Menu

Mwari neMitemo yeSainzi: Mutemo weChikonzero

NHUNGAMIDZO

Mutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro inotaura kuti zvese zvinobatika zvinofanirwa kuve nechimiro chakakwana kana kuva nechikonzero panguva imwe chete. Huremu hwechikamu chebepa hahusi kuzopa simba rinokwevera rakakwana kuti rikonzere masaisai. Panofanira kuva nechikonzero chakakwana chemvura zhinji, sekudengenyeka kwenyika kukuru, kunze kwemahombekombe, pasi pemvura (“Tsunamis,” 2000, p. 1064). Kuzendamira pagomo hakuzoiti kuti rizununguke. Kusvetuka-svetuka pasi hakuzokonzeri kudengenyeka kwenyika. Kana chigaro chisina kuiswa muimba isina chinhu, imba yacho icharamba isina chigaro. Dai nyaya isina kuitwa ikaiswa muChadenga, tingadai tisipo. Panofanira kunge paine chivakashure chakakwana kana kuti panguva imwe chete chinokonzera zvinhu zvese. Zvichida Mutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro unoratidzika kuva unonzwisisika kune vakawanda, asi kushandisa pfungwa hakuzivikanwi kune vakawanda kana Mwari akaunzwa muhurukuro.

CHIKONZERO NENHOROONDO

Mutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro, kana Mutemo/Nheyo yeChikonzero, yakaongororwa uye yakazivikanwa kwemireniyamu. MuPhaedo, rakanyorwa naPlato muna 360 B.C., “kuferefetwa kwezvisikwa” kunotaurwa nezvako maererano nechikonzero, umo “zvikonzero zvezvinhu zvose, sei chinhu chimwe nechimwe chichivapo uye kuti sei chichiparara uye nei chiripo” zvinokurukurwa (Plato, 1966) , 1:96a-b, emp. Muna 350 BC, Aristotle akabatsira zvakanyanya munhaurirano yechikonzero nekutaura kuti zvinokonzeresa zvinogona “kutaurwa nezvayo nepfungwa ina”: zvinhu, zvepamutemo, zvinoshanda, uye zvekupedzisira (Aristotle, 2009, 1[3]). Kufambira mberi mamirimita maviri hazvina kumbochinja chokwadi chakagadzwa chakatsinhirwa neMutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro. Muna 1781, muzivi ane mukurumbira Immanuel Kant akanyora maererano neMusimboti weChikonzero mune Kutsoropodza Kwechikonzero Chakachena kuti “zvese zvinoitika zvinofungidzira mamiriro ekare, ayo anotevera ane chokwadi chakakwana, mukuwirirana nemutemo…. Shanduko dzese dzinoitika maererano nemutemo wekubatana kweChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro “(Kant, 1781). Kuchimbidza mberi mamwe makore 350, kunzwisisa kwedu nyika hakusati kwakonzera kuti mutemo uzvidzwe. Muna 1934, W.T. Stace, purofesa wouzivi Univhesiti yepaPrinceton, muNhoroondo Inokosha yeUzivi hwechiGirik makanyora kuti:

Wese mudzidzi wepfungwa anoziva kuti iyi ndiyo yekupedzisira kanoni yesainzi, hwaro hwadzo dzese. Kudai tisina kudavira zvokwadi yechisakiso, ndiko kuti, chinhu chiri chose chine mavambo chine chikonzero, uye kuti mumamiriro ezvinhu mamwe chetewo zvinhu zvimwechetezvo zvinogara zvichiitika, sainzi dzose dzaizoputsika pakarepo kuva huruva. Muongororo yese yesainzi ichi chokwadi chinofungidzirwa (1934, p. 6, emp. akawedzera).

Chokwadi chechikonzero chinotsigirwa zvekuti chinotorwa sechisina basa mukuferefeta kwesainzi.

Makumi mashoma emakore gare gare, Mutemo weChikonzero uye Kumagimo wakanga usati wabviswa. MuThe Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Richard Taylor akanyora kuti, “Zvisinei, hazvipokanise kuti pfungwa yekukonzera haikoshi chete muzvinhu zvakajairika zveupenyu asi mune zvese sainzi dzinoshandiswa” (1967, peji 57, emp. anovedzera) Kunyange nanhasi, apo kuongorora kwesainzi kwakatisvitsa pakukwirira kusati kwamboonekwa kweruzivo, Mutemo wekare weCausality haugone kurambwa. Maduramazwi anhasi anotsanangura “chikonzero” se:

“nheyo yokuti hapana chinogona kuitika pasina kukonzerwa” (“Chikonzero,” 2009).

“nheyo yokuti zvinhu zvose zvine chikonzero” (“Chikonzero,” 2008).

Chokwadi, Mutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro hausi, uye haugone kurambwa zvine mutsindo-kunze kwekunge pazvinenge zvichidikanwa kuitira kuti utsigire maonero enyika asina kukwana. Mamiriro ayo akakakavadzana kwemakore, asi mushure mekunge guruva ragadzikana, Mutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro unoramba wakamira usina kukuvadzwa, wakakunda miedzo yakaiswa pairi kwezviuru zvemakore.

MUTEMO WEKUDA KWEZVINHU—DAMBUDZIKO revasingatendi Mwari

Vezvekusikwa havana chinetso zvachose nechokwadi chinotaurwa nomutemo uyu wakagadzwa naMwari kubvira kare. Bhaibheri, chaizvoizvo, rakataura nheyo yemireniyumu yakapfuura apo pana VaHebheru 3:4 inoti “imba imwe neimwe inovakwa nomumwe munhu, asi Uyo akavaka zvinhu zvose ndiMwari.” Imba inofanira kuva nechikonzero—kureva, muvaki. Hazvizozvivaki. Zvisinei, vezvemhindumupindu vanosara vakavhiringidzika pavanenge vachiedza kutsanangura kuti mugumisiro weChisiko chapose pose chakaoma kunzwisisa ungadai wakavapo sei pasina chikonzero. Makumi matatu apfuura, Robert Jastrow, muvambi uye aimbova mukuru wechikoro cheGoddard Institute for Space Studies kuNASA, akanyora kuti:

The Nyika, nezvose zvakaitika mariri kubva pakutanga kwenguva, mugumisiro mukuru pasina chinozivikanwa chikonzero. Chiitiko pasina chikonzero chinozivikanwa? Iyoyo haisi nyika yesainzi; inyika youroyi, yezvinoitika zvomusango nezvishuvo zvamadhemoni, nyika yomuNguva yekutangaAges iyo sayenzi yakaedza kudzinga. Semasayendisiti, chii chatinofanira kuita nemufananidzo uyu? Handizive. Ini ndinongoda kupa humbowo hwekutaura kuti Universe, uye munhu pachake, akatanga munguva apo nguva yakatanga (1977, p. 21).

Jastrow paanotaura kuti hapana “chikonzero chinozivikanwa” chechinhu chiri chose chiri Muchadenga, ari kureva kuti hapana chisakiso chinozivikanwa. Kana kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari kwaiva kwechokwadi, panofanira kuva netsananguro yomuzvarirwo yezvakakonzera Chisiko Chapose pose. Vesainzi nevazivi vanobvuma kuti panofanira kuva nechisakiso chingave chakakwana kuunza zvinhu neChadenga—asi hapana chikonzero chomusikirwo chinozivikanwa. The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms rinoti “chikonzero,” mufizikisi, “nheyo yokuti chiitiko hachigoni kutangira chikonzero chacho” (2003, p. 346). Zvisinei, asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari anofanira kubvuma kuti kuti zvaanotaura zvive zvechokwadi, kushanda kweChadenga hakuna kungotangira chikonzero chazvo, asi chaizvoizvo kwakaitika pasina izvozvo! Maonero akadaro haatomboenderani nesayenzi. Nezvesainzi, maererano neMutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro, paifanira kuve neChikonzero cheChisiko. Bhuku repanyika chete rine hunhu hunoratidza kuti rakagadzirwa pamusoro pezvinogona kuitwa nevanhu iBhaibheri (tarisa Butt, 2007). Mwari weBhaibheri ndiye munyori waro (2 Timotio 3:16-17), uye mundima yokutanga chaiyo yezvinyorwa zvakafuridzirwa zvaAkapa kuvanhu, Akataura nechiremera uye zvakajeka kuti Iye Ndiye Anokonzera Kusika uye Kuvapo. zvose zviri mariri.

CHISINA KUKONGERA?

Kazhinji kazhinji asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari kana kuti mupanikiri, achiedza kutsausa uye kufuratira zvokwadi youyu mutemo pasina kupindura kwauri, anopindura, kuti, “Asi kana chinhu chiri chose chaifanira kuva nemavambo, neiko mufungo mumwe chetewo usingashandi kuna Mwari?” Tarisa kuti kutaura uku kunobva pakusanzwisisa zvinotaurwa neMutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro maererano nePasirose. Mutemo unoti chinhu chimwe nechimwe chinofanira kuva nechikonzero chakaringana kana kuti panguva imwe chete. Mwari wemuBhaibheri Munhu wemweya (Johane 4:24) naizvozvo haatongwi nemutemo wenyama.

Rangarira zvakare zvakanyorwa naPurofesa W.T. Stace muNhoroondo Inokosha yeUzivi hwechiGiriki pamusoro pechikonzero. “[C]hinhu chose chine mavambo chine chikonzero” (1934, p. 6, emp. yakawedzerwa). Sezvataurwa pamusoro apa, masayendisiti uye vazivi vanoziva kuti, zvine musoro, panofanira kuva nechikonzero chekutanga cheChisiko. [Avo vanoedza kupikisa kuva nekusingaperi kweChisiko chose vanopokana zvakananga neMutemo Wechipiri weThermodynamics (tarisa Miller, 2007).] Zvisinei, Mwari, asiri munhu wenyama, ane magumo, asi asingagumi, mumweya (netsanangudzo), yaisazova pasi pemamiriro ekuda mavambo. Naizvozvo, mutemo haushandi kwaari. Pisarema 90:2 inoti nezvaMwari: “Makomo asati azvarwa, musati matongosika nyika nevhu, kubvira pakusingaperi kusvikira pakusingaperi imi muri Mwari” (emp. amovedzera). Bhaibheri rinorondedzera Mwari soMunhu ave aripo uye acharamba aripo—“kubva pakusingaperi kusvikira pakusingaperi.” Iye, naizvozvo, akanga asina mavambo. VaHebheru 3:4 inotizve, “imba imwe neimwe inovakwa nomunhu, asi iye akavaka zvinhu zvose ndiMwari,” kuratidza kuti Mwari haamanikidziki muMutemo weChikonzero uye Mugumisiro sezvakaita dzimba, asi panzvimbo pezvo, Muvaki Mukuru— Chisakiso Chisina Kukonzeresa—Munhu uyo pakutanga akatanga kuita zvose zvinobatanidzwa. Pfungwa yakamira. Mutemo weChikonzero uye Mhedzisiro unotsigira modhi yekusika, kwete iyo yekusada Mwari yekushanduka-shanduka.

REFURENCE YEZVINYORWA

Aristotle (2009), Metaphysics, trans. W.D. Ross, http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.1.i.html.

Butt, Kyle (2007), Tarirai! Shoko raMwari (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press),  https://apologeticspress.org/pdfs/e-books_pdf/Behold%20the%20Word%20of%20God.pdf.

“Causality” (2009), Collins English Dictionary—Complete & Unabridged, yechi10. (New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers), http://dictionary.reference.com/brows/Causality?x=35&y=25.

“Chikonzero” (2008), Concise Oxford English Dictionary, (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press), http://www.wordreference.com/definition/causality.

Jastrow, Robert (1977), Kusvikira Panofa Zuva (New York: W.W. Norton).

Kant, Immanuel (1781), Kutsoropodza Kwechikonzero Chakachena, trans. J.M.D. Meiklejohn (London: Henry G. Bohn), 1878 edition, http://philosophy.eserver.org/kant/critique-of-pure-reason.txt.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms (2003), pub. MD Licker (New York: McGraw-Hill), chinyorwa chechitanhatu.

Miller, Jeff (2007), “God and the Laws of Thermodynamics: A Mechanical Engineer’s Perspective,” Chikonzero neZvakazarurwa, 27[4]:25-31, April,  https://apologeticspress.org/articles/3293.

Plato (1966), Plato in Twelve Volumes, trans. Harold North Fowler (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0170%3Atext%3DPhaedo%3Asection%3D96a.

Stace, W.T. (1934), A Critical History of Greek Philosophy (London: Macmillan and Co.).

Taylor, Richard (1967), “Causation,” muThe Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Paul Edwards (New York: Philosophical Library).

“Tsunami” (2000), The Oxford Companion to the Earth, ed. Paul L. Hancock & Brian J. Skinner (Oxford University Press).

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero bedzi zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


Published

A copied sheet of paper

REPRODUCTION & DISCLAIMERS: We are happy to grant permission for this article to be reproduced in part or in its entirety, as long as our stipulations are observed.

Reproduction Stipulations→