangu ane shuviro yakafanana. Naizvozvo ndinonzwa ndichirondedzerwa semurume anonamata zvikuru” (p. 12). Pamusoro pezvo, Ray anonyengerera pa “chinamato” seanoparadza tsika/hutachiona, uye zvakadaro mubhuku rake rose, anotora mazwi anoti asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari uye kusatenda Mwari nguva dzose. Mumwe muenzaniso ndepaanoti: “Chaizvoizvo, chinhu chimwe chete chaunogona kuita kuti vamwe vasingadaviri Mwari vabvumirane pamusoro pacho ndechokuti hakuna mwari” (p. 51-52). Haisati iri pfungwa yo“rudzidziso” yokuti “hakuna mwari” ingagona kubudiswa nyore nyore setsika yakatapura ndangariro dzakawanda kwazvo kukuvadziko yomunhu ari kugamuchira uye pasinei zvapo nechitsama chikuru choufakazi hunopesana here? Ndiwo munondo unocheka kaviri weiyo tsika/vhairasi pfungwa. Kana ikacheka zvachose (izvo zvisingaite), zvino inocheka nzira mbiri.

Kuvapo kwaMwari Kunopa Mhinduro Inemusoro

Kusvika panguva ino takaona kuti vose vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari uye vasingatendi vanobvuma kuti vanhu “vane kusatenda.” Kureva kuti, kudavira kuti kune Musiki akangwara kunongoerekana kwauya kuvanhu. Pfungwa iyi inopa dambudziko rakakomba kune asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari nekuti pfungwa dzaMwari uye/kana chitendero chinodhura zvakanyanya kurudzi rwevanhu. Nokudaro, mukuedza kutsanangura chikonzero nei matheismu yakapararira kwazvo, vanoifananidza nevhairasi yendangariro iri kunze nokuda kwokurarama kwayo uye kwete nokuda kwokubetserwa kwe“chisikwa chinogamuchirika.” Tsananguro iyi, nedzimwe dzakafanana nayo, dzinokundikana sezvo nharo dzinoshandiswa kuramba chokwadi chetheismu uye chinamato chingashanda zvakaenzana kudzikisira pfungwa zvese—kusanganisira kusatenda kuti kuna Mwari— uye “tsika.” Nokudaro, tinomanikidzirwa kugumisa, sezvakaita Paul Copan, kuti: “Kuedza kunoitwa naava Vasingatendi Kuti Kuna Mwari kutsanangura dzidziso yorudzidziso sengano inobetsera, kana kuti zvakatoipisisa, nyengedzo inokuvadza, kunokundikana kutiudza chikonzero nei sundo yorudzidziso yanyura zvikuru kwazvo. Kana Mwari ariko, zvisinei, tine chikonzero chakanaka kwazvo chekuti sei kushingaira kwechitendero kuchifanira kuvapo” (p. 30).

Nemamwe mashoko, kana chaizvoizvo kuna Mwari, Uyo Musiki akangwara, ane simba guru Anoda vanhu uye anoda kuti vanhu vazive chokwadi, chii chatingatarisira kuona? Tingatarisira kuwana vanhu “vakafanorongwa” nokuda kwokutenda muna Mwari. Chokwadi, hatingatarisiri kuti vanhu vose vasvike pamhedziso yakarurama yokuti Mwari ariko, sezvo Mwari ane rudo aizopa vanhu simba rokusarudza zvavanoda kudavira uye maitiro avanosarudza kuita. Tingatarisira, zvisinei, kuti Mwari akasika vanhu zvokuti kuramba pfungwa dzokusika kana kuti wetheismu kungava kusiri kwomusikirwo uye kunoda rudzi rwakati rwegadziriro yokudzokera shure. Kuti Mugadziri akachenjera aripo ndiyo mhinduro inochengeta ukoshi hwakasimba zvikuru hwekutsanangura.

Kutaura idi, kupfuurira kurava mumabhuku asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari kunozivisa idi rokuti kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari “kusiri kwomuzvarirwo” mupfungwa yokuti hakusi magadzirirwo akaita ndangariro yomunhu kuti aone nyika. Ngatitarisei zvakare kuchinyorwa cheBloom neWeisberg chakanzi “Mavambo eVana vevakuru Kupokana neSainzi.” Zvakakosha kunzwisisa tsananguro yavo yeshoko rekuti “sainzi”. Tsvakurudzo yavo yakaitwa kuti varatidze chikonzero nei vanhu vakawanda vokuAmerica vachiramba dzidziso yokuti hakuna Mwari. Nokudaro, shoko rokuti “sayenzi” rinofananidzwa ne“mhindumupindu isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari” mukunyora kwavo. Kunzwisisa kuti izvi ndizvo zvazviri, ona kuti vakati: “Chikonzero chikuru nei vanhu vachiramba zvimwe zvesainzi [verenga kuti asingatendi kuti hakuna Mwari – KB] zvakawanikwa, saka, ndezvekuti zvakawanda zvezviwanikwa izvi hazvisi zvechisikigo uye hazvina musoro” (2007, 316:996) ) Keleman akabvumirana nazvo paakanyora kuti: “Chirevo ndechekuti kukundikana kwesainzi kwevana kunogona, muchidimbu, kunokonzerwa nekukakavadzana kwemukati pakati pemafungiro epfungwa uye nheyo dzemazuva ano dzesainzi [mavambo eshanduko muatheismu -KB] pfungwa” (2004, 15: 299). Muhurukuro yaDawkins yemamiriro ezvinhu, anosanganisira chokwadi chekuti Bloom anoti vanhu “vanongogara vachida kuve vekuda kusikwa.” Dawkins anobva ataura kuti “zvakasikwa ‘hazvina musoro.’” Nokudaro, anogumisa kuti vana “vanodzidza nezveterefoni, uye vakawanda havambokuri mazviri” (mapeji 180-181).

Cherekedza kubvuma kunoitwa naava vanyori vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari. Vanomanikidzwa neuchapupu kubvuma kuti vanhu vane chido chokudavira kuti kune Mugadziri akachenjera. Vanomanikidzwazve neuchapupu kugumisa kuti dzidziso dzakasiyana-siyana dzokuti hakuna Mwari dzakashanduka-shanduka dzinopokana uye hadzisi dzomusikirwo. Asi, pasinei nouchapupu huripo, vanoomerera kupfungwa yokuti neimwe nzira mamiriro ezvinhu aya anogona kuwirirana nokutenda kuti Mwari haako. Cherekedza kuti fungidziro yokuti hakuna Mwari yaisazombofa yakafanotaura mamiriro ezvinhu okuti vanhu vaizova “vanodavira zvokwadi.” Uyewo mhinduro dzinonzi hadzina Mwari kuchinetso chacho hadzipi ukoshi hunotsanangura hwakakwana. Mhedziso yakapfava uye inotsigirwa zvikuru ndeyokuti Mwari ariko, ndokusaka vanhu vachi“karirwa kuva vanodavira kusikwa.”

Danho Rinotevera

Kana huvepo hwaMwari hwangosimbiswa pachishandiswa “maonwro ematheismu” yevanhu, danho rinotevera richava rekuona kuti Mwari anotarisira sei zvisikwa zvake kushandisa chimiro chakafanorongwa ichi. Kana tikakwanisa kuona kuti Bhaibheri iShoko raMwari (uye isu tinogona, kuona Butt, 2007), tobva taenda kwariri kuti tione mhinduro chaiyo yevanhu. Chekutanga, tinogona kuona kuti Mwari anotarisira kuti munhu wese ashandise fungidziro iyi kuti anyatsoongorora humbowo hwaakapa kuti asvike pakugumisa kuti Ariko. VaRoma 1:19-21 inopupurira izvi:

Nokuti kutsamwa kwaMwari kunoratidzwa, kuchibva kudenga, pamusoro pokusada Mwari kwose nokusarurama kwavanhu, vanodzivisa chokwadi nokusarurama, nokuti izvo zvingazivikanwa zvaMwari zvinoonekwa mukati mavo, nokuti Mwari akazviratidza kwavari. Nokuti kubvira pakusikwa kwenyika izvo zvisingaonekwi zvake zvinoonekwa kwazvo, zvichinzwisiswa nezvinhu zvakaitwa, iro simba rake risingaperi nouMwari hwake, kuti varege kuva nepembedzo, nokuti kunyange vaiziva Mwari, havana kumukudza saMwari, kana kuvonga, asi vakava vasina maturo mundangariro dzavo, uye mwoyo yavo isina zivo yakasvibiswa (emp. anovedzera).

Cherekedza kuti rugwaro rweBhaibheri runojekesa kuti ava varume “vanodzvinyirira zvokwadi” kunyange zvazvo “zvingazivikanwa pamusoro paMwari zviri pachena mavari.” Uyezve, vasingatendi vachava “vasina chokuzvipembedza nacho” nemhaka yokuti vakashongedzerwa noumbowo, uye kombamiro yomuzvarirwo namano okusvika pamhedziso yakarurama.

Mumharidzo yake yapaMars Hill kuvaAtene, muapostora Pauro akatsanangura kuti Musiki “akaita marudzi ose avanhu kubva muropa rimwe, kuti agare pamusoro penyika yose . . . vangamutsvangadzira, timuwane, kunyange asiri kure nomumwe nomumwe wedu.”— Mabasa 17:26-27. Mashoko aPauro anonyatsoenderana nepfungwa yokuti Mwari akasika vanhu zvokuti ‘vanomutsvangadzira’ nenzira yomuzvarirwo. Izvi zvinganyatsoenderanawo nechokwadi chokuti “vazhinji vepfungwa uye kuongororwa kwevanhu [vanotungamirirwa] kuti vatende kuti vana, vakasiiwa zvachose kune zvavanoda, vaizogadzira imwe pfungwa yaMwari” (Harris, p. 151). Vanhu vari “kutsvangadzira” Mwari.

Cherekedza, ipapoka, gadziriro youmwari yoruponeso. Kutanga, munhu anotsvangadzira Musiki. Munhu iyeye anokwanisa kuwana Musiki Akasika vanhu ndokupinza mavari mano okuMuziva. Ruzivo rwavo rwoMusiki uyu runofanira kuvatungamirira kumhedziso yokuti vanhu vana Vake uye kwete chibereko chomusikirwo, muitiro wetsaona (Mabasa 17:29). Chokwadi ichi chakasimbiswa zvakakwana nehupenyu nerufu rwaJesu Kristu, Uyo anozotonga vanhu vese zvichienderana neumbowo hwakawanda hwakapihwa naMwari uye nekugona kwavo kwekuzvarwa kuyera humbowo nemazvo (Mabasa 17:31).

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KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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