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Kuteerera kweKutenda munaVaRoma

Dzidziso yokururamiswa nokutenda yave iri nhau yekurukurirano isingaperi nokusabvumirana mukati mechiKristu kwamakore anopfuura 500. Vakawanda vakakanganisa kunzwisisa kwavo VaRoma nokutsanangura zvisizvo shoko rokuti (pistis) riri pasi pemashoko eChirungu okuti “tenda” uye “kutenda.” Pesvedzero huru yokuumba pakududzirwa kwaVaRoma mukuvandudzwa kwechiPurotesitendi yakanga iri kusimbisa kweKatorika pamabasa avanhu oruponeso.1 Masangano echiPurotesitendi nokudaro anotora VaRoma semusiyano pakati pe“mabasa” (anotsanangurwa senhamburiko ipi neipi yomunhu) uye “kutenda” (kunotsanangurwa se kubvuma mupfungwa/kugamuchirwa kwaJesu pasina zviito zvingaitwe). Nyika yePurotesitendi yakazadzwa nenzwisiso iyi zvekuti kuibvunza kunenge kupenga. Achinyora muna 1875 mutsinhiro yake inoremekedzwa pamusoro paVaRoma, Moses Lard akacherekedza dzidziso isina mufungo yakabatanidzwa nouyu murangariro:

Dzidziso yakanyanyisa yokururamiswa nokutenda bedzi, yakanyura chose mundangariro yevatsinhiri, kubvira muzana ramakore rechigumi nenhanhatu, zvokuti inoratidzika kuva isina kumboitika kwavari, sechinhu chinobvira, chokuti Pauro angave akanga asiri kunyora mufariro yavo bedzi. Ivo vakamutora sechokwadi wehurongwa hwavo, uye, somugumisiro, vakamunyora mumubatanidzwa, anongove ane bakatwa kupfuura ivo. Muuyo wave uri wokuti munzvimbo zhinji mabasa avo kutsveyamisa zvokwadi kwakakwana, uye kwete kuratidzirwa kwacho.2

VaRoma vanonyatsosiyanisa, kune rumwe rutivi, pfungwa yechiJudha yakatekeshera yokuti vaigona kuponeswa pahwaro hwokubatanidzwa kwavo kwenyama naAbrahama uye Mutemo waMosesi chete (mutemo wakanga wapiwa kwavari bedzi) pamwe chete, pane rumwe rutivi, ndicho chikonzero choga chokuteerera Kristu neEvhangeri. VaRoma vanosimbisa kuponeswa nekutenda kwete nezvenyama. Shoko rokuti “mabasa” harishandiswi kubatanidza zviito zvinoitwa nevanhu zvinodiwa naMwari (sekubhabhatidzwa mumvura). Rubhabhatidzo harisi “basa” mupfungwa yeshoko rinoshandiswa muna VaRoma. Asi, mashoko akapoteredza aVaRoma anoratidza kuti “mabasa” anonongedzera kuzviito izvo vaJudha vaiti zvakavagonesa kugamuchirwa naMwari pasina kuva maKristu—mamiriro ezvinhu akapoteredza betsero dzakawanwa navo nemhaka yorudzi rwavo, ukama hwavo hwenguva refu naAbrahama.

Uyezve, musimboti wo“kutenda” muna VaRoma (uye muBhaibheri rose) kuvimba kunoperekedzwa nokuteerera mirairidzo yaMwari—izvo Jakobho anorondedzera sokutenda kunorarama kana kunopesana nekufa (Jakobho 2:17, 26). Zviito zvevanhu izvo Mwari anoda kuti zvive muenzaniso wekupa Kwake zvipo zvenyama kana zvemweya hazvionekwi Naye semabasa akanaka ayo munhu anowana nawo kana kuti anofanirwa nechipo chaanopa. Asi, anopiwa naMwari semamiriro ezvinhu.

Ruponeso “haruna parunogumira” mupfungwa yokuti Mwari akaita nzira iyo vanhu vangakanganwirwa nayo pasina kubatanidzwa kupi nokupi kwavari. Kutaura zvazviri, Mwari akasarudza kupa nzira yokuyananisira nayo chivi chomunhu asati ambosika vanhu vokutanga. Jesu aizouya (uye akadaro) kuzozvipa seyananiso yechivi pasina vanhu vanoita chero chinhu kuti chiite (VaRoma 3:25). Sarudzo iyoyo chaive chinangwa chekusingaperi (VaEfeso 3:11). Chokwadi, Jesu ndiye “Gwayana rakabayiwa kubva pakuvambwa kwenyika” (Zvakazarurwa 13:8). Hapana munhu anogona kuita mabasa api naapi ekodzero yapamutemo ayo anogona kuzviponesa nawo kana kuti kuyananisira chivi chake amene. Kune rumwe rutivi, ruponeso “rune mamirire ezvinhu” mupfungwa yokuti Mwari anoda kushandiswa kwechido chomunhu mukugamuchira ruponeso. Zvose pfungwa nomuviri zvinofanira kupinzwa mukutamba. Kutenda pachako chiito chakadaro—“basa” iro munhu anofanira kuita kuti afadze Mwari (Johane 6:29). Nenzira iyi, Testamende Itsva inotaura zvakasimba kuti unogona—uye unofanira—kuzviponesa (Ona Mabasa 2:40; VaFiripi 2:12).

Mweya Mutsvene wakamisa tsananguro iyi yekutenda mubhuku raVaRoma—pakutanga pamwe nekupedzisira. Shoko rechiGiriki raakafuridzira Pauro kushandisa muna 1:5 uye 16:26 ndihupakoein pisteos—“kutenda kunoteerera” kana kuti kuteerera kunoratidzwa kana kuratidzwa nokutenda. Mugirama yake yechiGiriki inoremekedzwa, nyanzvi yeBhaputisti A.T. Robertson akasimbirira kuti mutsara uyu unofanirwa kunzwisiswa se “chirevo chechimiro” 3 – “kuteerera kunobva pakutenda” 4 – pane kuti “chinangwa chechimiro” chinoreva “kuteerera kukutenda.” Mutsara wacho, kutaura zvazviri, unoratidza uye unojekesa zvinoreva “kutenda” semashandisirwo akaitwa muna VaRoma.

Zviremera zvakawanda zveGiriki zvinobvumirana neongororo iyi. Muchinyorwa chazvino che“BDAG” Duramanzwi reGiriki rakadzokororwa nguva pfupi yapfuura naFrederick Danker, mushure mekuona chirevo chechimiro chechimiro, munyori anoti: “Asi zvingava nani kuripa kazhinji kazhinji nechinangwa che(kusimudzira) kuteerera kunobva. kubva mukutenda.”5 Kunyora mu The Expository Times, Geoffrey H. Parke-Taylor weWycliffe Koreji akataura zvakananga nezvemutsara wechiGiriki uri muna VaRoma 1:5 uye 16:26—

Chokwadi muzviitiko zvese zviri zviviri “kuteerera kunobva pakutenda” kunoitirwa, πίστεως kuva chirevo chekwakabva (kureva, boka redzidziso yakarongwa), rakanga rakarongwa, pasina mubvunzo chivakashure chingadai chakashandiswa…. Simbiso iri pakuteerera Mwari kunouya semugumisiro wekutenda muna Kristu…. Kristu akanga asiri chete muenzaniso kumaKristu echiHedheni wokuteerera kwakakwana kunobva mukutenda kwakakwana, asiwo manyuko esimba iro kuteerera Mwari kwaigona kuitika muupenyu hwavo pachavo.6

Mubhuku rake rinonzi A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek, H.P.V. Nunn anonyora “Nyaya Yekwakabva kana Zvinhu” uye anopa somuenzaniso “Kururama kwokutenda (kureva, kunobva mukutenda)”7—mashoko anowirirana no“kuteerera kwokutenda.” Mutsinhiri anoremekedzwa J.B. Lightfoot anodudzira mutsara uyu kuti unoreva “kuteerera kunobva mukutenda.”8 Mubhuku rake Word Studies in the Testament, Marvin Vincent anoti, “Kuteerera kwekutenda ndiko kuteerera kunoratidza uye kunobva mukutenda.”9

Kunyange zvazvo vashanduri vegirama yechiGiriki vaine kubvumirana kukuru panyaya iyi, vashanduri vakanetsana nemashoko acho uye vakatumira zviratidzo zvakasiyana kuvateereri vavo vechiRungu. Somuenzaniso, vhezheni yeKJV ine pakutanga kwechirevo muna VaRoma (1: 5), “kuti vateerere kutenda pakati pemarudzi ose,” uye pachiitiko chechipiri (16: 26), “kuziviswa kumarudzi ose kuti kuteerera kwokutenda”—kunyange zvazvo mashoko acho akafanana mundima dzose dziri mbiri. Bhaibheri reNKJV rine “pakuteerera kutenda” mundima mbiri idzi. ASV ine “pakuteerera kwokutenda” mundima mbiri idzi. NASB inofanira “kuunza kuteerera kwokutenda” muna. 1:5 (sezvinoita ESV mumavhesi ese ari maviri) uye” zvinotungamirira kukuteerera kwokutenda” muna. 16:26. RSV inofanirwa “kuunza kuteerera kwekutenda” mumavhesi ese ari maviri. Bhaibheri reNIV rine “kuteerera kunobva pakutenda” muna. 1:5 uye “kuti marudzi ose atende nokumuteerera” muna. 16:26. Kunyangwe tichida kududzira, mashandurirwo ari muNIV anonyatsotora misiyano yemutsara. Sezvineiwo, Bhaibheri rechiJewish rinoshandura mashoko okuti “kuteerera kunobva pachivimbo.” The International Standard Version (ISV) ine “kuteerera kwakatendeka” muna. 1:5 uye “kuteerera kunobva pakutenda” muna. 16:26. Bhaibheri reJubheri 2000 (JUB) rine “kuti vanzwe uye vateerere nokutenda” muna. 16:26. Shoko raMwari rakaturikira rine “kuteerera kunoenderana nekutenda.”10  Bhuku reDudziro yeManzwi rine “kutenda kunoteerera” muna. 1:5 uye “kuteerera kuzere nokutenda” muna. 16:26, nepo Message Bible (MSG) ine” ruvimbo rwokuteerera” muna. 1:5 uye” kutenda kwokuteerera” muna. 16:26.

Kutenda mubhuku raVaRoma kunosanganisira kuteerera zviito zvinotangira kuregererwa. Kana kuti sokutsanangura kunoita munyori weduramazwi wechiGiriki Joseph Thayer zvinorehwa pisteuo (“ndinotenda”): “Inonyanya kushandiswa pakutenda uko munhu  anogamuchira Jesu, kureva, kugutsikana, kuzere neruvimbo runofadza, kuti Jesu ndiye Mesia—muvambi akagadzwa neumwari weruponeso rusingaperi muumambo hwaMwari, akabatanidzwa nokuteerera Kristu.11 Hakushamisi kuti Pauro anoshandisa dzokororo yeshoko rokuti “kuteerera” (1:5; 5:19; 6:16; 16:19, 26) uye “kuteerera”. (2:8-kaviri; 6:12; 6:16-kaviri).

Mukupesana kukuru naPauro, sangano remazuva ano rinoomerera pakuti kutenda hakusanganisiri mamwe mabasa okuteerera; panzvimbo pezvo, munhu anongoda bedzi “kugamuchira Jesu soMuponesi” kupfurikidza nokutaura kuti, “Ndinokugamuchirai mumwoyo mangu soMuponesi wangu pachangu.” Nokudaro, rubhapatidzo rwomumvura runoritalarirwa kuva rusingakoshi kuruponeso. Mweya Mutsvene waitarisira iyi mhedziso isingadikanwi, kwete chete nekusimbisa kukosha kwekubhabhatidzwa mumvura muna. 26) yechinyorwa ichi chinoshamisa. Vatariri vakuru ava vanoyambira vaverengi nezvechimiro nerevo ye“kutenda” kunoratidzira bhuku raVaRoma.

Mashoko Okupedzisira

1 Zviitiko izvi zvaisanganisira “Rumbidzai Mariya,” kuregererwa, kupiwa ruregerero, zvipo zvekuvaka midhuri yemifananidzo yemuchinjikwa maKatiderau, nezvimwewo.

2 Moses Lard (1875), Commentary on Paul’s Letter to Romans (Lexington, KY: Transylvania Printing and Publishing), p. v.

3 A.T. Robertson (1919), A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (New York: George Doran), p. 500.

4 A.T. Robertson (1931), Mifananidzo yeShoko muTestamente Itsva (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press), 4:324.

5 Fredrick William Danker (2000), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago), chinyorwa chechitatu, p. 1028.

6 Geoffrey H. Parke-Taylor (1944), “Chiziviso pa‘e)i$ uJðáêïhn ðίóôåùò’ muVaRoma i.5 uye xvi.26,” The Expository Times, 55:305-306, emp. akawedzera. Anotaura Mabasa 6:7 naVaRoma 10:8 semienzaniso apo nyaya yacho inoratidza “kutenda.”

7 H.P.V. Nunn (1912), A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek (Cambridge: Cambridge Univhesity. Press), p. 42.

8 J.B. Lightfoot (1895), Manotsi kubva on Epistles Mutsamba  dzaPaul f Paul from Unpublished Commentaries (London: Macmillan), p. 246.

9 Marvin Vincent (1946), Word Studies in the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), 3:5. Onawo W.E. Vine (1966), An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell), p. 123, uyo anotorawo mutsara uyu sechirevo chekuzviisa pasi uye anozivisa “kutenda” se“chiito chekutanga chekuteerera.”

10 Uyewo Mazita aMwari Bhaibheri (NOG).

11 Joseph Thayer (akadhinda zvakare muna 1977), Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker), p. 511, mutsara wakatsveyama mune orig., emp. akawedzera.

Yakabudiswa Kurume 2, 2021

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