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Maonero eBhaibheri Pamusoro peVakadzi

Zvava kunyanya kukurumbira mutsika dzedu dzenyika kushora zvine mutsindo Mwari, Bhaibheri, uye chitendero cheChiKristu. Mabhuku akawanda anotengwa zvikuru nevanyori vane mukurumbira vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari akazadzwa nepomero kuna Mwari nezvikonzero zvinofungidzirwa nei chiKristu chisingagoni kuva rudzidziso rwechokwadi rwakarongwa naMwari ane tsika. Chimwe chikonzero chinowanzopiwa nenzanga isina chokwadi chokuramba kwayo Bhaibheri neChiKristu inzira iyo vakadzi vanorangarirwa nayo muMagwaro. Maererano nevarevereri venyika ava, vanyori veBhaibheri vaiona vakadzi sezvisikwa zvakaderera zvisingakoshi pane varume uye zvisingakodzeri kubatwa norukudzo nechiremera.

Muevhangeri akazova asina chokwadi, Charles Templeton, akapfupikisa maonero aya zvakanaka paakanyora kuti, “Bhaibheri ibhuku rakanyorwa nevanhu. Vakadzi vari mairi zvisikwa zvechipiri uye kazhinji vakaderera” (1996, p. 177). Uyezve, Mwari weBhaibheri nevanyori veBhaibheri vakasiyana-siyana vanopomerwa kuvenga vakadzi. Mubhuku rake, The God Delusion, Richard Dawkins akataura kuti Mwari weBhaibheri “anovenga vakadzi” (2006, peji 31). Dan Barker akataura zvakafanana paakanyora kuti: “Kunyange zvazvo Bhaibheri risingarambi kubvisa pamuviri kana kuti risingatsigiri mhuri, rinopa vanodzivisa kubvisa pamuviri vemazuva ano hwaro hweBhaibheri nokuda kwechikonzero chaicho chemaonero avo: Bhaibheri haritsigiri upenyu, asi kushoora mukadzi. Hurongwa hwemadzibaba hahukwanisi kumirira vakadzi vakasununguka” (1992, peji 212, tatsveyamisa mabhii). Ane mukurumbira anokahadzika Christopher Hitchens akanyora kuti:

Humbowo husingachinji hwekuti chinamato chakagadzirwa nevanhu uye anthropomorphic chinogonawo kuwanikwa mukuti kazhinji “murume” akagadzirwa, mupfungwa yemurume, zvakare…. Testamente Yekare, sekudaidzwa kwazvinoitwa neMaKristu, ine mukadzi akaumbwa kubva kumurume kuti ashandise uye anyaradzwe. Testamende Itsva ine Mutsvene Pauro anoratidza kutya nekuzvidza mukadzi (2007, p. 54).

Ichokwadi here kuti kubata kwevakadzi kweBhaibheri kunopa bumbiro retsika dzetsika uye kunonyepa pfungwa yokuti Bhaibheri rakafuridzirwa noMusiki ane tsika dzakakwana? Kwete. Kutaura zvazviri, zvakapesana chete ndizvo zvazviri. Mabatiro anoitwa vakadzi muBhaibheri anonyatsoenderana nechokwadi uye dzidziso yakarurama yetsika. Pomero dzinoitirwa Bhaibheri munhau iyi hadzina maturo uye hadzigoni kushandiswa munzira ipi neipi yapamutemo kurwisana netsika dzaMwari kana kuti kufuridzirwa kweBhaibheri. Mukupesana, idzidziso nemifungo ine mufungo yemhindumupindu isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari isingagoni kuramba ichiongororwa nechikonzero.

Maonero aDarwin kuVakadzi

Dzidziso yaDarwin yokuti hakuna Mwari inotambudzwa nezvinetso zvakawanda zvine chokuita netsika. Muchokwadi, zvave zvichinyatsoratidzwa kuti pasina kutenda muna Mwari, pfungwa dzakadai sezvakanaka nezvakaipa, hunhu uye unzenza, hazvina zvazvinoreva (ona Butt, 2008). Musiki ane masimba masimba, ane tsika bedzi anogona kutsanangura kuvapo kumene kwetsika mumunhu. Naizvozvo, kuedza kupi nokupi kwokusava nechokwadi nezvetsika dzaMwari weBhaibheri kwakavakirwa papfungwa dzokusatenda kuvapo kwaMwari kwakazara nemhosho nokuzvipokanidza kubva pamavambo ako.

Kupfuurirazve, revo dzine mufungo dzedzidziso yaDarwin dzinotungamirira mufungo yakatendeseka kumhedziso yokuti kuenzana kwavanhu vose hakuna maturo. Charles Darwin haana kungobvuma chete kuti Mhindumupindu yaDarwin inoreva kuti mamwe marudzi evanhu ari pasi kune mamwe, nekujeka kwakaenzana akagumisa kuti vakadzi vakaderera kune varume zvakare (ona Lyons naButt, 2009). Mubhuku rake guru, The Descent of Man, Darwin akanyora kuti:

Musiyano mukuru mumasimba enjere evarume nevarume vaviri unoratidzwa nekusvika kwemurume paukuru hwepamusoro, mune chero chaanotora, kupfuura zvaanogona kuita mukadzi — kungave kuchida kufunga kwakadzama, kufunga, kana fungidziro, kana kungoshandisa pfungwa nemaoko. …. [A]vhareji yesimba repfungwa mumurume rinofanira kuva pamusoro pemukadzi…. [Mu]rume mukuru kune mukadzi (1871, pp. 873-874, emp. added).

Maererano naDarwin, varume vakanga vashanduka kusvika pamwero wakakwirira kudarika vakadzi. Souchapupu hwemhedziso yake, akangoti varume “vanosvika pakakwirira” pane zvose zvavanotora kana vachienzaniswa nevakadzi. Tichishandisa uyu mutsara wekufunga, kwaizova kusingabviri kushora varume nokuda kwokubata vakadzi savakaderera, nokuti, kana varume vane mano endangariro kana kuti omuviri kubata vakadzi savakaderera, zvinofanira kureva kuti varume vakasimba kana kuti vakakodzera zvikuru kurarama nokutonga. Zvinoshamisa kuti nzanga isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, iyo inofadzwa zvikuru naDarwin, iri kukarakadza kuti murangariro weBhaibheri wavakadzi ndewoutere. Kutaura zvazviri, kana maonero avo edzidziso yokuti hakuna Mwari ariko ari echokwadi, saka nzanga dzose dzine varume dzakaita saizvozvo nokuti varume vanokwanisa kutonga. Uye sezvo kupukunyuka kwevakasimba zvikuru kuchishuviwa, munhu anofanira kugumisa kuti nzanga inodzorwa navanhurume, umo vakadzi vanorangarirwa savakaderera kuvarume (sokutaura kunoita Darwin), inofanira kuva inenge gadziriro imwe yomusikirwo yakapararira zvikuru.  Kunyange kana nzanga inopanikira iri yakarurama pamusoro pepomero dzayo pamusoro po“kubatwa zvisina kufanira” kweBhaibheri kwavakadzi (izvo risisati), Bhaibheri ringapomerwa sei kuchengeta chimiro chounzenza, apo chimiro ichocho chinotsinhirana zvakakwana nemurangariro waDarwin we“musikirwo wohunhu. kurongeka kwezvinhu”? Zvamazvirokwazvo, avo vanoparira kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari nemirangariro yaDarwin vane chinetso chakaoma zvikuru nerevo dzine mufungo dzemifungo yavo sezvadzinoita kuvakadzi, kupfuura avo vanodzidzisa kuti Bhaibheri iShoko rakafuridzirwa raMwari ane tsika dzakakwana.

Kukosha Kwevakadzi Maererano neBhaibheri

Pavanoshandisa kubata vakadzi mukurwisa kwavo kutaura kweBhaibheri, vatsoropodzi vakawanda vanotaura zviri pachena pamusoro pechinzvimbo cheBhaibheri, vasingapi chinhu chakafanana nemabatirwo ari pakati nepakati omusoro wacho. Somuenzaniso, Templeton akanyora, kuti: “Vakadzi vaibatanidzwa nouipi noutera. Chokwadi, varume vechiIsraeri dzimwe nguva vaitenda Mwari musinagogi kuti vakanga vasina kuzvarwa vari vakadzi” (1996, p. 184).

Kutaura kwakadaro kwakagadzirirwa kukwezva mirangariro yevateereri vomuzana ramakore rechi 21, asi hakungomiriri nenzira yakarurama mirangariro yechokwadi iri seri kwemagwaro eBhaibheri. Somuenzaniso, tichishandisa nzira yokufunga yatinosarudza mavhesi pasina tsananguro yakakwana, tingati varume vanobatwa zvisina kunaka muBhaibheri nokuti varume vanoudzwa kuti vanofanira kudisa kufira madzimai avo, asi madzimai. havamborairwa kuita chibayiro chakadaro (VaEfeso 5:25). Mukuwedzera, tinogona kupomera Bhaibheri kubata varume zvisina kufanira, nokuti, mumapeji aro ose, varume vanoudzwa kuti vanofanira kushanda kuti vagovere mhuri dzavo dzose zvokudya, nepo vakadzi vasingabatwi kumupimo wakadaro (Genesi 3:17-19;) 1 Timotio 5:8). Kutaura kwokusarura kwakadaro kunofanira kurangarirwa nomucherekedzi akatendeseka somufungidziri, uye mufananidzo wakakwana uye wakarurama zvikuru wemurangariro weBhaibheri wavakadzi unofanira kutsvakwa.

Pakunyatsoongorora, zvinova pachena kuti Testamente Yekare neItsva inopa mufananidzo wemukadzi unoyera kukosha kwake sekuenzana nekwemurume. Kunyange zvazvo zviri izvo kuti Bhaibheri rinopa mabasa akasiyana evarume nevakadzi, handizvo kuti varume vanokosheswa kupfuura vakadzi. Kutarisa kwezvikamu zvakasiyana-siyana zvebhaibheri kunosimbisa chokwadi ichi.

Uchenjeri seMufananidzo weMukadzi

Bhuku raZvirevo, rakanyorwa zvakanyanya naMambo Soromoni, imhando yezvinyorwa inozivikanwa semabhuku eUngwaru. Dingindira guru rebhuku ipfungwa yehuchenjeri. Munyori wacho akati: “Uchenjeri ndicho chinhu chikuru; naizvozvo wana uchenjeri” (4:7). Kuti asimbisezve ukoshi noukoshi hwouchenjeri, akanyora, kuti: “Nokuti uchenjeri huri nani kupfuura korari, uye zvose zvinodikamwa nomunhu hazvingaenzaniswi nahwo” (8:11). Achivakira papfungwa youkoshi husingaenzaniswi hwouchenjeri, munyori webhuku raJobho akati: “Asi uchenjeri hungawanikwepiko? Haungatengwi nendarama, nesirivha haigoni kuyerwa nomutengo wahwo. Haungaenzaniswi pandarama yeOfiri, paonikisi inokosha kana yesafiro…nokuti mutengo wouchenjeri unopfuura matombo anokosha amarubhi. Uyewo haringaenzaniswi mundarama yakaisvonaka” (28:12-19). Zviri pachena kuti vanyori veBhaibheri vaiona uchenjeri sounhu hunokosha zvikuru.

Saka, mufananidzo upi wakashandiswa kuratidza unhu uhwu hwoukoshi hwakadaro? Mubhuku rose raZvirevo, pfungwa youchenjeri inofananidzwa nomunhukadzi. Rugwaro rwacho runorava, kuti: “Uchenjeri hwakavaka imba yahwo” (9:1); “Ko, uchenjeri hahudanidziri here, uye njere hadzina kukwidza inzwi radzo here? Rinomira pamusoro pechikomo chakakwirira.”— 8:1-2 . Mufananidzo unonyanya kuratidza kunaka kwehuchenjeri hwaigona kutorwa nemunyori weZvirevo waiva wemukadzi (Willis, 1993, p. 37). Ipapoka sei vanyori veBhaibheri vanogona kuratidzirwa zvisizvo kwazvo zvokukarakadzira kuti vakanga vasingakoshesi vakadzi, nepo uchenjeri, uhwo huri “chinhu chikuru” mukuwirirana naZvirevo, hunoratidzirwa somukadzi? Uyezve, munyori weZvirevo akati, “Mukadzi ane nyasha anokudzwa.”— 11:16 . Munyori akafuridzirwa akabatanidzawo chikamu chakareba (31:10-31) umo iye akarumbidza ukoshi hwomukadzi akanaka akapfeka “simba nokukudzwa,” uyo ano“shamisa muromo wake nouchenjeri, uye parurimi rwake murayiro urimo. zvetsitsi. Anorinda nzira dzeimba yake.” Zviri pachena kuti hausi kunzwa ndima idzi dzinotaura nezveuchenjeri hunofananidzwa nemunhukadzi uye kukosha kwevakadzi vakanaka mukutuka kwevasina chokwadi vemazuva ano.

Maonero aMwari Kune Vanhu Vake Sokuenzanisirwa Neunhu Hwomukadzi

Kunyange zvazvo chiri chokwadi kuti Mwari haana munhukadzi chaiwo sezvinoita vanhu (ona Thompson, 2000), ndezvekuti dzimwe nguva Mwari anoenzanisira humwe unhu Hwake nokuhuenzanisa neunhu hune mamwe mapoka evanhu. Somuenzaniso, chokwadi chinozivikanwa kuti Mwari weBhaibheri anowanzoenzanisa rudo rwaAna nokuda kwavanhu Vake vaakasika norudo urwo baba vanarwo kuvana vavo vokubereka (1 Johane 3:1-2). Kudai Mwari weBhaibheri akanga ari wesaruro zvamazvirokwazvo, zvaizova pachena kuti kuenzanisa pakati paMwari nomunhu upi noupi kwaizoganhurirwa kumunhurume. Mwari zvechokwadi haambozvifananidza nomunhu mumwe somukadzi kanaurume asi wose.

Asi Bhaibheri rine zviitiko apo Mwari Wokudenga anoenzanisa unhu hwaAnahwo neunhu hwakafanana hunowanikwa muvakadzi. Somuenzaniso, John Willis akati: “Umboo hwakasimba zvikuru hwokuti vanyori veTestamende yekare vaikoshesa zvikuru vakadzi ndehwokuti vanotsanangura Mwari saamai” (1993, mapeji 37-39). Willis akabva ataura zvikamu zvitatu semienzaniso, kusanganisira Isaya 66:12 — “Nokuti zvanzi naJehovha…. Somunhu unonyaradzwa namai vake, saizvozvo ndichakunyaradzai; uye muchanyaradzwa paJerusarema.

Kupfuurirazve, kudai kwakanga kuri zvomenemene kuti muapostora Pauro akanga ari munhu anozvidza vakadzi, aitya vakadzi, uye aivazvidza, kwaizova kusina mufungo kumufungidzira achizvienzanisa amene nomukadzi. Asi muna 1 VaTesaronika 2:7 akanyora kuti: “Asi takanga tiri vanyoro pakati penyu, somureri kana achivaraidza vana vake; Saka ndinokushuvirai nerudo.” Zvamazvirokwazvo murume anozvidza vakadzi uyo “anotya” vakadzi haasati aizotongozvirondedzera amene namashoko akadaro echikadzi. Mienzaniso yakadai seiyi inobudisa pachena pfungwa isina kururama yokuti vanyori veBhaibheri vaivenga vakadzi kana kuti vaivaona sevakaderera pane varume.

Vakadzi Vakagadzirwa Nomufananidzo waMwari

Vatsoropodzi vakawanda vanotaura kuti kusikwa kwaEvha kubva pambabvu yaAdhamu kuti ave mubatsiri womurume kunoratidza maonero okuti mukadzi haakoshi kana kuti akaderera pane murume. Rangarira zvakataurwa naHitchens paakanyora kuti: “Testamende Yekare, sekudanwa kwainoitwa neVaKristu, ine mukadzi akaumbwa kubva kumurume kuti ashandise uye anyaradze” (2007, p. 54). Sezvingabvira, idi rokuti Evha akanga ari mubetseri waAdhama neimwe nzira “rinoratidzira” uduku.

Dambudziko neiyo nzira yekufunga rinenge rakapetwa kaviri. Kutanga, haitombofungi nezvokunetseka kunoiswa neBhaibheri pavakadzi vanoitwa nomufananidzo waMwari sezvinongoita murume. Genesisi 1:27 inoti: “Saka Mwari akasika munhu nomufananidzo wake; akamusika nomufananidzo waMwari, akavasika murume nomukadzi.” Mukupesana nemapoka mazhinji ezvitendero uye vafungi vechirume, kubva muchitsauko chokutanga chaicho, Bhaibheri rinoomerera kuti vose vari vaviri varume nevakadzi vakasikwa nomufananidzo waMwari, uye vose vari vaviri vanokodzera kubatwa nechiremera chinowanikwa murunyoro irworwo.

Saka zvakadini neshoko rokuti “mubatsiri”? Ichokwadi here kuti “mubatsiri” anoreva kuti munhu waari kubatsira anoonekwa somukuru kana kuti anokosha zvikuru? Chimiro chakadaro chisina kururama hachibviri kuchengeta muchiedza chedzidziso yakajeka yeBhaibheri pamusoro paavo vanobatsira vamwe. Somuenzaniso, muna Johane 15:26 , Jesu anotsanangura kuti Mweya Mutsvene waizoshanyira vaapostora mushure mokumuka kwake. Akati: “Asi kana Munyaradzi asvika, iye wandichatuma kwamuri achibva kuna Baba, Mweya wechokwadi unobuda kuna Baba, iye uchandipupurira.” Tichishandisa pfungwa dzomupokanidzi, tingamanikidzwa kugumisa kuti Mweya Mutsvene uri muduku kuvaapostora, sezvo Iye achinongedzerwa kwaari so“Mubetseri.” Mhedziso yakadaro sezviri pachena haina musoro. [Cherechedza: Zvinonzwisiswa kuti mupokani haabvumi kuti kune kunyange Mweya Mutsvene. Uyu muenzaniso, zvisinei, unoshandiswa bedzi kuratidza kuti Bhaibheri rinoramba richitsigira mufananidzo we“vabetseri” uye “rubatsiro” rusingaratidzi kuderera kana kuti ukoshi huduku munzira ipi neipi.]

Muna VaFiripi 4:3 , Pauro akakurudzira mugamuchiri wetsamba yake “kubatsira vakadzi ava vakabatana neni paevhangeri.” Izvi zvinoreva here kuti Pauro aiona uyo akagamuchira tsamba yake somuduku pane vakadzi vaya vaakanga ashanda navo? Kwete nenzira ipi zvayo. Uyezve, Jesu Kristu pachake akataura kuti haana kuuya munyika ino “kuzoshumirwa, asi kuzoshumira” (Marko 10:45). Ikoko kungareva here kuti sezvo Iye akanga achi“batira” kana kuti “kubetsera” vanhu, Akanga ari muduku munzira yakati kumunhu? Kwete. Pfungwa ye “kubatsira” kana “kushumira” haina chirevo chekuzvarwa chekuderera.

Mienzaniso Yakawanda Yevakadzi Vakakodzera MuBhaibheri

Mukuedza kusimbisa kusamiririra kwavo maonero nebhaibheri pamusoro pevakadzi, vatsoropodzi vanowanzo “verenga mhino” uye vanosimbirira kuti “kudhinda” kwebhaibheri kwakawandisa kunopihwa kunganonyorwa dzine vanhu vepakati vari varume, nepo nguva isina kukwana inopiwa kuvakadzi. Pamusoro pazvo, vazhinji vevanhu vanopokana vanosimbirira kuti kana Mwari ainyatsoona vakadzi sevakaenzana, vangadai vakapiwa zvinzvimbo zvakaenzana zveutungamiri munguva dzose dzeTestamente Yekare nemuushumiri hwaJesu. Dan Barker akati: “Jesu akatsigira maonero anoita vakadzi muTestamende Yekare. Hapana mukadzi mumwechete akasarudzwa kuti ave pakati pevadzidzi gumi nevaviri kana kugara paKudya Kwemanheru Kwokupedzisira” (2008, p. 179).

Kutaura kwakadaro kunozadzwa nokusavimbika kwokusarudza. Kana mufananidzo wose webhaibheri ukatariswa nenzira kwayo, zvinoonekwa zviri nyore kuti vakadzi muTestamende Yekare neItsva vaiita mabasa akakosha, ane simba muhurongwa hwaMwari hwekutonga kwenyika kwaIsraeri, uye kuHumambo hwemweya hwakagadzwa naJesu Kristu. Uye, nepo nzvimbo ichishaikwa muchinyorwa chino kunyora zvakakwana uye kutsanangura mumwe nemumwe wevakadzi ava, mashoma eanonyanyozivikanwa achagadziriswa.

Deborah

Idi rekuti vakadzi vakawana zvinzvimbo dzine mukurumbira, dzine simba muIsrael rinopokana zvakasimba kupomedzerwa kweanopokana kuti maonero ebhaibheri evakadzi ndeesiyano yekuvemukadzi kana murume. Semuenzaniso, bhuku raVatongi rinorondedzera nyaya yaDhibhora, muporofitakadzi uye mutongi anozivikanwa uye mutongi werudzi rwevaIsraeri munguva yehupenyu hwake (Vatongi 4: 4). Kunyatsoongorora nhoroondo yacho kunoratidza kuti Dhebhora ndiye mukadzi akapa Bharaki, murume, kuti atungamirire vaIsraeri mukurwisana nemauto evatorwa. Pakasvika nguva yokuti chiito chiitwe, Dhebhora ndiye akati kuna Bharaki: “Simuka! nekuti iri ndiro zuva raJehovha, raachaisa naro Sisera muruoko rwako; Jehovha haana kukutungamirira here? (Vatongi 4:14). Pashure pokunge hondo yacho yakundwa, uye Sisera, mukuru wemauto aipikisa, akaurayiwa nomukadzi ainzi Jaeri, Dhebhora naBharaki vakanyora uye vakaimba rwiyo rwokukunda. Murwiyo rwacho rwose, Dhebhora anotaurwa somutungamiriri waIsraeri uyo, achibatsirwa naBharaki, akakunda Sisera naJabhini. Rugwaro runoti: “Upenyu hwomumusha hwakapera, hwakapera muna Israeri, kusvikira ini Dhebhora, ndasimuka, ndasimuka ini mai pakati paIsraeri” (Vatongi 5:7). “Machinda aIsakari aiva naDhibhora” (5:15).

Tichishandisa pfungwa yomunhu asina chokwadi nazvo, tinofanira kugumisa here kuti Bhaibheri rinoona varume vose sevakaderera pane vakadzi sezvo Dhebhora aiva mutungamiriri wechikadzi wevaIsraeri panguva iyoyo? Tinofanira here kugumisa kuti sezvo nyaya yaDhibhora yakanyorwa mubhuku rinoti rakafuridzirwa, kutaura kwakadaro kunorambwa nokuti, zvichibva munhoroondo yaDhebhora, munhu wose akanyora Bhaibheri anovenga varume, anoratidza kuvazvidza, uye anovabata sevasingakoshi kupfuura vakadzi? Mafungiro akadaro sezviri pachena haana kururama.

Kana zvangoratidzwa kuti nyaya yaDhibhora inokwidziridza vakadzi kunzvimbo yakaenzana nevarume, zvisinei, muponesi anomanikidzwa kudzoka shure uye kuedza rimwe zano. Kunyange zvazvo zvisingarambiki kuti nyaya yaDhibhora inoratidza maonero akakwirira evakadzi, mupokani wacho anopikisa kuti nyaya dzakadaro ishoma uye dziri kure. Kudai Mwari neBhaibheri chaizvoizvo vaiona vakadzi sevanokosha sevarume, Bhaibheri raizongova nenyaya dzakawanda dzevatongi nevatungamiriri vevakadzi sezvarakaita nezvevarume.

Uku kutaura kusina kururama kunogona kupindurwa nenzira mbiri. Kutanga, mienzaniso mingani iyo Bhaibheri raizoda kugovera naro Evhangeri iri kuparidzirwa kuvaEthiopia kuti ibvumikise kuti vanyori veBhaibheri vaivarangarira sevanokosha savaJudha, uye sevanoda kunzwa Evhangeri sevanoritambira? Pane munhu angapikisa here kuti Mwari weBhaibheri arevererwe kuti ane rusaruro pavaEthiopia, rugwaro rwacho runofanira kunge rune nyaya dzokutendeuka dzakawanda dzevaEthiopia sezvarunoita nezvevaJudha? Kwete. Apo bhuku raMabasa rinonyora kuti Phillip muevhangeri akaendesa Evhangeri kumubati wehomwe muEthiopia weKandase (8:26-40), muenzaniso iwoyo wakakwana kupa umbowo hwokuti vaEthiopia vose vanokosha kuna Mwari savaJudha vose, vaArabia, kana kuti vaEgipita. .

Uyezve, ngatishandisei kufunga kweanopokana kunhoroondo pfupi yeUnited States of America. Takada kuedza kurondedzera nhoroondo yenyika yedu, tichipedza nguva yedu tichibata Hutungamiri, inyaya ngani dzemadzimai dzataizokwanisa kusanganisira vakakwira pachigaro chemutungamiri wenyika? Kusvika pari zvino, nyika yedu yakagadza vatungamiri makumi mana nevana, uye hapana kana mumwe wavo anga ari mukadzi. Tichishandisa kupomera kweasina chokwadi senzira yokutanga nayo, tinofanira kuomerera pakuti rudzi rwekare rwaIsraeri rwaiva nemaonero aka“jekerwa” uye akakwirira pamusoro pevakadzi kupfuura zvinoita United States muzana ramakore rechi 21? Uyezve, tingashoresa here nekupomera zvemasikirwo vanyori venhoroondo vakapedza zvinyorwa zvavo zvizhinji vachitarisa varume vakabata chigaro cheMutungamiri? Kufunga kwakadaro kunopesana nemafungiro epfungwa uye kwaigona kungogadzirwa chete nevaya vanoramba kutendeseka nenhoroondo chaiyo uye magwaro eBhaibheri.

Huridha, Muprofitakadzi

Madzimambo Wechipiri 22 inotaura nezveupenyu nokutonga kwaJosia, mambo akarurama waJudha. Mukuedza kwake kubvisa kunamata zvidhori muJudha, akaita nhamburiko chaiyo yokugadzirisa temberi yaMwari yakanga yaparara. Akarayira Hirkia, mupristi mukuru, kuti atore mari yaizoshandiswa kuchenesa nekugadzirisa temberi. Hirkia paaiita basa rokuvandudza temberi, akaona bhuku roMutemo waMosesi. Apedza kuiverenga, akaitumira kuna Josiya, uyo akateerera mashoko oMutemo uye akaora mwoyo nokuti rudzi rwaIsraeri rwakanga rwatsauka zvikuru pamirayiro yaMwari. Josia akarayira Hirkia nevamwe vatungamiriri vezvitendero vanoverengeka kuti “Endai munondibvunzira Jehovha, ini navanhu vose navaJudha vose pamusoro pamashoko ebhuku iri rawanikwa.” (2 Madzimambo 22:13) Josia akarayira Hirkia nevamwe vatungamiriri vezvitendero kuti: Rugwaro rwacho rwunobva rwati: “Naizvozvo mupristi Hirikia, naAhikami, naAkibhori, naShafani, naAsaya vakaenda kumuprofitakadzi Huridha, mudzimai waSharumi mwanakomana waTikivha, mwanakomana waHarihasi, muchengeti wenguo. (Iye aigara muJerusarema muChita Chechipiri.) Vakataura naye” (22:14). Apedza kutaura naye, Huridha akaudza Josiya shoko raibva kuna Mwari achishandisa machinda aya.

Vatungamiriri ava muIsraeri havana kungotsvaka muporofitakadzi, kunyange zvazvo akanga akaroorwa, hapana chinoratidza kuti zano kana kuti zano romurume wake rakatsvakwa. Nhume yakaenda kumba kwemumwe mukadzi kuti anzwe shoko iro Ishe airovera kune mumwe mukadzi. Cherekedzawo kuti Josia aizivikanwa somumwe wevatongi vakurusa vakambova naJudha, asi ndima iyi inoratidza kuti akatsvaka zano kumunhu vaMwari Pano zvakare, nhoroondo yaHuldah inozvidza kutaura kwevasina chokwadi kwokuti Bhaibheri rinoona vakadzi sevakaderera.

Vakadzi Vakasiyana-siyana VomuBhaibheri

Zvakawanda zvinogona kutaurwa nezvevakadzi vane mukurumbira muBhaibheri, vakadai saEsteri, ane bhuku rose rakanyorwa nezvake. Akakwira kuchigaro choumambo chePersia uye akaponesa vanhu vake nougamba. Chikamu chakareba chine chokuita nechibairo chokuzvipira chaRute nokuda kwavamwene vake (Naomi) chaizoramba ichideredza gakava ravapokanidzi, zvikurukuru mukurangarira idi rokuti Rute anorongwa mumutsara wedzinza raKristu sambuya mukuru vaDhavhidhi. Uyezve, kutenda kwaHana nomunyengetero wake, uye kuberekwa kwakatevera kwaSamueri, mumwe wevaprofita vakurusa ati amborarama muna Israeri, kwaizosvika kure kumisa kutaura kwevasina chokwadi kwokuti vakadzi vanoonekwa sevakaderera nevanyori veBhaibheri. . Ngwariro yaigona kunangidzirwa kuna Ridhia, mutengesi wezvishava uyo Pauro neshamwari dzake vakawana achinyengetera pedyo norwizi, kana kuti Prisira, uyo akabetsera murume wake Akwira kudzidzisa Aporo ainyatsogona kutaura Evhangeri yaKristu  (Mabasa 18:26). Rumwe ruzivo runoramba zvakataurwa nevanoshora zvingasanganisira kutenda kwaJokebhedhi, kana hunyanzvi hwehutungamiriri nekuporofita kwaMiriami, kana kushinga kwaRakabhi, kana kutendeka kwaamai vaJesu Maria, kana mabasa akanaka aDhokasi. Mumwe anoshamisika kuti mienzaniso mingani yevakadzi vari munzvimbo dzakakwirira ingada nharaunda isina chokwadi kuti vagutsikane kuti mabatirwo ebhaibheri evakadzi haasi ezvepabonde. Nehurombo, zvisinei nekuti mienzaniso mingani inopiwa, mhinduro yekupokana pamusoro peizvi nezvimwe zvinhu zvakawanda ndeiyi, “Ingori mishoma kupfuura yatinayo.” Kutaura zvazviri, mienzaniso yemuBhaibheri yemaonero anoita Mwari weBhaibheri vakadzi inotokwana kuramba kunyunyuta kwevanoshora.

Kuverenga, Madzinza, neMapoka Anofamba

Dzimwe nhau dzinoshanda dzinofanira kurangarirwa nenzira yakarurama kuitira kuwana mufananidzo wakarurama wemurangariro weBhaibheri wavakadzi. Vamwe vanhu vanoverenga rugwaro rweBhaibheri vanobayiwa mwoyo nepfungwa yokuti mamwe madzinza anongosanganisira mazita evarume vemhuri. Sekunyora kwakaita Templeton: “Mundaza refu yevazukuru vaAdhamu kwemazana emakore akapindira Mafashamo Makuru asati aitika, hapana munhukadzi mumwe chete ane zita rakadaro” (1996, peji 178, tatsveyamisa mabhii). Kupfuurirazve, kunowanzoitika kuti, pakuverenga kana kuti kuronga nhamba dzevanhu vanobatanidzwa, Bhaibheri rinongoverenga varume chete. Zviitiko izvi zvave zvichionekwa sezvepabonde uye kusarura vakadzi.

Pakumwe kuongorora, zvinova pachena kuti kupomera kwakadaro kunokundikana kurangarira mamwe maitiro anoshanda uye mamiriro etsika. Somuenzaniso, Templeton akadudza mutsara wedzinza muna Genesi shanu semuenzaniso wepfungwa ye“genda”, asi akakundikana kududza mutsara wedzinza waJesu Kristu uyo wakarongwa muna Mateo 1:1-17 umo vakadzi Tamari, Rakabhi, Rute, naMaria vanotaurwa. Uyezve, chinyorwa chacho chinoti: “Jakobho akabereka Josefa murume waMaria, uyo akazvarwa Jesu anonzi Kristu” (1:16, emp. Mashoko okuti “waani” anodzokera shure kuna Mariya, zvichiratidza kuti Jesu akanga ari mwanakomana wokuberekwa waMariya. Zvaizova zvakakodzera here kushandisa dzinza iri kuti tisimbise kuti Mwari haaoni vanhu pasi, sezvo rugwaro rwacho ruchinyatsotaura kuti Kristu akabva kumukadzi? Aiwa. Uyewo pfungwa ye“dzinza revarume” haigoni kushandiswa kutsigira pomero yenhema yokuti Bhaibheri rinoona vakadzi sevakaderera. Mukuwedzera kune izvozvo kuti nanhasi muzana ramakore rechi 21 muAmerica, ruzhinji rwevakadzi vanotora mazita ekupedzisira evarume vavo nevanasikana vanotora mazita ekupedzisira emadzibaba avo, uye nokudaro zvakanyorwa muzvinyorwa zvemadzinza zvemazuva ano [zvakadai saAnnaka Harris, mudzimai waSam. Harris, kana Juliet Emma Dawkins, mwanasikana waRichard Dawkins (Periera, nd)], uye kupomerwa kwevanopokana kunobva kwaita zvikanganiso.

Nenzira yakafanana, nhamba dzebhaibheri dzaiwanzobatanidza varume chete. Somuenzaniso, Numeri 1:2 inoti: “Verenga ungano yose yevanakomana vaIsraeri, nemhuri dzavo, nedzimba dzemadzibaba avo, maererano nokuwanda kwemazita, murume mumwe nomumwe mumwe nomumwe” (emp.anowedzera). Uku kuverengera muenzaniso wemubhaibheri wezvepabonde here, kana kuti humbowo hwekuti vanyori veBhaibheri vaifunga kuti vakadzi vasingakoshi zvikuru zvokuti vaisafanira kuvaverenga? Kwete nenzira ipi zvayo. Rutivi rwakapfava, runoshanda rweiyi gadziriro yokuverenga rwaingova bedzi nechokuita navarume vakagwinya vakaenda kuhondo. Sokutsanangura kunoita rugwaro: “maererano nenhamba yamazita, murume wose mumwe nomumwe, kubvira pamakore makumi maviri zvichikwira, vose vaigona kuenda kuhondo” (Numeri 1:20, emp.anowedzera) Nenzira imwe cheteyo yataisagona kushandisa gadziriro dzakadaro dzokuita nhamba kuti tisimbise kuti Mwari weBhaibheri, kana kuti vanyori veBhaibheri, vakaderedza ukoshi hwavana vari pasi pemakore 20, kana kuti vatana vapfuura zera resimba rokurwa, taisagona kushandisa iyi nzira yokuverenga nayo nhamba. vanoshora maonero evanyori vebhaibheri pamusoro pevakadzi. Uye, nepo munhu asina chokwadi angaedza kutaura kuti kwaiva kuita zvegenda kuti vakadzi vadzingwe mubasa rechiuto munguva dzeBhaibheri, mhinduro iri nyore ingava yokuti kwakanga kusina kururama kuti varume vamanikidzire kuverengwa nokuda kwebasa rehondo, nepo vakadzi vachisunungurwa. Zvaizova zvakanaka here kutaura kuti sezvo varume vakanga vachi“batira” vakadzi vavo kupfurikidza nokuvapa dziviriro yehondo, “basa” ravo rinoratidzira kuti vakanga vakaderera?

Dzimwe nhau dzinoshanda, kubatanidza mirangariro yakapfava dzakadai sokufamba uye gadziriro dzokurara, dzinofanira kubatanidzwa muiyi hurukurirano. Somuenzaniso, Dan Barker ambotaurwa munyaya ino achiti: “Jesu aitsigira maonero anoita vakadzi muTestamende Yekare. Hapana mukadzi mumwechete akasarudzwa kuti ave pakati pevadzidzi gumi nevaviri kana kugara paKudya Kwemanheru Kwokupedzisira” (2008, p. 179). Kunyange chirevo ichi chiri chokwadi, mupikisi Charles Templeton anopa chikonzero chine musoro cheizvi:

Testamende Itsva inowanzo ratidza kuva nehanya kwaJesu nevakadzi…. Pakanga pasina vakadzi muboka raJesu revaapostora, asi paizova nezvikonzero zvakasimba zveizvi. Jesu nevadzidzi vaifamba kakawanda, kazhinji zuva nezuva, nguva dzose netsoka. Kazhinji vairara panze. Mumamiriro ezvinhu zvingadai zvainetsa kuti mukadzi ave chikamu cheboka iro revarume (1996, peji 184-185, emp. yakawedzerwa).

Kunyange kurangarirwa kwechinguvana kwezvimwe zvinhu zvinoshanda zvine chokuita nokuverengwa kwenhamba, mitsara yamadzinza, uye gadziriro dzokufamba kunobatira kukurira kutaura kwevapanikiri kwokuti Bhaibheri rinozvidza vakadzi.

Jesu Aiva Nehasha Kune Vakadzi Here?

Vaya vanopikisa Bhaibheri dzimwe nguva vanopomera Jesu kuti haana hanya nevamwe, kunyanya amai vake chaivo. Christopher Hitchens akaseka kuti: “Jesu anotaura zvakawanda pamusoro pababa vake vokudenga asi haambotauri kuti amai vake imhandara kana kuti vakanga vari mhandara, uye anogara achivaitira utsinye uye anovatuka paanozviratidza, sezvinoitwa naamai vechiJudha, kuti vabvunze kuti vaone sei. ari kuenderera mberi” (2007, p. 116, emp. yakawedzerwa). Richard Dawkins akatsinhira nenzira yakafanana, kuti: “Zvinokosha zvemhuri yaJesu, zvinofanira kubvumwa, zvakanga zvisina kuita seizvo munhu angada kutarira pazviri. Aive mupfupi, zvekusvika pakupengera, naamai vake chaivo” (2006, p. 250, emp. akawedzera).

Ongororo yakadzama, zvisinei, inoburitsa kuti izvo vanyori ava vari kuedza kudaidza sehukasha zvaive zvisiri zverudzi urwu. Muchinyorwa chake, “Zvakashata Sei!?”, Eric Lyons akanyatsoratidza kuti matauriro aJesu naamai vake aive asina hutsinye, kana kusaremekedza (2004). Mashoko aJesu achipindura amai vake anowirirana zvakakwana nemurayiro weBhaibheri wokukudza vabereki vako. Kusanzwisisa chete mitauro yepakutanga nezvirevo zvakashandiswa, uye maonero asina kunaka pamashoko acho, zvingaita kuti munhu ape Jesu mhosva yokuti ane utsinye muzviitiko izvi. Kutaura kwake kuna amai Vake kunotsinhirana chose chose neidi rokuti kubata kwevakadzi kwose kweBhaibheri kunovaratidza sevasiri vakaderera kana kuti vakakwirira kupfuura varume, asi sevakaenzana.

VaGaratia 3:28—Chinyorwa Chakakosha CheEnzaniso

Muapostora Pauro anowanzobatwa nedhimoni somuvengi wevakadzi aitya varume kana kuti vakadzi uye akavazvidza. Mafungiro asina chokwadi pamusoro paPauro anopfupikiswa zvakanaka mumashoko aTempleton: “Kuti atonge netsamba dzake, muapostora Pauro akanga ari munhu akavimbiswa misodzi” (1996, p. 185). Mashoko akadai anofuratira zviri nyore chimwe chezvirevo zvakashinga zvekuenzana kwevarume nevakadzi mumabhuku ese echitendero. Muna VaGaratia 3:28 , Pauro akanyora, kuti: “Hakuchina muJudha kana muGiriki, hakuchina muranda kana wakasununguka, hakuna munhurume kana munhukadzi; nokuti imi mose muri vamwe muna Kristu Jesu” (emp. added). Nezvendima iyi, Jan Faver Hailey akanyora kuti: “Vatsananguri vanozivikanwa vanonzwisisa kuti Pauro pano ari kutsigira kuti vanhu vose vanogona kusvika kuna Mwari nokutenda muna Kristu, pasina hanya nedzinza, magariro, kana kuti murume kana kiti mukadzi” (1993, peji 132, emp.) Kusimbirira kuti Pauro aifungira zvisizvo pamusoro pezvaakataura muna VaGaratiya 3:28 zvinopokana nekufunga kwakavakirwa pauchapupu.

Saka nei vamwe vachiramba kuti Pauro aivenga vakadzi, kunyange vachifunga nezveVaGaratiya 3:28? Chikonzero chikuru cheichi tsinhiro ndechokuti Pauro akaramba achisimbisa kuti, nepo varume navakadzi vakaenzana mukuona kwaMwari, vakapiwa mabasa akasiyana-siyana namabasa. Veruzhinji vanokahadzika vanoenzanisa pfungwa yemabasa akasiyana nepfungwa yemamiriro akasiyana. Sekunyora kwakaita Templeton: “Mutsamba yake yokutanga kuchechi yeKorinde, Pauro anotaura zvakajeka kuti varume nevakadzi vane chimiro chakasiyana pamberi paMwari” (1996, p. 186, emp. added). Sezvinobvira, sezvo Pauro anorayira varume kuva vakuru (Tito 1:5-9), nekutungamirira pachena mukunamata (1 VaKorinte 14:34-35; 1 Timotio 2:8-15), uye varume kuva “musoro” yemisha yavo (VaEfeso 5:22-24), ipapo anofanira kuona vakadzi sevasingagoneki, vasingakoshi, kana kuti vakaderera kuvarume. [Cherechedza: Ona Jackson, 2010 naMiller, 2005 kuti uwane tsananguro yemubhaibheri yemavhesi aya.]

Ichokwadi here kuti sezvo Bhaibheri richipa mabasa akasiyana-siyana kuvanhurume nevanhukadzi vakasiyana-siyana, chinzvimbo chavo kana kukosha kwavo hakufaniri kuenzana? Kwete. Muna Tito 3:1, Pauro akatsanangurira Tito kuti VaKristu vaifanira kuzviisa pasi pevatongi nemasimba uye nokuteerera hurumende (onawo VaRoma 13). Kubva mumashoko iwayo, zvakarurama here kugumisa kuti Pauro anoona vose vane zvinzvimbo muhurumende sevanokosha kupfuura VaKristu? Ndima iyi inoreva here kuti, nemhaka yokuti VaKristu vanofanira kuteerera vamwe vanhu vari munzvimbo dzehurumende, Pauro anoona vaya vane zvinzvimbo muhurumende sevakakwirira kupfuura VaKristu mupfungwa, mumuviri, kana kuti mune zvokunamata? Kwete nenzira ipi zvayo. Idi rokuti vaKristu vanofanira kuteerera avo vari muhurumende haritauri chinhu pamusoro pechimiro chomudzimu kana kuti ukoshi hwerimwe divi. Inongotaura chete mabasa akasiyana anoitwa nerimwe bato.

Zvakare, muna 1 Timotio 6:2, Pauro anorayira vashumiri veChiKristu kuti vateerere vatenzi vavo vamene. Izvi zvinoreva here kuti Pauro aidavira vatenzi kuva vakuru, kana kuti vanokosha zvikuru kupfuura varanda? Kwete. Zvinongoratidza kusiyana kwemabasa, kwete kwechinzvimbo. Kutaura zvine musoro, mabasa akasiyana haambofa akashandiswa kutsigira kupomera kuti mabasa akadaro anoda kukosha kwakasiyana kana chinzvimbo.

Kupfuurirazve, nepo mupanikiri achikurumidza kubata kugadzwa kwaPauro kwavarume savakuru navatungamiriri mudzimba dzavo, vatsoropodzi ivavo vanoregeredza kubatanidza mitoro inobatanidzwa mumabasa akadaro. Varume vanokumbirwa kuti vape upenyu hwavo nokuda kwemadzimai avo (VaEfeso 5:25), kugovera zvokunyama zvokudya, pokugara, uye zvokupfeka nokuda kwemhuri dzavo (1 Timotio 5:8), uye kuda vadzimai vavo sokuzvida kwavanozviita vamene (VaEfeso 5:28). Nepo zvakawanda zvichitaurwa pamusoro po“kusaruramisira” kwemirayiridzo yaPauro, zvine zvibereko kubvunza kuti ndiani aizowana nzvimbo yokupedzisira paigwa roupenyu kana murume nomudzimai wechiKristu vaiva mungarava inonyura? Murume wechiKristu anozvipira nokuda kwomudzimai wake mumamiriro ezvinhu akadaro. Ikoko kwakanaka here kuti anodanwa kuti abvume basa rokuzvibayira rokuzvipa nokuda kwomudzimai wake? Anokosha kupfuura iye here nokuti Mwari anodana kwaari kuti amudzivirire nokumutarisira uye amufire kana zvakakodzera? Aiwa. Unongovawo musiyano pamabasa awakagoverwa, kwete pachinzvimbo kana kuti kukosha.

MHEDZISO

Veruzhinji vanopokana vanoramba vachiedza kuzvidza Bhaibheri naMwari Anomiririrwa mumapeji aro. Imwe pfungwa inoshandiswa mukuedza kwavo ndeyokurayira kuti Bhaibheri ripe mufananidzo wezvepabonde wevarume nevakadzi, umo Mwari nevanyori veBhaibheri vanokoshesa zvikuru varume, uye vanoona vakadzi sevakaderera uye vasingakoshi. Kupomera uku kunoparara, zvisinei, kana mashoko acho ose akarangarirwa. Kunyatsodzidza kunoratidza kuti vanyori veBhaibheri vakafananidza uye vakaenzanisira unhu hunokosha hwakadai souchenjeri muchimiro chomukadzi. Mwari pachake anoenzanisa unhu hwaAnahwo neunhu hwakafanana hunowanikwa muvakadzi. Dzose Testamende Yekare neItsva dzakazara nerondedzero dzinorumbidza zviito zvevakadzi vakatendeka, vane simba. Muapostora Pauro, uyo anowanzopomerwa kuti ane utsinye, anotaura kumwe kwokusatya kukuru kwokuenzana kwevarume nevakadzi kwakambonyorwa mumabhuku echitendero. Uye kuedza kwakarasika kuzvidza Pauro nekutaura kuti mabasa akasiyana evarume mutsamba dzake anoratidza kuti aikoshesa vakadzi zvishoma haakwanise kutsigirwa nekuvimbika kana zvine musoro. Chokwadi, Bhaibheri rinopa mufananidzo wakajeka wokuenzana kwevanhukadzi, kukosha, uye kukosha kwati kwamboitwa mumabhuku ekare kana emazuva ano. Chimiro chevakadzi muMagwaro Matsvene, hachisati chiri bedzi denho kukufemerwa kwaro kwouMwari, asi kubata kwevakadzi kwebhaibheri kunopa zvomenemene chimwe chidimbu chouchapupu hwokukwana kweBhaibheri nokufuridzirwa.

REFURENZI YEZVINYORWA

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Butt, Kyle (2008), “The Bitter Fruits of Atheism: Parts 1 & 2,” Reason & Revelation, https://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/3740 and https://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/3762.

Darwin, Charles (1871), The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (New York: The Modern Library, reprint).

Dawkins, Richard (2006), The God Delusion (New York: Houghton Mifflin).

Hailey, Jan Faver (1993), “‘Neither Male and Female’ (Gal. 3:28),” Essays on Women in Earliest Christianity Volume 1, ed. Carroll Osburn (Joplin, MO: College Press).

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Jackson, Wayne (2010), “Women’s Role in the Church,” http://www.christiancourier.com/articles/169-womans-role-in-the-church.

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Lyons, Eric and Kyle Butt (2009), “Darwin, Evolution, and Racism,” https://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/240063.

Miller, Dave (2005), “Female Leadership in the Church,” https://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2694 .

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Yakabudiswa Kukadzi 1, 2011

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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