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Kuputika Muchisiko iNhema. Chadenga Chisingagumi Ichokwadi Here?

Kana usingadi kubvuma kuti Mwari ariko, unofanira kukwanisa kutsanangura kuvapo kweChisiko chose iye asina kuzvisika. Kana asiri muurongwa, saka kana Nyika yakazvisika pachayo kana kuti ndeyekusingaperi-hapana dzimwe sarudzo (Spencer, 1882). Dzidziso yakakurumbira nhasi, hongu, ndiko kupitika kunoitachidiko, uko kunosimbisa kuti nyika yakazvisika pachayo. Rangarira kuti muna 2014, magazini esainzi, majenari, nemidhiya zvakarumbidza kuwanikwa kwemafungu emagetsi ayo anonzi airatidza kuti Kuputika kwekusimuka kwepasi (Miller, 2014). Kuputika chinhu chakakosha nekukosheswa mukusikwa kwepasi kunonzi kunodiwa kugadzirisa matambudziko e “echimiro” uye “magariro” muChadenga kana pakanga pasina Mwari wekuisika, asi iyo isati yave isina humbowo hwakananga hwekutarisa. Rangarira zvakare Chimiro chakabudiswa muna Ndira, 2015 nyaya inoti “Tsvakurudzo yekudengendeka kweGiraviti, kwakafa” (Cowen, 2015). Iyo inofungidzirwa humbowo hwemafungu emagetsi yakaratidza kungova garataki guruva (Miller, 2015). Saka maitikiro ekuputika kwepasi kuri, mumashoko anokurudzira shanduko pakutanga, Alan Guth weM.I.T., “zvakanyanya kudzoka kwataimbova” (sezvakataurwa muMcKee, 2015). Taivepi kare? Munzvimbo iyo pasina humbowo hwekukwira kwemitengo. Sekutaura kwenyanzvi yefizikisi uye purofesa wedzidziso kuPrinceton Paul Steinhardt, “[Ku]itika kwemaitiro eshanduko inoshanduka-shanduka zvekuti inodzivirira kuzviyedzo zvekuyedza nekutarisa…. [I]vo maitiro ekushanduka kwezvinhu haisi nhema…. [Z]viri pachena kuti shanduko yezvinhu, uye nokudaro hazvina zvazvinoreva pasainzi” (2014,)

Nechiziviso chokuti pane, zvakare, hapana umboo hwokukwira kwemitengo, munhu angafanotaura kuti rondedzero itsva yaizobuda inopedza chinetso nokuda kwenyanzvi dzomusikirwo, kupfurikidza zvichida nokutendeukira kuChisiko Chapose pose chisingagumi panzvimbo pezvo. Chokwadi, vhiki nemazuva maviri pashure, pekunge boka refiziki razivisa mibairo yesvomhu dzakapedzwa naAhmed Farag Ali weBenha Univhesiti neZewail Guta reSainzi neTekinoroji muEgypt neSaurya Das yeYunivhesiti yeLethbridge kuCanada. Ali naDas vakabvuma uye vakasimbisa dambudziko rakanyanya kukosha neBig Bang Theory, iyo vakasikwa vagara vachitaura: kana chiri chokwadi, zvese zvakatanga sei? Umwewo – zai remuchadenga (kureva, nhorondo) “rakaputika” – rakabva kupi? Yakanga isingagoni kuzvisika pachayo, maererano neMutemo Wokutanga weSayenzi yekushandurwa,  uye kana mumwe achitaura kuti Mutemo wekutanga wakanga usipo pamberi yenhorondo, Mutemo wekutanga wakanyora sei kuti uvepo pamwe nekuonekwa kwezvinhu nesimba? Kana Mutemo wekutanga uripo, Ndiani akaugadzira? Mitemo yese ine vadziki vemitemo! [Tarisa Miller, 2013 kuti uwane hurukuro yakakwana yenyaya idzi.] Ali naDas vanoti vakagadzirisa dambudziko racho nekuverenga kunoratidza kuti kwakanga kusina kuputika kweshanduko kwakadaro hapana humwe (Zyga, 2015). Maererano navo, Chadenga chinogara nokusingaperi. Izvi zvinorevei kune vanoda kusikwa?

Kutanga, tinoda kuratidza kuti Ali naDas vari kubvumirana nesu kuti kune dambudziko guru resainzi neShanduko yeKuputika mumavambo enhorondo. Zvaisagona kunge zvakazvisika. Mafungiro akadaro haasi esayenzi uye haasi emusikirwo—hapana uchapupu hwezvesayenzi hunobva pane zvakasikwa hwokuti chinhu chakadaro chinogona kuitika. Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, kungava kudarika—kuroya pasina muroyi. Chechipiri, isu tinofanirwa kuratidza kuti basa raAli naDas harina kana kusimbiswa sezviri pamutemo nesaenzi munharaunda yese. Semuenzaniso, yakacherekedza maererano nedzidziso yavo, “Kana [iyo] dzidziso itsva ikava yechokwadi, zvakasikwa zvinogona kunge zvisina kutanga nekuputika” (Ghose, 2015,). Pakunyorwa kwechinyorwa chino, mwedzi mishanu yapfuura kubva pakaziviswa basa raAli naDas, uye hapana Science, Nature, Scientific American, New Scientist, kana American Scientist vasina kumbozeya nyaya iyi.

Chechitatu, tinocherechedza kuti kusingaperi kweChisiko haisi pfungwa itsva. Kuputika kusati kwakurumbira, mhando dzekusingaperi dzaive dzakakurumbira (somuenzaniso, modhi yaSir Fred Hoyle’s Steady State), asi nekufamba kwenguva zvakarambwa zvichienderana neuchapupu hunooneka. Semuenzaniso, Robert Jastrow, nyanzvi yekuongorora nyeredzi uye aimbova mutungamiriri weGoddard Institute for Space Studies paNASA, akanyora kuti:

Uye panguva imwe chete paiva nehurukuro huru pamusoro pekuti mutemo wechipiri weShandujo, wakashandiswa chisiko, unoratidza kuti Nyika irikufamba sechiringazuva. Kana iri kupera, panofanira kunge paine nguva yayakange yanyatsopedzwa…. Zvino mitsara mitatu youfakazi—kufamba kwemapoka enyeredzi, mitemo yeshanduko, nhau youpenyu hwenyeredzi—yakanongedzera kumhedziso imwe; ose airatidza kuti Chadenga chine mavambo (1978, mapeji 48-49, 111).

Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, Nyika haigone kusingagumi, maererano neMutemo Wechipiri weShanduko. Uchapupu hwese huripo hwesainzi hunoratidza kuti chinhu nesimba zviri muChadenga zviri kupera kana kuora. Zvese zviri kuenda kune kusagadzikana uye mhirizhonga, uye isu tiri kupedza simba rinoshandisika. Rwendo urwu rwokuenda kune kusagadzikana uye kuora inzira isingadzoreki inozivikanwa sechiyero. Chokwadi chisingadzivisiki chechiero ndosaka machina ekufambisa asingaperi anonzwisiswa seasingagoneke muchina muChadenga. Kana Chadenga chiri chekusingaperi, saka chinogara chisingaperi muchina mukushora Mutemo Wechipiri uyo usina kunze.

Kana, zvisinei, tikavakira mhedziso dzedu paufakazi chaihwo hwesayenzi, tinomanikidzirwa kugumisa kuti Chisiko chapose pose hachigoni kuvapo nokusingaperi, kana kuti chingadai chave chisisina simba rinoshandiswa—kureva kuti, chinenge chasakara zvachose (tarisa Miller, 2013 kune imwezve hurukuro pamusoro peMitemo yeShanduko nemavambo eNyika). Saka nzira chete iyo Chadenga chaigona kuva nekusingaperi dai paive nemumwe Mumwe kunze kweNyika aiverengera echiyero nekuwedzera simba rinoshandisika kwairi pamwero weNyika Yose. Asi nhaurirano iyi yaizorega kuva nhaurirano yezvakasikwa uye yaizopinda muchikamu chepamusoro-soro, iyo nyanzvi yezvemusikirwo yakazara, yesaenzi yemazuva ano inorambira kufunga.

Pakupedzisira, hapana humbowo hunoratidza kuti simba kana zvinhu zviri kuuya muChadenga—saka kuvepo kweMutemo weKutanga  veShanduko. Saka Chadenga hachigoni kuva chisingagumi. Kana munhu achitenda zvakadaro kuti ndizvo, ari kuzviita anopesana neuchapupu hwesainzi. Sezvo ari kutora mhedziso zvisingaenderane neumbowo, ari kuita kusanzwisisa (Ruby, 1960, pp. 130-131). Muchidimbu, ane “kutenda kwakapofumadzwa.”

ZVONYORWA

Cowen, Ron (2015), “Gravitational Waves Discovery Now Officially Dead,” Nature.com, Ndira 30,  http://www.nature.com/news/gravitational-waves-discovery-now-official-dead-1.16830.

Ghose, Tia (2015), “Big Bang, Deflated? Zvisikwa Zvingave Zvisina Pekuvamba,” LiveScience, Kukadzi 26,   http://www.livescience.com/49958-theory-no-big-bang.html.

Jastrow, Robert (1978), Mwari nevazivi venyeredzi (New York: W.W. Norton).

McKee, Maggie (2015), “Big Bang Discovery Inoparara Kuva Hupfu,” New Scientist, 225[3007]:10, Kukadzi 7.

Miller, Jeff (2013), Science vs. Evolution (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Miller, Jeff (2014), “Kuputika Kukuru Kwakangoratidzwa neVazivi venyeredzi?” Chikonzero & Zvakazarurwa, 34[6]:81-83, Chikumi, https://apologeticspress.org/apPubPage.aspx?pub=1&issue=1156.

Miller, Jeff (2015), “Big Bang Inflation Evidence Inoruma Guruva Zviri pamutemo,” Chikonzero & Zvakazarurwa, 35[6]:62-65.

Ruby, Lionel (1960), Logic: An Introduction (Chicago, IL: J.B. Lippincott).

Spencer, Herbert (1882), First Principles: A System of Synthetic Philosophy (New York: D. Appleton & Company), edition yechina.

Steinhardt, Paul (2014), “Big Bang Blunder Inopisa Mapupu Akawanda,” Nature, 510[7503]:9, Chikumi 5.

Zyga, Lisa (2015), “Hapana Big Bang? Quantum Equation Inofanotaura Pasirose Haana Matangiro,” Phys.org, Kukadzi 9,  http://phys.org/news/2015-02-big-quantum-equation-universe.html.

Yakaburitswa Nyamavhuvhu 1, 2015

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero bedzi zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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