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Kusikwa uye Nguva yePasi

Kwezviuru zvemakore chitsauko chokutanga chaGenesi chave chichinzwisiswa sechisiko chapakuvamba cheChadenga chakaitika mumazuva matanhatu enguva dzose, asi ane simba guru. Mukati memazana maviri amakore apfuura, vakawanda vakanyengerwa kuti vadavire kuti mabhiriyoni amakore anodiwa nokuda kwemhindumupindu anofanira kukwana pane imwe nzvimbo mukati meganhuro rokutanga reBhaibheri. Kune “vazhinji vevatendi veBhaibheri,” mitoo isina kururama yemhindumupindu yakava mudzvinyiriri wekududzira kwebhaibheri. Saka, tinoudzwa kuti Mwari akapedza, kwete mazuva matanhatu chaiwoiwo, asi mabhiriyoni emakore achisika Chadenga nezvose zviri mazviri. Tinowanzonzwa mashoko akadai sokuti: “Mwari haasungwe nenguva; “Mwari angadai akatora nguva yakawanda sezvaAida paaisika nyika nezvose zviri mairi; uye “Mabhirioni emakore angadai akapfuura mukati meGenesi 1.” Kutaura kuti Chisiko hachina kugara mabhiriyoni emakore, sezvinofungidzirwa, kuganhurira Mwari Wemasimbaose.

MuKristu wose anobvuma kuti Mwari haasungwe nenguva. Ndiye Musiki asingagumi, ane simba rose, anoziva zvose. Iye “kubva pakusingaperi kusvikira kusingaperi” (Pisarema 90:2). Zvisinei, pfungwa yacho haisati iri rokuti Mwari ari kunze kwenguva; Mhedziso yenyaya yacho ndeiyi: chii icho Musiki ane masimba ose, asingagumi akatizarurira pamusoro peKusika Kwake muShoko Rake rine masimba ose? Mwari angadai akasika zvinhu zvose nechero nzira yaaida kwazvo, mune chero hurongwa hwaAida, uye chero nguva yaaizosarudza. Angadai akasika nyika nezvose zviri mairi mumaawa matanhatu, masekonzi matanhatu, kana mumirisekonzi imwe—Iye, shure kwezvose, ndiMwari Wemasimbaose (Genesi 17:1). Asi mubvunzo unokosha hausi izvo Mwari angadai akaita; ndizvo zvaAkati Akaita. Uye akati akasika zvinhu zvose mumazuva matanhatu (Genesi 1). Uyezve, Mwari paakapa vaIsraeri Mirayiro Gumi, akati:

Rangarira zuva resabata, kuti urichengete rive dzvene. Ubate mazuva matanhatu, uite mabasa ako ose, asi zuva rechinomwe iSabata raJehovha Mwari wako; Haufaniri kubata basa naro, iwe, kana mwanakomana wako, kana mwanasikana wako, kana muranda wako, kana murandakadzi wako, kana mombe yako, kana mweni wako uri mukati mamasuwo ako. Nokuti namazuva matanhatu Jehovha akaita denga nenyika, negungwa, nezvose zviri mukati mazvo, akazorora nezuva rechinomwe. Naizvozvo Jehovha akaropafadza zuva reSabata akariita dzvene (Eksodo 20:8-11, emp.

Uyu murairo weSabata unogona kunzwisiswa zvakanaka chete kana mazuva evhiki achidudzirwa semazuva emazuva ose.

Kusikwa kweMunhu uye Nguva yePasi

Maererano nedzidziso yekushanduka, munhu mutsva kuNyika, anova kure zvikuru nemavambo eChisiko chepanyika. Kana Chisiko Chepose pose chakaberekwa makore ane mabhiriyoni 14 apfuura, sezvinodavira vezvemhindumupindu vakawanda, vezvemhindumupindu, uye vezvechisiko vanofambira mberi vanodavira kuti, munhu haana “kuvapo” kutozosvikira makore ane mabhiriyoni 13 996 gare gare. Kana nguva yakadai yakamiririrwa nezuva rimwechete remaawa makumi maviri nemana, uye inonzi Shanduko yakaitika na12:00 mangwanani, ipapo murume haana kusvika panzvimbo kusvika 23:59:58 manheru. Nguva yakagoverwa yomunhu mukati mezuva rimwe ramaawa 24 yaizomirira masekonzi maviri mashoma.

Kudai Bhaibheri raidzidzisa, zvakajeka kana kuti zvisina, kuti munhu akanga ari kure zvikuru nemavambo eChisiko Chapose pose, MaKristu anodavira Bhaibheri angadai asina kusanobvuma nhevedzano yenguva yadudzwa pamusoro apa. Sezvinongoita MuKristu anodavira kuti Mwari akakamura Gungwa Dzvuku (Eksodho 14), akaita kuti demo resimbi riyerere pamusoro pemvura (2 Madzimambo 6:5), uye kumutsa Jesu kubva kuvakafa (Mateu 28:1-8) anobvuma. kuti vanhu vakaonekwa paPasi mabhiriyoni emakore pashure pokunge Kusika kwatanga—kana zviri izvo zvaidzidziswa neBhaibheri. Chinetso chevanodavira shanduko uye vanoramba vachitsigira chisiko ndechokuti Shoko raMwari harimbotauri nezvenguva yakadaro. Kutaura idi, rinoita zvakapesana zvikuru.

Bhaibheri rinonyatsosiyanisa zvinhu zvakaitika “nyika isati yavambwa” nezviitiko zvakaitika pashure pe“kuvambwa kwenyika.” Jesu akanyengetera kuna Baba pausiku hwaakasungwa nokutengesa, achiti: “Makandida nyika isati yavambwa” (Joh. 17:24). Petro akazivisa mutsamba yake yokutanga kuti Jesu “akafanozikanwa sei nyika isati yavambwa, asi akaratidzirwa munguva dzino dzokupedzisira nokuda kwenyu” (1 Petro 1:20, NW). Pauro akaudza vaKristu vokuEfeso kuti Mwari “akatisarudza sei maari nyika isati yavambwa, kuti tive vatsvene uye vasina chavangapomerwa pamberi pake murudo.” (VaEfeso 1:4 , NW). “Mwari asati asika denga nenyika” (Genesi 1:1) Akanga ari mupenyu uye akasimba.

Kana vezveshanduko nevanodavira kusikwa vanofambira mberi vakarurama, ipapo munhu akasvika panzvimbo, kwete nheyo yenyika isati yavambwa (sezviri pachena), kana kuti nokukurumidza pashure pokuvambwa kwenyika, asi makore akawanda munguva yaizoyevera—makore ane mabhiriyoni 13.996 gare gare kuva “chaizvo.” Dzidziso iyi, zvisinei, inopesana zviri pachena neMagwaro.

Jesu akadzidzisa kuti “ropa revaporofita vose… rakadeurwa kubva (“kubva”—NASB) pakuvambwa kwenyika…, kubva paropa raAbheri kusvikira paropa raZakaria wakafira pakati peatari netemberi” (Ruka 11 :50-51, emp. Vavengi vaJesu vomuzana remakore rokutanga havana kungoponda vaprofita chete, asi madzitateguru avo akanga avaurayawo, kubvira mumazuva aAbheri. Tarisa kuti Jesu akabatanidza nguva yomumwe wevanakomana vaAdhamu naEvha ne“nheyo yenyika.” Nguva ino inosiyaniswa nenguva yomuprofita anonzi Zekariya, uyo, Jesu akaudza vavengi vake, kuti: “Makaponda pakati petemberi neatari” (Mateu 23:35). Zekaria akaparadzaniswa kubva pamazuva aAbheri nezviuru zvemakore. Ropa rake harina kudeurwa pedyo nekuvambwa kwenyika; Abheri aiva. Vamwe vafiri kutendeka vapakuvamba, kubatanidza Abheri, vakararama pedyo zvakakwana neChisiko zvokuti Jesu akataura kuti ropa ravo rakanga radeurwa “kubvira pakuvambwa kwenyika.” Kana munhu akasvika mabhiriyoni emakore pashure pokunge Pasi raumbwa, uye mazana emamiriyoni emakore pashure pokunge zvisikwa zvipenyu zvakasiyana-siyana zvakaita sehove, mhuka dzomusango, uye zvinokambaira zvakavapo (seizvo rondedzero yenguva yokushanduka-shanduka inosimbisa), ko kutaura kwaJesu kwaigona sei kuita pfungwa? Chokwadi, munhu haana kusikwa makore mazhinji pashure pokunge nyika yavamba. Panzvimbo pezvo, ave ari pano “kubvira panheyo” dzayo.

Pane imwe nhambo apo vashori vaJesu vakauya kwaari, vakamubvunza pamusoro pemutemo wokurambana. Jesu akapindura achiti, “Asi kubvira pakutanga kwokusika Mwari akavaita murume nomukadzi” (Mako 10:6 , NW). Maererano naGenesi 1 ne2, Mwari akasika Adhamu naEvha pazuva rechitanhatu rokusika (1:26-31; 2:7, 21-25). Jesu akataura nezvechiitiko ichi uye akaratidza kuti Mwari akavasika “kubvira pakutanga kwokusika.” Kufanana nokubatanidzwa kwezuva raAbheri ne“nheyo yenyika,” kuumbwa kwaAdhama naEvha pazuva rechitanhatu reChisiko kunogona kurangarirwa “kubvira pakutanga kwokusika.”

[Cherechedza: Jesu haasi kukurudzira kuti Adhamu naEvha vakasikwa pakutanga kwezuva rokutanga revhiki rokusika. Shoko rekuti “kusikwa” (ktiseos) muna Mako 10:6 harishandiswe nenzira chaiyo yevhiki rokusikwa. (Kudai zvakanga zvakadaro, Jesu angadai akataura kuti vaviri vokutanga vakaitwa “pakupera kwokusika” vhiki.) Vanyori vemaduramazwi vechiGiriki vanoremekedzwa Danker, Arndt, naGingrich vakati Jesu ari kutaura nezve“huwandu hwezvinhu zvose zvakagadzirwa;” iyo “nyika” (2000, peji 573). Namamwe mashoko, Adhama naEvha vakanga vari kure kwazvo muzana rokutanga ramakore A.D. uye nguva iyo Jesu akataura uku kutaura, zvokuti munhu aigona kutaura zvamazvirokwazvo kuti vanhu vokutanga vakaitwa “kubvira pakutanga kwokusikwa/nyika/chisiko chapose pose” (NW) tarisa. 2 Petro 3:4).]

Dai hurongwa hwemakore mabhiriyoni gumi nemana hweshanduko hwaive hwechokwadi, kutaura kwaJesu muna Marko 10:6 kungadai kwakakanganisa; Adhamu naEvha vangadai vasina kumbova pedyo nekutanga kweChisiko Chapose pose, asi vangadai vasvika “pakuguma”—mabhiriyoni 13 996 emakore pashure pokunge yavamba. Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, dzidziso yekushanduka-shanduka uye chirevo chaJesu chiri muna Mako 10: 6 hachigoni kuva chechokwadi.

Mutsamba yakanyorerwa vaKristu vokuRoma, muapostora Pauro akataurawo nezvenguva yakareba sei munhu ari panyika. Akanyora kuti: “Nokuti kubvira pakusikwa kwenyika, iro simba rake risingaperi nouMwari hwake, anonyatsoonekwa kwazvo, achinzwisiswa nezvinhu zvakaitwa.” (VaRoma 1:20 , NW). Ndiani Panyika anogona kuziva simba risingagumi noumwari hwaMwari? Munhu. [Cherekedza: Kunyange zvazvo vamwe vangakarakadza kuti ngirozi dzinogona kunzwisisa mavara asingaoneki aMwari, mashoko akapoteredza aVaRoma 1:18-32 anonongedzera zvakajeka kuvanhu, kwete ngirozi.] Ko munhu ave achiziva Mwari namavara Ake asingaoneki kwenguva yakareba sei? “Kubva pakusikwa kwenyika.” Ipapoka, nenzira ine mufungo munhu aigona sei kuva “achinzwisisa” kana kuti “kunzwisisa” Mwari “kubva pakusikwa kwenyika,” kana akaparadzaniswa nokusikwa kwe“denga napasi, negungwa,” uye zvakawanda kwazvo mhuka (dzakaita setirirobhite, dhainaso, uye “mhuka dzokutanga”) nemamiriyoni kana kuti mabhiriyoni emakore? Mamiriro ezvinhu akadai anopesana neMagwaro zvachose. Asi, sezvakambocherekedzwa naDavid Riegle, vanhu (kunyangwe “maKristu”) “vachagamuchira dzidziso refu, dzakaoma, dzekufungidzira uye kuramba chokwadi chakapiwa Mosesi noMusiki pachake” (1962, p. 24).

Chokwadi chiri nyore ndechokuti, munhu haagoni kudavira nenzira ine mufungo muzvose zviri zviviri mushanduko neBhaibheri. Sarudzo inofanira kuitwa pakati pezviviri izvi. Munhu anogona kusarudza dzidziso yeshanduko inogara ichishanduka, yakagadzirwa nevanhu, isiri yesainzi (tarisa. Miller, 2013), kana kuti anogona kusarudza kutenda “shoko raJehovha” risingasvavi kana kudonha, asi “rinogara nokusingaperi” (1 Petro 1:24-25).

Nhoroondo yaMwari yeKusika mukuenzanisa, nePfungwa yeShanduko

Pamusoro pedzidziso yeshanduko inopokanidza nhevedzano yenguva yeChisiko, inoramba ichipokanidzazve maverengerwo enguva chaiwoiwo eChisiko sezvakaziviswa muna Genesi 1. Musiki ane masimba ose aigona kuve akasika zvinhu zvose panguva imwe cheteyo. Angadai akasika zvinhu zvose munhevedzano chaiyoiyo iyo vezveshanduko vanotaura kuti Chadenga chakasikwa kanopfuura makore 14 bhiriyoni. Pane nhamba isingaperi yenzira idzo Mwari angadai akaita kuti zvinhu zvose zvivepo. Zvisinei, kunongova neimwe nzira iyo Shoko raMwari rine chiremera rakati Iye akaita kuti Chadenga chivepo, uye nzira imwe chete iyoyo inopesana nedzidziso yeshanduko. Chimbofunga zvimwe zvekusiyana kuri pakati pekuverengwa kwenguva kweshanduko naGenesi 1.

Chii Chakatanga Kuvapo—Pasi Kana Kuti Zuva?

Wezveshanduko vanotaura kuti Zuva nezvimwe zvisikwa zvekudenga zvakashanduka mamirioni emakore Nyika isati yavapo. Zvisinei, maererano naGenesi 1, Mwari akasika Nyika yakafukidzwa nemvura pazuva rokutanga (Genesi 1:1-5), apo Akaunza Zuva, Mwedzi, nenyeredzi kuvapo pazuva rechina (Genesi 1:14-19). Saka ndeipi? Nyika yakasikwa mazuva matatu Zuva risati rasvika, kana kuti yakashanduka mamiriyoni emakore mushure meZuva? Mumwe haakwanisi kubatanidza zviitiko zvese zviri zviviri zvine musoro.

[Cherechedza: Vamwe vaKristu vanopikisa kuti Mwari anofanira kunge akasika Zuva, Mwedzi, uye nyeredzi muna Genesisi 1:1 uye “akazviisa” panzvimbo yazvo kudenga pazuva rechina. Kusikwa (tarisa, Thurman, 2006, p. 3). Zvisinei, rakanga riri muzuva rechina reKusika apo Mwari haana bedzi “kugadza” mitumbi yokudenga munzvimbo, asi Iye chaizvoizvo “akaiita” (ChiHebheru asah) (1:16). Kungofanana nokuita kwakaita Mwari pakutanga nyika nemakungwa zvisina upenyu hwemhuka (iyo yakazosikwa pamazuva mashanu nematanhatu eChisiko), “matenga” akaitwa “pakutanga,” asi mapoka okudenga (ayo zvino agere maari. ) vakasikwa “munzvimbo yedenga” pazuva rechina. Uyezve, zvakafanana nematauriro akaita Mwari chiedza kuti chivepo pazuva rokutanga reKusika, achiti, “Chiedza ngachivepo” (1:3), pazuva rechina Mwari vakazivisa, “Ngakuve nezviedza panzvimbo yedenga… zvikaita saizvozvo” ( 1:14-15 ). Sezvakataurwa naGary Workman:

“Ngakuve nezviedza” (ndima. 14) inofanana mukuvakwa kwegirama nemimwe mitsara yokuti “ngakuve…” muchitsauko. Naizvozvo murairo unogona kungoreva kuti Mwari akataura zviedza kuti zvivepo nezuva rechina sekusika kwaakaita chiedza chekutanga pazuva rekutanga nechadenga nezuva repiri” (1989, p. 3).

Ramba uchiyeuka kuti “Baba vezviedza” (Jakobho 1:17), Ndiani “chiedza” (1 Johane 1:5), vaigona kugadzira chiedza zviri nyore pasina kutanga vagadzira Zuva, Mwedzi, nenyeredzi. Sezvo Mwari aikwanisa kuburitsa muti unobereka muchero pazuva rechitatu pasina mhodzi, Aikwanisa kuburitsa chiedza nesimba nezuva rekutanga pasina “nguva dzose” vatakuri vechiedza, izvo zvakazosikwa pazuva rechina (tarisa Miller, 2014 kuti uwane rumwe ruzivo nezve izvi musoro).]

Nyika Pakutanga-Yangayakaoma Here Kana Kuti Yangayakafukidzwa-Nemvura?

Shanduko inotaura kuti mabhiriyoni emakore achitevera kushanduka, Pasi rakashanduka kubva mugore guru reguruva rakanga rakafara mabhiriyoni emamaira. Uyezve, pakanga pasina mvura pamusoro pePasi rekutanga, sezvo mitumbi yemvura haina kuumba (zvinonzi) kwemamiriyoni emakore.

Mamiriro ezvinhu aya anonzwika here sechiitiko chekusikwa? Kwete. Mwari akataura nezveNyika yakafukidzwa nemvura kuti ivepo pazuva rokutanga rokusika (Genesi 1:1-5). Pazuva rechipiri akakamura mvura (1:6-8). Kwakanga kusati kuri kutozosvikira pazuva rechitatu apo Mwari akaita kuti pasi rakaoma rioneke (1:9-13). Zvakare, kuverenga nguva kwaMwari kweChisiko nedzidziso yemhindumupindu zvinopokanidzana.

Miti Inobereka Michero—Hove Nenhata Zvisati Kana Kuti Zvapera?

Rangarira mumwe musiyano unowanzorambwa pakati pedzidziso yeshanduko neBhaibheri. Sezvineiwo, “[pa]katanga kutora nyika chimiro mumakore angangoita 465 miriyoni apfuura” (O’Donoghue, 2007, 196 [2631]: 38). “Pakanga pasati pasvika pakushanduka kwemiti makore mamiriyoni makumi masere gare gare kuti zvinomera zvaigona kupararira pasi rose” (p. 40, yakawedzerwa). Uyezve, miti ine midzi, mhodzi, nemashizha zvinofungidzirwa kuti zvakashanduka makore anoda kusvika 100 miriyoni mushure memiti yokutanga yevhu (peji 40). Mumakungwa maive nehove (tarisa nezveshanduko…, 1994, peji 30) ne“zvisikwa zvidiki zvakaita setumbuyu” panyika (O’Donoghue, p. 38), asi maererano nokushanduka-shanduka, nekubereka mbeu, miti inobereka michero yakatumbuka mamiriyoni emakore anotevera

Maererano neRugwaro, Mwari ane masimba ose akasika zvinhu zvose no“kufemera kwomuromo wake.” (Pisarema 33:6) Akati: “Nyika ngaimerese uswa, miriwo inobereka mbeu, nemiti yemichero inobereka michero maererano nezvinodiwa naMwari, marudzi awo, ane mbeu dziri mukati mawo, panyika” (Genesi 1:11). Bhaibheri rinobva razivisa kuti, “uye zvakaita saizvozvo. Zvino nyika yakameresa uswa, miriwo inobereka mbeu dzine marudzi adzo, nemuti unobereka michero, mbeu dzawo dziri mukati mawo, une marudzi awo. Uye Mwari akaona kuti zvakanga zvakanaka. Uye madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva retatu” (Genesi 1:11-13).

Zviri nyore chaizvo. Mwari akaita uswa, miriwo, nemiti, mbeu, zvirimwa, uye michero pazuva rimwe chetero rokusika. Pakanga pasina nguva yakareba, yakarebesa nguva yakashandura zvirimwa kuita makwenzi nemakwenzi kuva miti kwemamiriyoni akawanda emakore. Mwari akati Akazviita muzuva rimwe chete, “zvikaita saizvozvo.” Uyezve, Akazviita asati asika chero hupenyu hwemhuka. Kunyange zvazvo mhindumupindu ichitaura kuti hove nezvipembenene zvaivapo miti isati yabereka michero, Bhaibheri rinodzidzisa zvakasiyana (Genesi 1:20-25).

Muchokwadi, kuverenga nguva kweKusika sezvakaziviswa munaGenesi 1 kunopesana zvachose nedzidziso yeshanduko. Mutendi wechokwadi weBhaibheri haakwanisi kubatirira zvine musoro dzidziso inoti dzimwe mhuka dzakagara mamiriyoni emakore miti isati yavapo, kana kuti Nyika yepakutanga yakanga isina mvura pamusoro payo. MaKristu anonzwira tsitsi anokurumidza kubvuma kupesana kuri pachena pakati pemhindupindu nenhoroondo yeChisiko chaMwari, zviri nani. Kana dzidziso yeshanduko iri yechokwadi, Bhaibheri harina kururama. Kana Bhaibheri riri rechokwadi, dzidziso yokushanduka-shanduka inhema. “Mucharamba muchikamhina pakati pemifungo miviri kusvikira rinhiko? (1 Madzimambo 18:21).

Kududzira Izwi rekuti “Zuva” haisi Sayenzi yeRoketi

Muumwechete uye muuzhinji zvimiro zveizwi rweChiHebheru rezuva (yom uye yamim) rinowanikwa muTestamende Yekare kanopfuura ka2,300, zvichiita kuti rive zita rechishanu rinonyanya kuzivikanwa muTestamende Yekare (Saebo, 1990, 6:13-14). Shoko iri rinoshandiswa nenzira nhatu dzinokosha. Nzira mbiri dzokutanga dzinotsanangurwa uye dzakaganhurirwa: “Zuva” (yom) rinogona kureva nhambo yemaawa 24 (somuenzaniso, Genesi 50:3), uye rinogona kureva rutivi rwenhambo yemaawa 24 iri “chiedza” (mukupesana nerima/usiku; Genesi 1:3-5). Zuva rinoshandiswawo nenzira yakatambanudzwa kureva nhambo dzenguva dzakarebesa, dzisina kududzwa munguva yakapfuura, yazvino, kana kuti yemberi (somuenzaniso, “zuva raJehovha,” Zekaria 14:1).

Kunyange nanhasi, tinoshandisa izwi rekuti “zuva” nenzira dzakasiyana, asi kashoma vanhu havaomerwi kunzwisisa mashandisiro anoita shoko racho mumwe nomumwe, sezvo mashoko akapoteredza uye mashandisirwo anoitwa shoko racho zvinogara zvichitsanangura shoko racho zviri nyore. Funga nezvazvo: Kangani kaunofanirwa kupindira nekubvunza mumwe munhu nekuti haunzwisise mashandisiro aanoita izwi rekuti “zuva”? Mibvunzo yakadai haiwanzobvunzwa, kana kumbobvunzwa. Funga nezvendima inotevera:

Mumazuva aAbrahama, Mwari akaita sungano natateguru vakarurama nevazukuru vake, achiti, “Mwanakomana wose pakati penyu uchadzingiswa . . . Ane mazuva masere okuberekwa pakati penyu anofanira kudzingiswa” (Genesi 17:10, 12). Chero bedzi rakanga riri zuva resere, zvingave zvisina basa kuti Abrahama nevazukuru vake vaidzingisa majaya avo masikati kana usiku. Muzuva raMosesi, kunyange kana zuva resere rakanga rava pazuva rechinomwe (zuva reSabata), vaIsraeri vaitarisirwa kuchecheudza vana vavo vechirume pazuva iri, “kuti mutemo waMosesi urege kuputswa” (Johani 7:23)

Shoko rekuti “zuva” rinoshandiswa sei mundima iri pamusoro? Iro rinoshandiswa kaviri richinongedzera kunhambo mbiri dzenguva dzose dzakasiana umo Abrahama naMosesi vakararama madziri. Rinoshandiswa kamwe kureva kupesana kweusiku. Inoshandiswa katanhatu kureva mazuva chaiwo, maawa makumi maviri nemana.

Vaverengi vakawanda veBhaibheri vanogona kunzwisisa zviri nyore uye nekukurumidza mashandisiro aiita vanyori vakafemerwa yom (zuva) muBhaibheri rose. Vanhu vakawanda vanonzwisisa zvakajeka kana shoko rokuti “zuva” richishandiswa nenzira yakatsanangurwa (sechikamu kana kuti maawa 24 ose) kana kuti nenzira isina kurondedzerwa (somuenzaniso, “muzuva raShe”). Pashure peMafashamo, Jehovha akati, “Nyika yose pazvinoramba zviripo, chando nezhizha, masikati nousiku hazvingagumi.” (Genesi 8:22) “Zuva” zviri pachena kuti rinoshandiswa pano kureva nguva inotsanangurwa—chikamu chenguva yemaawa makumi maviri nemana chiri chiedza (tarira. Genesi. 7:4; 29:7; Ekisodho. 24:18). Mukati meMafashamo, “mvura ikaramba yakasimba panyika mazuva ane zana namakumi mashanu” (Genesi 7:24). Zvakare, “mazuva” (yamim) rinoshandiswa nenzira yakatsanangurwa, kunyange panzvimbo pokureva nguva yechiedza chezuva (ma), simbiso iri pachikamu (che)maawa makumi maviri nemana—kunyanya, 150 24- nguva dzeawa. Muna Dhuteronomi 31:17, Jehovha akafanotaura kuti vaIsraeri vaizoputsa sei sungano Yake, uye “nezuva iroro” matambudziko akawanda aizouya pavari. Simbiso pano iri panhambo yenguva isina kurondedzerwa—munguva yemberi, apo vaIsraeri vaizovamba kunamata zvidhori zvamarudzi echihedheni akanga akavapoteredza.

Mazuva neNhamba

Imwe yenzira dziri nyore (kunyange isiri iyo nzira chete) yokuziva nayo apo Bhaibheri riri kushandisa shoko rokuti “zuva” mupfungwa chaiyoiyo, yemaawa 24 ndeyokuti shoko racho rakachinjwa nechiverengero. Zviri pachena kuti zuva resere (mumuenzaniso wambotaurwa) rinoreva zuva chairo rechisere (kwete vhiki, mwedzi, gore, makore gumi, zvichingodaro) roupenyu hwomwana. Zuva rechinomwe rinoreva zuva rechinomwe chairo revhiki—zuva reSabata. Ndiani angakanganisa aya “mazuva” nokuda kwechimwe chinhu kunze kwamazuva enguva dzose? Sezvineiwo, sezvakambotaurwa naHenry Morris, “[C]hero nguva ipi neipi nhamba inoganhurira kana kuti nhevedzano yakabatanidzwa ku‘zuva’ muTestamende Yekare (uye kune zvinopfuura 200 zviitiko zvakadaro), revo yacho nguva dzose ndeiya yezuva chairoiro” (1974), p. 224. Zvamazvirokwazvo, kungofanana naJona akanga ari mudumbu rehove huru kwamazuva matatu (uye kwete makore 3 000), uye sezvakangoita vaIsraeri vaifora vachipoterera Jeriko kamwe pazuva kwemazuva matanhatu (uye kwete kwenguva yakareba), anogona kuziva kuti Mwari akasika zvinhu zvose mu“mazuva matanhatu” (Eksodho 20:11; 31:17), kwete makore mabhiriyoni matanhatu. Nezvezuva rimwe nerimwe reKusika, Mosesi akanyora kuti: “Madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva rokutanga…zuva rechipiri…zuva rechitatu…zuva rechina…zuva rechishanu…zuva rechitanhatu” (Genesi 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23-31).

Mazuva kusanganisira mangwanani nemanheru

Chimwe chinoratidza mumutauro chaiwo, usiri wechiporofita weMagwaro kuti yom rinoreva nguva shoma, yakatsanangurwa yemaawa 24 kana pasi [kureva,, ingave ichishandiswa kureva (a) maawa emasikati enguva yemaawa 24 kana kuti (b) nguva yemaawa makumi maviri nemana pachayo], kana mashoko okuti “mangwanani” uye/kana kuti “manheru” achishandiswa kutsanangura zuva chairo. Mashoko okuti “mangwanani” (boqer) uye “manheru” (‘erev) anooneka ka348 muTestamende Yekare. (Boqer inooneka ka214 uye ‘erev ka134; Konkel, 1997, 1:711,716.) Kakawanda muTestamende Yekare yose mashoko aya anoshandiswa kureva zvikamu chaizvo, zvinotsanangurwa zvemazuva ose emaawa 24.

  • Noa “akamirazve mamwe mazuva manomwe, akabudisazve njiva muareka. Njiva ikauya kwaari manheru.”— Genesi 8:10-11.
  • Mosesi akatonga vaIsraeri “nezuva rakatevera… vanhu vakamira pamberi paMosesi kubva mangwanani kusvikira madekwana” (Eksodo 18:13).
  • Jehovha akarayira Aroni nevanakomana vake mubhuku raRevhitiko nezvezvipo zvakasiyana-siyana, kusanganisira mitemo yezvipiriso zvokuyananisa. Maererano naRevhitiko 7:15 , “Nyama yechibayiro chezvipiriso zvake zvokuyananisa zvokuvonga nazvo inofanira kudyiwa nomusi waanopa chipo chake. Haafaniri kusiya chimwe chacho kusvikira mangwanani.
  • VaIsraeri pavaidzungaira murenje, Mwari akaita kuti gore rirambe riri pamusoro petebhenekeri “kubva manheru kusvikira mangwanani; kana gore richisimudzwa mangwanani, vaifamba; kungave masikati kana usiku” (Numeri 9:21).

Nguva chete apo manheru nemangwanani zvingasareva zvikamu zvakatsanangurwa zvezuva remaawa makumi maviri nemana inguva shomanana yadzinoshandiswa mumutauro wechiprofita kana wokufananidzira (somuenzaniso, Genesisi 49:27; Habhakuki 1:8). Zvikasadaro, humbowo hwakawandisa: kana “mangwanani” uye / kana “manheru” zvichishandiswa kureva nguva yenguva (mumutauro chaiwo, usiri wechiporofita) vanogara vachireva nezvenguva dzose, maawa 24 (kana zvikamu zvawo) . [Cherechedzai: Kuti muve nemusiyano wakajeka pakati pemutauro chaiwo, werondedzero, usiri wechiporofita weMagwaro uye wokufananidzira, mutauro wechiporofita wemuBhaibheri, enzanisa rondedzero yaJosefa iri muna Genesi 37-48 nezvakaporofitwa naJakobho kuti zvichaitika kuna Josefa, vakoma vake, nevazukuru vavo muna Genesi 49:1-27. Kuti uwane mamwe mashoko nezvenhoroondo chaiyo yaGenesi 1-2, tarisa Thompson, 2000, mapeji 133-161 uye DeYoung, 2005, mapeji 157-170.]

Saka izvi zvinei nechekuita neKusika? Chete kuti zuva rega rega reKusika rakanzi raive nemanheru mamwe nemangwanani mamwe.

“Zvino madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva rokutanga” (Genesi 1:5).

“Madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva rechipiri” (Genesi 1:8).

“Zvino madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva retatu” (Genesi 1:13).

“Zvino madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva rechina” (Genesi 1:19).

“Zvino madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva rechishanu” (Genesi 1:23).

“Zvino madekwana akavapo, namangwanani akavapo, zuva rechitanhatu” (Genesi 1:31).

Sokutaura kwakaita Mwari nezvenhambo dzakaganhurirwa, dzakarondedzerwa dzamazuva achishandisa mashoko okuti “manheru” uye “mangwanani” kanokwana mazana muTestamende Yekare yose, Akaita kudaro katanhatu munhoroondo yeChisiko. Kana kwose kwose mumutauro chaiwo, usiri wouprofita hweTestamende Yekare aya mashoko akashandiswa kureva mazuva enguva dzose emaawa 24, nei vamwe vachipikisa mazuva enhoroondo chaiyo, isiri youprofita yaGenesi yeChisiko akanga asina kutsanangurwa, asi kuti mazuva enhoroondo yeChisiko yenguva dzose, asiri euprofita. nguva yakakura yenguva yekushanduka-shanduka? Zvinoita sekuti kuvimbika kwavo kudzidziso yefungidziro, isina kutsigirwa yeshanduko kunoreva zvakawanda kwavari kupfuura dudziro yakakomba, inowirirana, ine mufungo yeBhaibheri.

Mimwe Mibvunzo Nezvekufamba Kwenguva Kunofanira Kufunga

Pamusoro peuchapupu hune simba hunopikisa Dzidziso yeNguva Yemazuva inopiwa nevanyori veBhaibheri kushandisa yom pamwe chete nezvipauro zvenhamba uye mashoko okuti “manheru” uye “mangwanani,” mimwe mibvunzo yakakodzera inoramba iripo kune vanoongorora nezvekufamba Kwenguva.

  • Kana “mazuva” aGenesi 1:14, akanga ari “makore enguva,” ipapo “makore” aidudzwa aiva api? Shoko rokuti “makore” rinogona kunzwisiswa zvakarurama mundima iyi chete kana shoko rokuti “mazuva” richireva mazuva akajairika.
  • Kana “mazuva” aGenesi akanga asiri mazuva zvachose, asi nguva refu yeshanduko yenguva, ipapo dambudziko rinomuka mumunda webotany. Zvino zvinomera zvakavapo nezuva retatu (Genesi 1:9-13). Kana zuva rimwe nerimwe raGenesi 1 yakanga iri nguva refu yezvidzidzo yakaumbwa nenhambo imwe yechiedza chezuva uye nhambo imwe yerima (Genesi 1:4-5), upenyu hwemiti hwakararama sei mamiriyoni amakore erima guru?
  • Ko zvinomera zvinotsamira pazvipembenene kuti zvikume zvingadai zvakararama sei mamiriyoni kana kuti mabhiriyoni amakore pakati pe“zuva” rechitatu ne“mazuva” mashanu namatanhatu (apo zvipembenene zvakasikwa)?
  • Kana Mweya Mutsvene uchigona kutaura zviri nyore musiyano uri pakati pezuva renguva dzose nenhambo refu zvikuru yenguva (somuenzaniso, “makore ane chiuru,” 2 Petro 3:8), chikonzeroi chine mufungo, chine mufungo cheBhaibheri icho munhu angapa nokuda kwokufunga kuti mazuva yaGenesi inofanira kuva yaiva zviuru, mamiriyoni, kana kuti mabhiriyoni amakore?

Zvokwadi ndeiyi, Dzidziso yeNguva Yezuva inoparara nokuraviwa kune mufungo kwaGenesi 1 namamwe asara aMagwaro.

Mhedziso

Vaya vanoti mabhiriyoni emakore enguva yokushanduka-shanduka akatanga Adhamu naEvha vasati vasikwa vanofanira kunyatsofungisisa ndima dzeBhaibheri dzakawanda dzinodzidzisa zvakasiyana. Bhaibheri haritauri nezvekwakabva. Mwari Wemasimbaose akasika Nyika (nezvose zviri mairi) nokungotaura kuti ivepo.

Kudenga-denga kwakaitwa neshoko raJehovha, uye hondo dzose dzoko nokufema kwomuromo wake… Nyika yose ngaitye Jehovha; vose vagere panyika ngavamutye. Nokuti iye akataura, zvikaitika; Akarayira, zvikamira zvakasimba (Mapisarema 33:6,8-9).

Mwari mumwe chete Akashandura mvura kuita chinwiwa chinonaka (oinos) munguva yenguva (pasina kutsamira pamiitiro yakaremerwa yezvakasikwa yakafanana nephotosynthesis; Johane 2:1-11), “Mwari anoita zvishamiso” (Pisarema 77:14), akataura kuti Chadenga chiripo mumazuva matanhatu.

Dai Mwari akasarudza kudaro, angadai akapedza makore mabhiriyoni matanhatu, mamiriyoni matanhatu emakore, kana zviuru zvitanhatu zvemakore achisika nyika. Kudai Akanga apa chiratidzo chipi nechipi muShoko Rake chokuti Akashandisa zvitsama zvakareba zvenguva kuti miitiro yomusikirwo itore nzvimbo mukati meChisiko, taigona kunzwisisa chikonzero nei maKristu aizogamuchira chitendero chakadaro. Zvisinei, Mwari akaita zvakapesana zvikuru. Kutanga, Akazivisa kuti matenga nePasi ndiwo mhedzisiro yezvisakiso zvesimba (saka zvichipokana nemaotirwo ezvidzidzo zvdshanduko). Chechipiri, Akatipa kutevedzana kwezviitiko zvakaitika, izvo zvinopikisana nedzidziso yemhindumupindu. Uyezve, Akatiudza chaizvo nguva yaAkapedza achisika. Chitsauko chokutanga chaGenesi chinozivisa kuti kubvira pakusikwa kwedenga neNyika kusvikira pakusikwa kwomunhu, Akapedza mazuva matanhatu. Panhambo mbiri mubhuku rinotevera chairo reBhaibheri, Anotiyeuchidza kuti Kusika kwakaitika kwete kweanopfuura makore matanhatu enguva, asi kwemazuva matanhatu (Eksodho 20:11; 31:17). Akabva asimbisazve vaverengi veBhaibheri kuti munhu haasi muduku nemakore mabhiriyoni 14 pane mavambo eChisiko Chapose pose nokutaura nezvake seari paNyika (1) “kubva pamavambo ekusikwa” (Mako 10:6), (2) “kubvira pakusikwa kwenyika” (VaRoma 1:20), uye (3) “kubvira pakuvambwa kwenyika” (Ruka 11:50).

Dai Mwari akasika zvinhu zvose mumazuva matanhatu chaiwo, uye achitarisira kuti titende zvakadaro, chii chimwe chaAizoda kutaura kupfuura zvaakataura? Aizoda kujeka zvakadii kuti aite? Uye, kana zvisina basa kuti tinofungei pamusoro pechidzidzo chacho, sei Akaratidza kwatiri nhevedzano yezviitiko zvokutanga nazvo?

Zvamazvirokwazvo, kungofanana neizvo Mwari akataura zvakajeka pamusoro pechiverengero chakati chenhau idzo “vatendi” vakasiana-siana vakamonyanisa (somuenzaniso, Mafashamo enyika yose aNoa, kudikanwa kwokunyudzwa mumvura nokuda kwokukanganwirwa kwezvivi, kudzoka kwaKristu, zvichingodaro), the Bhaibheri rinodzidzisa zvakajeka kuti Mwari, neshoko romuromo Wake, akataura Zvichadenga nezvose zviri mazviri kuvapo mumazuva matanhatu. Hapana ndima yeBhaibheri “yakakamurwa zvakanaka” ichatungamirira munhu kune imwe mhedziso (2 Timotio 2:15).

Zvinyorwa

Danker, Frederick William, William Arndt, naF.W. Gingrich, (2000), Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

DeYoung, Donald (2005), Thousands…Not Billions (Green Forest, AR: Master Books).

Evolution: Change Over Time (1994), (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall).

Konkel, A.H. (1997), boqer, New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis, ed. Willem A. VanGemeren (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).

Miller, Jeff (2013), Science vs. Evolution (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Miller, Jeff (2014), “How Could There Be Light Before the Sun?” Reason &Revelation, 34[7]:94-95, June.

Morris, Henry M. (1974), Scientific Creationism (San Diego, CA: Creation-Life Publishers).

O’Donoghue, James (2007), “A Forest is Born,” New Scientist, 196[2631]:38-41, November 24.

Riegle, David (1962), Creation or Evolution? (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).

Saebo, M. (1990), yom, Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, ed. G. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Thompson, Bert (2000), Creation Compromises (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Thurman, Clem (2006), “How Was Light Before the Sun?” Gospel Minutes, September 8:3.

Workman, Gary (1989), “Questions from Genesis One,” The Restorer, May/June, pp. 3-5.

Mbudzi 24.

Yakabudiswa Chikunguru 3, 2014

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero bedzi zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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