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Kufanoona Kwesainzi NeKuziva Kwezvokurapa KweBhaibheri

Kunyange zvazvo zviri izvo kuti Bhaibheri harizviratidzi rimene sebhuku resayenzi kana kuti rezvokurapa, zvine mufungo bedzi kuti kana Mwari zvirokwazvo akafuridzira mabhuku anonyora Bhaibheri, aizova akarurama chose chose muudzame hwose hwesayenzi kana kuti hwezvokurapa hunowanwa pakati pavo mapeji. Uyezve, kana Mutongi anoziva zvose weChisiko chapose pose akafuridzira aya mabhuku, zvikanganiso zvesayenzi nezvokurapa zvinozadza mapeji emamwe manyoro ekare, asina kufemerwa zvinofanira kunge zvisipo zvachose muzvinyorwa zveBhaibheri. Bhaibheri harikanganisi here parinotaura nezvezvinhu zvesayenzi zvechirango, kana kuti rine zvikanganiso izvo munhu aizokarira kuwana muzvinyorwa zvavanhu vanotadza vomunguva dzakare?

Kuti mabhuku mashanu ekutanga eTestamende Yekare chibereko chaMosesi inyaya yenhoroondo (Lyons and Staff, 2003). Uyezve, nyaya yedzidzo yaMosesi pakati petsika dzechiEgipita yakanzwisiswa zvakanaka. Kutaura idi, kunyange vaJudha ivavo vasina kutendeukira kuchiKristu vaiziva kwazvo idi renhau zvokuti Mosesi akadzidziswa “muuchenjeri hwose hwavaEgipita” (Mabasa 7:22), zvokuti kutaura kwaStefano kukuita ikoko hakuna kupokanidzwa chose chose. Mosesi akanga arovedzwa mugadziriro yedzidzo yeEgipita yapamusoro zvikuru yomuzuva rake. Nokudzidziswa kwakadaro, kwaizova kwomuzvarirwo bedzi kuti Mosesi abatanidze humwe hwo“uchenjeri” hweEgipita muzvinyorwa zvake kudai akanga achinyora Pentatuchu kupfurikidza nokushandisa mano ake amene namano endangariro.

Kunzvera miitiro yokurapa yomuEgipita yekare neiya inowanikwa muPentateuchu, zvisinei, kunozivisa kuti Mosesi akanga asingatongovimbi no“uchenjeri” hwevaEgipita (uhwo, muzviitiko zvizhinji, hwakabatanidza ushati hunotyisidzira upenyu). Kunyange zvazvo mimwe miitiro yokurapa iri muPentateuchu yakafanana neiya inowanwa mumagwaro ekare eEgipita, Pentateuchu inoratidzira kusavapo kuri pachena kwemiitiro iyoyo yakaipa inotambudza manyoro evaEgipita. Mosesi akanyora mishonga yezvokurapa yepamusorosoro, isina mhosva yakanga yambonyorwa. Pamusoro pezvo, chirevo chese chine chekuita nehutano neutano hwerudzi rwevaIsraeri chakanyorwa naMosesi chinogona kunge chichingoitwa uye chichienderana nechero chokwadi chakadzidzwa nemishonga yemazuva ano maererano nekupararira kweutachiona, kurwisa zvirwere, hutsanana. , uye zvimwe zvakawanda zvakawanikwa zvekurapa nesainzi.

Ndiyo nyaya yekuti vaIjipita vekare vaive nemukurumbira munyika yekare nekuda kwekufambira mberi kwavo mumunda wemishonga. Dr. Massengill akacherechedza kuti “Egipita yaiva nzvimbo yezvokurapa yenyika yekare” (1943, p. 13). Mumazuva ehumambo hweMedhiya nePezhiya, munyori wenhoroondo wekare Herodotusi akanyora kuti yaive tsika yamambo Dhariusi “kuchengeta vamwe vanachiremba veEgipita, avo vaive nemukurumbira wepamusoro-soro pabasa ravo” (3.129). Nokudaro, nepo miitiro yokurapa yeBhaibheri yaigona kuenzaniswa zvakaenzana neiyo yedzimwe tsika dzekare ndokuwanwa kuva yakakwirira nomutoo usingakanganisi, kuaenzanisa neiyo yetsika yakatanhamara yeEgipita kunofanira kukwana kuratidzira ukuru hunopfuura hwomusikirwo hweBhaibheri mumunda.

Ichakurapa Iwe-Kana Ikasakuuraya Kutanga

Pakati pezvinyorwa zvekare zvinotsanangura zvakawanda zveruzivo rwemishonga rwekuIjipiti, Ebers Papyrus iri pakati pemamwe manyuko makuru. Papyrus iyi yakawanikwa muna 1872 neGerman Egyptologist ainzi Georg Ebers (zita iro papyrus yakatora moniker yayo) (MuEjipiti yeKare…, 1930, p. 1). Inosanganisira yakawanda yemishonga yekurapa inonzi inoporesa, kuwedzera, nekudzivirira. “Pamwe chete 811 mishonga yemishonga yakanyorwa muPapyrus, uye inotora chimiro chemafuta ekunama, mushonga unoiswa paganda vekurapa, uye unyoro; zvipfuyo, zvinofemesa, nezvigure; nzara, zvakavhenganiswa, uye mapiritsi; kufukidzira, mushonga, uye enemata” (p. 15). Pakati pemazana emishonga, kurapa kunonyangadza kwakakonzera kukuvadza kwakawanda kupfuura kunaka kunogona kuwanikwa. Semuyenzaniso, pasi pechikamu chakanzi “Zvaunofanira kuita kuti uburitse zvidimbu zvidimbu munyama,” mushonga unotaurwa unosanganisira ropa rehonye, nhunga nendove yembongoro” (p. 73). [Vanachiremba S.I. McMillen naDavid Stern vanocherekedza kuti ndove “inoremerwa nechirwere chemaronda” uye “kutsemuka kuri nyore kazhinji kazhinji kwaiguma norufu runotyisa kubva mumuromo wakakiya (2000, p. 10).] Mishonga yokubatsira kuporesa hosha dzeganda yaibatanidza mirairo yakadai se: “Zino renguruve, ndove yekatsi, ndove yembwa, mafuta esamu-oiri, mabheri-e-chirimwa, pondo wozora semushonga” (MuEgipita yeKare…, 1930, p. 92). Zvimwe zvakasiyana-siyana zvekuwanda kwemishonga yakagadzirwa yaisanganisira “tsvina yakaomeswa yemwana” (p. 98), “ndove yenguruve” (p. 115), uye “weti yemurimi” (p. 131). Rimwe remabikirwo ekudzivirira kumera bvudzi raisanganisira ndove yedzvinyu neropa remombe, dhongi, nguruve, imbwa nemhembwe (p. 102). Kunyange zvazvo zvichifanira kucherechedzwa kuti mamwe emishonga yeEgypt aisanganisira mirairo nemishonga inogona kubatsira, mishonga inokuvadza nemishonga inoisa mumvuri unorwarisa wekusavimbika pamusoro pekuedza kwese kweEgipita sekuonekwa nemuverengi wemazuva ano.

Sachiremba S.E. Massengill akati:

Varapi vekare vekuEgipita vakashandisa zvakanyanya zvinodhaka. Mishonga yavo yakanga iri yerudzi rwaiwanzowanwa mumagariro apakuvamba; mishonga mishoma inoshanda yakarasika muhuwandu hwezvinhu zvemashura chaiwo. Vaishandisa opium, squill, nezvimwe zvinhu zvemuriwo, asiwo tsvina uye weti. Zvinonzi weti yomudzimai akatendeka yaiva navo inoshanda mukurapa maziso anorwadza (1943, p. 15).

Mukuwedzera, zvinoratidzika kuti vaIjipita vaiva pakati pevokutanga kupa pfungwa ye “yakanaka uye inorumbidzwa uye” (McMillen naStern, 2000, p. 10). Pamusana pepfungwa yokuti utachiona hwakanga hwakanaka uye urwa hwakakonzerwa nahwo hwakanga huri mugumisiro unogamuchirwa, “vanachiremba vane vavariro dzakanaka vakauraya mamiriyoni kuburikidza nekukuvadza maronda avo nemaune” (p. 10). Pasina madikanwa kutaura, muravi womuzuva razvino uno aisazoda kuva murwere mukiriniki yekare yeEgipita!

ZVIRATIDZO MUPENTATEUCHI

Mabhuku mashanu okutanga eTestamende Yekare, zvinobvumwa, haana kuperera zvachose pakuverengwa kwemishonga yekurapa. Haasi mabhuku ekare ezvokurapa. Zvisinei, mabhuku aya ane mirau yakawanda youtsanana, kugarisa vanhu vari voga, uye mamwe marapiro aifanira kudzora upenyu hwezuva nezuva hwevaIsraeri. Chisipo zvachose kubva pamapeji ezvinyorwa izvi mishonga inokuvadza uye zvinwiwa zvakatemwa nemamwe marudzi ekare. Kutaura idi, Pentateuch inoratidzira nzwisiso youtachiona nehosha iyo mishonga “yemazuva ano” yakawanda isina kunzwisisa kwemakore 3 500 pashure pokunge mabhuku acho anyorwa.

Ropa: Mvura yeHupenyu

Ropa ragara riri chinhu chinoda kuziva chine zvakavanzika uye kugona kwacho kuchigere kunyatsoongororwa. Vanachiremba muzana remakore rechimakumi maviri nerimwe vanoiisa ropa, mukudhirowa, mukupatsanura, kurongedza, mukuchengeta, mukutumira, uye mukutengesa. Uye, kunyange zvazvo vezvesayenzi vomuzuva razvino uno vasina kufumura chose chose zvishamiso zvose zveropa, vakawana kuti ndiro kiyi youpenyu. Pasina iyi “mvura youpenyu,” vanhu nemhuka vangadai vasina nzira yokutenderera nayo okisijeni inodiwa namapuroteni izvo miviri yavo inoda kuti vararame nokuberekana. Hemoglobin inowanikwa mumasero matsvuku eropa inotakura okisijeni kuenda kuuropi, iyo inobva yashandisa okisijeni iyoyo kudzora muviri wose. Uropi husina okisijeni hwakafanana nemota isina gasi kana kombiyuta isina magetsi. Ropa rinoita kuti mabasa ese ari mumuviri agoneke.

Munguva yakapfuura, kusaziva ukoshi hweropa kwakaparira vamwe varume “vakadzidza” kuita zvinhu zvinosuruvarisa. Somuenzaniso, mumazera apakati, uye kunyange kutozosvikira muzana ramakore rechigumi namapfumbamwe, vanachiremba vaidavira kuti “hosha” inokuvadza yaipinda muropa ndokuparira kurwara. Nokuda kwechikonzero ichi, zvikwevaropa zvakaiswa kune vakabatwa nefivha nezvimwe zvirwere mukuedza kuburitsa ropa rine hutachiona uhu. Zvakare, tsinga netsinga dziri pamusoro pegokora zvakavhurwa, uye maoko omurwere akabudiswa ropa kuti adzime ropa rine utachiona. George Washington, Mutungamiriri wekutanga weUnited States, akafa nekuda kweshingairo yezvokurapa yakadaro. Chapupu chakaona rufu rwaWashington chinorondedzera kuti akaburuka achipindwa nechando, uye munhamburiko yokumurapa, avo vaiuya kwaari vakatendeukira kuropa; “tsinga yakavhurwa, asi hapana rubatsiro rwakapihwa” (“Rufu rwaGeorge Washington,” 2001).

Zviuru zvamakore tsika inouraya yokuteura ropa isati yavambwa, vanhu vakanga vaudzwa naMwari kuti ropa rakanga riri kiyi youpenyu zvamazvirokwazvo. Muna Revhitiko 17:11 , Mosesi akanyora, kuti: “Nokuti upenyu hwenyama huri muropa.”

Nhasi, tinonzwisisa zvizere uchokwadi hwemashoko aMosesi okuti “upenyu hwenyama huri muropa.” Asi mufudzi wekare akafanana naMosesi akasvika sei pakuziva mashoko akadaro? Kungofungidzira rombo rakanaka? Mosesi angadai akaziva sei makore anodokusvika 3 500 apfuura kuti upenyu hwakanga huri muropa, nepo zvakatora rutivi rwose rwasara rwenzanga yesayenzi nokurapa zviuru zvamakore (uye zviuru zvoupenyu!) kuti vanzwisise chokwadi ichi? Kukundikana kuri pachena kweTestamende Yekare kutanga nzira dzokurapa dzisina kufanira sezvo dzine chokuita neropa kunotaura zvinonzwika nezvokururama kwayo mune zvokurapa.

Hutachiona, Fivha Yevashandi, NeHutsanana HweBhaibheri

Mubhuku ravo, Hapana cheZvirwere Izvi, varapi S.I. McMillen naDavid Stern vakakurukura kuti mingani mitemo yehutsanana yakagadzwa naMwari kuvana vaIsraeri ichiri kushanda nhasi. Kuti vajekese pfungwa yavo, vakadzokorora nyaya yaIgnaz Semmelweis.

Muna 1847, mumwe chiremba wepamuviri ainzi Ignaz Semmelweis aiva mutungamiriri wewadhi yechipatara muVienna, Austria. Vakadzi vazhinji vane pamuviri vakatarisa muwadhi yake, asi 18% yavo haina kumbobuda. Mumwe chete pavatanhatu voga voga vakarapwa muwadhi yaSemmelweis akafa nechirwere chefivha (Nuland, 2003, p. 31). Kuongororwa kwezvitunha kwairatidza urwa huri pasi peganda ravo, mumhango dzechipfuva, mumasokisi avo, nezvimwewo. Semmelweis ainetseka pamusoro pehuwandu hwevanhu vaifa muwadhi yake, uye mamwe mawadhi echipatara akafanana nawo muEurope yose. Nuland akacherechedza kuti Australia, America, Britain, Ireland, uye inenge imwe nyika yose yakanga yatanga chipatara yakatambura nehuwandu hwekufa (2003, peji 41-43). Kana mukadzi asununguka mwana achishandisa nyamukuta, rufu rwunosvika pazvikamu zvitatu chete kubva muzana. Asi kana akasarudza kushandisa ruzivo rwekurapa rwepamusoro-soro uye zvivakwa zvezuva racho, mukana wake wekufa wakawedzera zvakanyanya!

Semmelweis akaedza zvose kuti amise kuuraya kwacho. Akatendeudzira madzimai ese parutivi netarisiro yekuti kufa kwaizodzikira, asi pasina chabuda. Akafunga kuti zvimwe bhero rairidzwa nomupristi pakati pehusiku chaityisa vakadzi, saka akaita kuti mupristi apinde chinyararire, asi pasina kuderera kwenhamba yorufu.

Paaifunga nezvedambudziko rake, aiona vadzidzi vechidiki vezvokurapa vachiita mabasa avo enguva dzose. Zuva rega rega vadzidzi vaiita kuongorora zvitunha pavanaamai vakafa. Ipapo vaigezesa maoko avo mundiro yemvura ine ropa, voapukuta pataurowo zvaro, rinogoveranwa, uye nokukurumidza vanotanga kuongorora mukati mevakadzi vachiri vapenyu. Nuland akataura nezvekuita: “Nemhaka yokuti pakanga pasina chikonzero chekuti vageze maoko avo, kunze kwepamusoro, kana kuchinja zvipfeko zvavo vasati vauya kuChikamu Chekutanga, havana kuita” (2003, p. 100). Somucherekedzi womuzana ramakore rechimakumi maviri nerimwe, mumwe anokatyamadzwa kufunga kuti miitiro yakadaro chaizvoizvo yakaitika mumasangano eiyo panguva iyoyo yakanga iri “ruzivo rwazvino uno.” Ndeupi chiremba ane pfungwa dzakanaka angabata munhu akafa ozoongorora varwere vapenyu—asina kutanga ashandisa miitiro miduku yorucheno inoitirwa kuuraya utachiona? Asi kuEurope muzana remakore rechigumi nemapfumbamwe, utachiona hwakanga huri pfungwa yokumwe. Vakanga vasati vamboona utachiona, ndoda kukwanisa kufanotaura simba rahwo rinoparadza. Maererano nedzakawanda dzedzidziso dzavo dzakapararira, hosha yakakonzerwa ne”mamiriro ekunze.”

Semmelweis akaudza munhu wese wewadhi yake kuti anyatsogeza maoko ake nemushonga wekororini mushure mekuongororwa kwega kwega. Mumwedzi mitatu, huwandu hwerufu hwakadonha kubva pa18% kusvika pa1%. Semmelweis akanga aita chinhu chinoshamisa. Nechemukati mebutiro rebhuku rinotaura nezvaSemmelweis, rakanyorwa nachiremba uye munyori wenhoroondo Sherwin Nuland, mashoko acho anoti:

Ignác Semmelweis anorangarirwa nepfungwa yakajairika yokuti vanachiremba vanofanira kugeza maoko avo vasati vaongorora varwere. Pakati pezana ramakore rechigumi nemapfumbamwe Vienna, iyi yaive pfungwa yekupandukira. Sezvo kufa kwevana vasati vazvarwa nekuda kwefivha kwaiwedzera, Semmelweis akaona kuti vanachiremba pachavo ndivo vaiparadzira chirwere ichi (2003, mukati mebutiro remaputi).

Semmeliweis anga aita chiwanikwa chinokatyamadza, kana kuti zvinokwanisika here kuti “akawanazve” izvo zvanga zvichizivikanwa mune mamwe madenderedzwa kwemakore mazhinji? Makore anoda kusvika 3 300 Semmelweis asati ararama, Mosesi akanga anyora kuti: “Ani naani anobata chitunha chomunhu upi noupi anofanira kuva asina kuchena mazuva manomwe. Iye anofanira kuzvinatsa nayo nemvura nezuva retatu nerechinomwe; ipapo achava akachena. Asi kana asingazvinatsi nezuva retatu nerechinomwe, haangavi akanaka. Hutachiona hwakanga husati hwava kuwanikwa muna 1847; rugwaro rwebhaibheri rwakarekodha zviyero zvekutarisa kupararira kwavo kusvika kumashure munenge muna 1500 B.C.

Mvura Yekuchenesa

Zvakare maringe nenhaurirano iyi kuumbwa kwe“mvura yokunatsa” yakanyorwa munaNumeri 19. Kana mirairo yeTestamende Yekare ichienzaniswa netsananguro dzeTestamende Itsva dzezviito izvozvo, zvinova pachena kuti mimwe yemirairo yekare yainyanya kufananidzira muchimiro. Somuenzaniso, Gwayana rePaseka paraidyiwa, hapana pfupa raro raifanira kutyorwa. Izvi zvaifananidzira chibayiro chaKristu, Uyo ane rutivi rwake rwakabayiwa, asi kunyange murufu akapukunyuka muitiro wenguva dzose wokutyorwa makumbo ake (Johane 19:31-37).

Nekuvapo kwechiratidzo chakadaro muTestamende Yekare, zvakakosha kuti tisatarise mirairo yeTestamende Yekare iyo yaive yakakosha mukukosha uye inopupura kune Mufungo Mukuru shure kwekunyorwa kweMutemo. Mumwe wemirayiro yakadaro unowanikwa muna Numeri 19, apo vaIsraeri vakarayirwa kugadzirira “mvura yokuchenesa” yaizoshandiswa kugeza munhu upi noupi akanga abata chitunha.

Pakutanga kuona, mvura yokuchenesa inonzwika somupfudze wokugadzira mushonga wokutenda mashura waibatanidza madota etsiru dzvuku, hisopi, danda romusidhari, uye mucheka mutsvuku. Asi iyi nzira yakanga iri kure zvikuru nemushonga wokufananidzira waiitirwa “kudzinga mweya yakaipa.” Mukupesana, mabikirwo emvura yokuchenesa nhasi anomira somuenzaniso unoshamisa woungwaru hweBhaibheri, sezvo resipi yacho inongova nzira yokubudisa sipo inorwisa mabhakitiriya.

Kana tikatarisa zvinongedzo zvega, tinotanga kuona kukosha kwechimwe nechimwe. Kutanga, funga madota etsiru dzvuku nemisidhari. Sokuziva kunoita vana vechikoro vakawanda, vakatitangira munyika ino vaisakwanisa kuenda kuchitoro chiri pedyo kutenga zvinhu zvavanofarira zvoutsanana. Kana vaida sipo kana shamhu, vaizvigadzira vega. Mumamiriro ezvinhu akadaro, vakagadzira zvakasiyana-siyana zvekubika sipo. Imwe yemhando zhinji-inogadzirwa yesipo yaive sipo yelyi. Chero ani zvake nhasi anogona kuwana resipi yesipo nekutsvaga nekukurumidza paHindaneti (ona “Kugadzira sipo,” n.d.). Mabikirwo akasiyana-siyana esipo-sipo anoratidza kuti, kuti awane lye, mvura inowanzodirwa nemumadota. Mvura inobviswa pakudirwa mumadota ine musanganiswa welha. Lye, muhuwandu hwepamusoro, inonyanya kukonzera uye inogumbura ganda. Icho, chokwadi, chimwe chezvinhu zvakakosha mumisanganiswa yemakemikari yemazuva ano inoshandiswa kusunungura madhiri. Makambani mazhinji nhasi achiri kugadzira sipo yelye. Nenzira inoshamisa, Mosesi akarayira vaIsraeri kugadzirira muvhenganiswa waizobatanidza sipo yakavhenganiswa mumushonga wakanyungudutswa.

Uyezve, funga kuti hisopi yakawedzerwawo ku“mvura yokunatsa.” Hyssop ine antiseptic thymol, chinhu chimwe chete icho chatinowana nhasi mune mamwe mabhureki emouthwash (McMillen uye Stern, 2000, p. 24). Oiri yehisopi inoramba ichive yakakurumbira “mafuta ekuporesa,” uye inodhura zvakanyanya. Ichitaura nezvekubatsira kwehisopi, imwe Nzvimbo yepaIndaneti yakati: “Payakangoshandiswa kuchenesa temberi nekuchenesa vane maperembudzi, mashizha acho ane mushonga unouraya utachiona, unorwisa mavhairasi. Mamoudzi anobudisa mvura inomera pamashizha. Mvura inotorwa, (ona “Hyssop”).

Zvimwe zvinongedzo mu”mvura yekuchenesa” zvinomira pachena sezvinhu zvinobatsira. Oiri kubva muhuni yemisidhari mumusanganiswa ingangove yakachengetedza zvinhu zvakawanda zvine simba. Imwe Nzvimbo yepaIndaneti inobata nemafuta anokosha akasiyana-siyana yakati: “Misidhari yagara ichishandiswa kuchengetera makabhati nemhaka yokukwanisa kudzinga tumbuyu nokudzivisa kuora. Mune fomu yemafuta, inoshandiswa kuvanhu, inonzi antiseptic, astringent, expectorant (inobvisa madziva kubva panzira dzokufema), anti-fungal, sedative uye insecticide” (“Spa Essential Oils,” 2005). Imwe nzvimbo, kunyanya kubata neanobatsira zvivakwa zvemisidhari, yakatsanangura:

Mashizha emisidhari nematavi ane vhitamini C yakawanda, uye kwaive kushanda kwavo mukudzivirira kana kurapa chakakuvara izvo zvakaita kuti muti unzi wehupenyu. Pamusoro pezvo, tsvakiridzo ichangoburwa yakaratidza kuti zvimedu zvakagadzirirwa kubva kuThuja occidentalis kana Thuja plicata [imhando dzeoriental cedar—KB] zvine hutachiona, nezvinodzivirira, uye nekudzivirira kwemabakitiriya. Boka revatsvakurudzi veGermany rakashuma muna 2002 kuti chidimbu chakagadzirwa kubva pashizha remusidhari, doro, uye mvura inodzivisa kubereka kwechirwere chetachiona chechirwere cheA, nepo boka revatsvakurudzi muJapan rakaona kuti chikamu cheWestern red cedar chakashanda mukurapa eczema. Frey, n.d).

Zvinofadza kuona kuti aya mashoko pamusoro pezvinhu zvinobatsira zvezvinogadzirwa zvakadai semisidhari, hisopi, uye sipo mumvura yokuchenesa haabvi mumanyuko eBhaibheri. Zvizhinji zvacho zviri kungouya kubva kuzvidzidzo zvakaitwa kuburikidza nezvezvizorwa uye netsvakirudzo dzekurapa.

Pakupedzisira, vaIsraeri vakarairwa kukandira mumuvhenganiswa “mucheka mutsvuku,” uyo sezvingabvira wakanga uri mvere dzvuku (ona VaHebheru 9:19). Kuwedzera shinda dzemvere dzemakushe kune musanganiswa kungadai kwakaita kuti musanganiswa “wakafanana nesipo yeLava®” (McMillen and Stern, 2000, p. 25).

Zviuru zvemakore zvisati zvaitwa zvidzidzo zvepamutemo kuona kuti ndeupi rudzi rwemitoo yekuchenesa yainyanya kushanda; mireniyumu mapiyona eAmerica asati agadzira zvigadziriso zvavo zve lye; uye makore asati vadzidzi vedu vepamusoro vezvokurapa vasati vaziva chimwe chinhu pamusoro pedzidziso yehutachiona, Mosesi akarayira vaIsraeri kuti vagadzire resipi inoshamisa yesipo, iyo, kana yakashandiswa zvakanaka muzvipatara zvakadai sezvipatara muVienna, ingadai yakaponesa zviuru zvehupenyu.

Kuiswa Pakowega

Mosesi akadonongodza matanho okudzivirira kupararira kwoutachiona hunobva mumitumbi yakafa kuenda kuvanhu vapenyu kare zvisati zvanzwisiswa uye kutaurwa mukurapa kwemazuva ano. Asi chinyorwa cheTestamende Yekare chakawedzera mumwe muitiro unobatsira zvikuru mumunda wezvokurapa mutsananguro dzayo dzine udzame dzezvirwere izvo vanhu vapenyu vanofanira kugariswa kwavo voga. Bhuku raRevhitiko rinoronga nhevedzano yehosha nenzira idzo muIsraeri aigona kubata nadzo utachiona. Vaya vaiva nehosha dzakadai semaperembudzi vakarayirwa kuti “vagare vari voga” “kunze kwomusasa” (Revhitiko 13:46). Kana munhu achirwara akasvika pedyo nevaya vakanga vasingarwari uye kana munhu achirwara, achirayirwa kuti “afukidze ndebvu dzake, ashevedzere kuti, ‘Handina kuchena! Handina kuchena!” (13:45). Zvinofadza kuti kuvhara ndebvu dzawo kunodzivirira kupfira nekupfapfaidza kubva mumuromo wemunhu kuti zvipfuure nemhepo zvakasununguka, kungofanana nekuvharwa kwemuromo panguva yekukosora.

Nezvemiitiro yakadaro yokuisa vanhu vari voga, S.E. Massengill akanyora mubhuku rake A Sketch of Medicine and Pharmacy:

Mukudzivirira hosha, zvisinei, vaHebheru vekare vakaita fambira mberi chaiyoiyo. Dzidziso dzaMosesi, sezviri muMutemo weVapirisita weTestamende Yekare, dzine pfungwa mbiri dzakajeka dzehutsanana hwemazuva ano—kukosha kwehutsanana uye mukana wekudzora chirwere chedenda kuburikidza nekuzviparadzanisa nevamwe uye kuvharirwa (1943, p. 252).

Nezvekunzwisiswa kwekutapurira kunorehwa mumitemo yokugarisa vanhu vari voga muTestamende Yekare, McGrew akati muEncyclopedia of Medical History: “Pfungwa yokutapurirana yakanga isiri yetsika dzechinyakare dzokurapa uye haina nzvimbo muzvinyorwa zvakawanda zveVanyengeri. Testamente Yekare, zvisinei, inzvimbo yakapfuma yemafungiro evanotapurirana, kunyanya maererano nemaperembudzi nehosha yeropa” (1985, p.77-78). Pano zvakare, Testamende Yekare inoratidzira zivo yezvokurapa yakarurama inoshamisa inopfuura uchenjeri hupi nohupi hunozivikanwa hwomunhu hunowanika panguva yokunyorwa kwayo.

MITEMO YEKUDYA

Mitemo yechikafu yakanyorwa mumabhuku mashanu ekutanga eTestamende Yekare yakaongororwa nenyanzvi dzezvekudya. Mitemo yakaratidza kuti inopindirana nekunzwisisa kwesainzi yemazuva ano emhando dzakasiyana dzehutano nekudzivirira zvirwere.

Muna 1953, kuongorora kwakadzama, kwakaitwa naDavid I. Macht ndokuburitswa muZvinyorwa zveNhorondo yeZvemishonga (bhuku reAmerican Association of the History of Medicine neThe Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine), rakaedza huturu hwenyama yemhuka zvakanyorwa muna Revhitiko 11 nemuna Dhuteronomi 14. Nzira yaMacht yakanga iri yokuisa imwe mhodzi (Lupinus albus) mumito mitsva yemhasuru yemhuka dzakasiyana-siyana dzinozivikanwa sedzakachena uye dzisina kuchena mumagwaro ebhaibheri. Iyi nzira yakashandiswa panguva yekudzidza ropa revanhuwo zvavo varwere vachienzanisa neropa revarwere vane kenza (1953, peji 444). Macht akacherechedza kuti zvaakawana zvakaratidza “mashoko anonyanya kufarirwa kwete nomuongorori wezvokurapa chete asiwo vadzidzi vemabhuku eBhaibheri ekare” (p. 445).

Zvimwe zvezvaakawana zvaive zveshuwa. Somuenzaniso, aitora mbesa dzakakura mumichero yemazuva ose oenzanisa boka iroro nemadzinde akaiswa mumuto yenyama yakasiyana-siyana. Aibva anyora chikamu chemhodzi dzakakura mumito yenyama kana zvichienzaniswa nedziya dzakakura mumamiriro ezvinhu akajairika. Semuenzaniso, pakuisa mbesa mumuto yenyama kubva kuNzombe, mhodzi dzakakura 91% kakawanda sezvadzaizoita kana dzaiiswa mumushonga wenguva dzose. Mbeu dziri mujusi dzemakwai dzakakura 94% kakawanda sedziya dzirimuboka rekutonga mumhinduro yenguva dzose. Mbeu mumuto wenyama kubva kumhuru-82%; kubva pambudzi—90%; nekubva kumhara 90%. Sezvo mhuka idzi dzichidzeya nedzine mahwanda akaparadzana, dzakarongwa sedzakachena muna Revhitiko 11 naDhuteronomi 14:

Zvino Jehovha wakataura naMozisi naAroni, akati kwavari, Taurai navana vaIsiraeri, muti, Ndidzo mhuka dzamungadya pakati pemhuka dzose dziri panyika, pakati pemhuka dzina mahwanda akaparadzana; , dzine mahwanda akaparadzana, uye dzinodzeya, kuti mudye’” ( Revhitiko 11:1-3 ).

Apo mhuka dzisina kuchena dzakadzidzwa, zvisinei, dzakaratidza mazinga akakwirira zvikuru ehupfu uye mazinga akaderera zvikuru ekukura kwembesa. Mbeu mujusi yenyama kubva kunguruve yakakura chete 54% kakawanda seboka rinodzora pasi pemamiriro ekukura; tsuro—49%; ngamera—41%; uye bhiza—39%. Iyi mibairo yemhuka huru dzinoyamwisa yakaratidza kuti kupatsanurwa kwebhaibheri pakati pezvakachena nezvisina kuchena kwaigona kunge kune chekuita nehupfu hwemuto wemhuka dzakadaro.

Macht akaita tsvakiridzo yakafanana pamusoro peshiri, paakaona kuti zvakatorwa kubva mubhaibheri shiri dzakachena senjiva nezvihuta zvakakura mbesa dzake 93% ne89%, ukuwo dzakabva kushiri dzisina kuchena dzakaita semakondo emabesu matsvuku (36%) nezizi. (62%) zvaive zvakanyanya muchetura. Sokutaura kwakaita Mosesi: “Izvi zvamunofanira kuzviona pakati peshiri, zvive zvinonyangadza; hazvifaniri kudyiwa, zvinonyangadza, negondo, negora, nenyarere, noruvangu, namarudzi ose oruvangu; namarudzi ose amakunguvo, nemhou, nezizi, namarudzi ose oruvangu.” (Revhitiko 11:13-19) Zvimwe zvidzidzo zvaisanganisira mhando dzakasiyana dzehove. Murau webhaibheri wekudya hove waive wekuti vaIsraeri vaigona kudya chero hove dzine zvimbi nemakwande (Deuteronomio 14:9). Zvipenyu zvinorarama mumvura zvisina zvimbi namakwande zvaisafanira kudyiwa (14:10). Nezvekudzidza kwake pamusoro pehupfu hwehove, Macht akanyora kuti:

Chainyanya kufarirwa kwaiva kuedza kwakaitwa nemuto yemhasuru uyewo mishonga yeropa yakawanikwa kubva kumarudzi akawanda ehove. Makumi mashanu neina emhando dzehove dzakadzidzwa kusvika pari zvino maererano nehupfu hwezvimedu zvenyama. Zvakaonekwa kuti tsandanyama dzakatorwa dzehove dziya dzine makwande nezvimbi dzainge dzisina chepfu [Herring—100%; Pike – 98%; Shad—100%—KB], nepo tsandanyama dzakatorwa kubva kuhove dzisina makwande nezvimbi zvakanga zvine muchetura pakukura kwembesa dzeLupinus albus (pp. 446-448).

Fundo yaMacht, kunyange pashure peanopfuura makore makumi mashanu, inoramba ichifadza zvikuru. Kuongorora kwake kwakasimba kwakamuita kuti apedzisire:

Zvatsanangurwa pamusoro apa zvinotsigira pfungwa yakaitwa kakawanda pamusoro pemunyori mukuferefetwa sachiremba (MD Johns Hopkins, 1906), semuongorori webhiyoroji (Nhengo yeSosaiti Yekuyedza Bhiyoroji uye mushonga), uye saDhokota weMutauro wechiHebheru (weUnivhesoti Yeshiva, 1928) kuti zvirevo zvese zveBhuku reMabhuku, kune zvisikwa, zviitiko zvechisikigo, uye nhoroondo yechisikigo, ingave muchimiro chekutaura kwechokwadi kana muchimiro chedimikira, fananidzo, zvirevo, kana dzimwe tambo dzakarurama kana sezvazviri kana nenzira yekufananidzira. …. Kuve iko kuwirirana kunoshamisa pakati pezvinyorwa zveMagwaro nezvakawanda zvemazuva ano uye kunyange zvichangobva kuwanikwa mubhiyoroji nemusainzi yefisiyo-kemikari, mudzidzi wese akasimba weBhaibheri, ndinotenda, achatsigira zvakataurwa naVaIsaac Newton, kuti “Magwaro aMwari ndiwo uzivi hwakakwirira zvikurusa. Ndinowana zviratidzo zvakadai zveuchokwadi muBhaibheri kupfuura munhorondo yenhema kwose kwose” (p. 449).

Vamwe, zvisinei, vakapokana nemhedzisiro yaMacht. Kutsvakurudza kusati kwaitwa naMacht muna 1936 uye 1949 kwakabudisa migumisiro yakasiyana kubva mukutsvakurudza kwake muna 1953. Asi pane zvikonzero zvakawanda zvinomanikidzira zvekubvuma tsvakurudzo yaMacht ya1953. Kutanga, inogona kunge iri iyo yaMacht 1953 tsvagiridzo yakangonatswa uye maitiro akanzwisiswa zviri nani. Sezvingatarisirwa nemunhu mundima yesainzi, kutsvagisa kunowanzo wedzera kuvandudza nekufamba kwenguva. Chechipiri, Macht aive chiremba wepamusoro ane magwaro akawanda. Tsvagiridzo yake muna 1936 na1949 yakanga yaburitswa uye yaiwanikwa nyore. Asi kunyangwe tsvakiridzo yake yapfuura yaivepo, Chikoro cheJohns Hopkins chakaona zvinogamuchirika kuburitsa tsvakiridzo yake ya1953, izvo zvaizoratidza kuti tsvakiridzo ya1953 yaisanganisira dzimwe nzira uye/kana ruzivo rwaizopfuura tsvakiridzo yekutanga. Chechitatu, maitiro aMacht sezvakatsanangurwa mubepa ra1953 aive akapusa uye ari nyore kudhindwa. Asi avo vanobvunza basa vakatadza kuburitsa data yekuyedza mushure me1953 iyo inogona kuramba kudzidza kwaMacht. Kana maitiro ake a1953 akazara nekukanganisa, zviedzo zvishoma zvingaitwe kuratidza izvozvo. Hapana data rekuyedza rakadai rinoramba Macht rakagadzirwa.

Nokuda kweizvi zvikonzero, zvakawanwa naDhokota Macht zvinobetsera mukudzivirira kufuridzirwa kweBhaibheri nemiitiro yezvokurapa yakarurama zvinoshamisa kubvira kare somunguva yaMosesi. Asi chokwadi chemitemo yekudya kweTestamende yekare haivimbi chete netsvakiridzo yaMacht ya1953. Kuwedzera simbiso yekubatsira, kudzivirira kwemitemo yekudya kwechikafu yaMosesi inowanikwa nyore.

Zvimbi Nemakwande

Sezvambotaurwa, nzira yaMosesi yekudya zvisikwa zvipenyu zvemvura yaive yekuti zvisikwa zvine makwande nezvimbi (Revhitiko 11:12). Uyu murairo waibatsira zvikuru, sezvo matambudziko akawanda akakomberedza zvisikwa zvakawanda zvegungwa zvisina makwande nezvimbi.

Fungu

Iyo fungu ine zvimbi asi haina makwande. Saka, ingadai isina kudyiwa pasi pemitemo yeTestamende Yekare—nerombo rakanaka kuvaIsraeri. Iyo fungu inogona kunge ine muchetura mumaivha ayo, chiropa, uye dzimwe nhengo dzine simba uye dzinouraya. Muchetura uyu, unonzi tetrodotoxin, unofungidzirwa kuti “unouraya zvakapetwa ka1250 pane cyanide” uye une simba zvakapetwa ka160 000 pane kokeini. Chikamu chidiki chayo chinogona kuuraya vanhu vakuru makumi matatu (Dilion, 2005). Sezvisinganzwisisiki sezvazvinonzwika, fungu inoshandiswa sechikafu pasi rose, kunyanya muJapan nedzimwe nyika dziri kure kumabvazuva. Sechikafu, chinonzi fugu, uye chinogadzirwa nevabiki vane zvitupa, vane marezinesi. Iyo chepfu inogona kubviswa zvinobudirira, zvichiita kuti chikafu chidyike, asi maitiro acho anowanzoenda zvakaipa. Vamwe vakanzvera fugu vanoti ishanduro yechikafu chechiRussian. Nekuda kwengozi yakanyanyisa inosanganisirwa mukudya fugu, hazvisi pamutemo kuishandira kuna Mambo weJapan! Mirayiridzo yaMosesi ine chekuita nehove dzinodyiwa ingadai yakabatsira vaIsraeri kudzivisa fungu ine ngozi, pamwe nenjodzi inounzwa nekudya zvimwe zvisikwa zvemugungwa zvine muchetura sedzimwe hove dzemando yemuramba, anemones dzemugungwa, uye hungai.

Hoveyemugungwa

Kunyange zvazvo hove dzichidyiwa mazuva ano, kune njodzi dzinowanikwa pakudya mhando dzisina kugadzirirwa dzakaita semaoyster. IU.S. Food and Drug Administration yakagadzira turakiti remapeji gumi nemaviri rinonyevera vanhu nezve njodzi yekudya maoyster akabikwa kana akabikwa zvishoma (“Carlos’ Tragic …,” 2003). Muturakiti, FDA inoyambira kuti mamwe maoyster ane bhakitiriya Vibrio vulnificus. Nezveiyi bhakitiriya ine ngozi, turakiti rinoti:

Oyster dzimwe nguva inotapukirwa nebhakitiriya inongoitika yega Vibrio vulnificus. Oyster yakasvibiswa neVibrio vulnificus haionekwe nekunhuwa kana kuona; vanoita semamwe maoyster. Kudya maoyster mbishi ane Vibrio vulnificus  kune ngozi zvikuru kune avo vane zvirwere zvakagara zviripo zvakadai sechirwere chechiropa, chirwere cheshuga, hepatitis, gomarara neHIV…. 50 muzana yevanhu vanotapukirwa neVibrio vulnificus nekuda kwekudya maoyster akasvibira anofa (2003).

Kudya oyster kana isina kubikwa zvakanaka kunogona kuuraya, inodaro FDA. Nokudaro, uchenjeri hwechirambidzo chaMosesi hunooneka kumucherekedzi akatendeseka. Munguva iyo mabatiro akakodzera uye maitiro ekugadzirira aive akaoma kuwana, nzira yakanakisa yekuita ingangove yekudzivisa njodzi yekudya zvinogona kusvibiswa chikafu, kunyanya sezvo kusvibiswa kwacho kusingaonekwe nekunhuwa kana kuona.

Zvinokambaira uye Salmonella

Muna Revhitiko 11, Mosesi akabatanidza zvinokambaira pamazita emhuka dzisina kuchena. Sezviri pachena, hadzisi dzinodzeya dzinofamba nemahwanda akaparadzana, saka havangaiti mhuka dzakachena, dzinodyiwa maererano naRevhitiko 11:3 . Asi kuti ave nechokwadi chokuti vaIsraeri vainzwisisa, Mosesi akataura zvakananga nezvezvinokambaira zvakadai semadzvinyu (Revhitiko 11:29-31). Pakarepo zvichitevera rudungwe rwezvinokambaira, rugwaro runoti: “Ani naani unozvibata kana zvakafa uchava usina kunaka kusvikira madeko” (11:31).

Sezvineiwo, zvinokambaira zvine mwero wepamusoro-soro wekutakura utachiona hweSalmonella kupfuura zvinoita mhuka zhinji dzinoyamwisa, kunyanya idzo dzakarongwa sedzakachena muMutemo Wekare. Boka rinoona nezveKudzivirirwa kweZvirwere ragara yayambira vanhu nezve mukana wekutapukirwa neSalmonella inopfuudzwa nezvinokambaira. Mukupfupisa mushumo weCDC’s 2003, Lianne McLeod akacherechedza kuti CDC inofungidzira kuti nyaya dzinopfuura 70,000 dzehutachiona hweSalmonellahwevanhu pagore dzine chekuita nekubata kwezvinokambaira nemhuka dzomusango (2007). CDC inokurudzira kuti dzimba dzine vana vari pasi pemakore mashanu dzisave nezvinokambaira semhuka dzinovaraidza. Uyezve, nepo dzimwe mhuka dzakaita sekitsi nembwa dzichikwanisa kupfuura Salmonella, McLeod akati:

Kusvika 90% yezvinokambaira zvinotakura utachiona hweSalmonella, hune utachiona hwakanangana nezvinokambaira pasina zviratidzo zvechirwere muchikara. Kunyange chiri chokwadi kuti mhuka dzinovaraidza dzakawanda dzinogona kutakura Salmonella, dambudziko rezvinokambaira (uye sezviri pachena mhuka dzomusango) nderekuti dzinotakura Salmonella nehuwandu hwakanyanya kudaro. Izvo zvine hungwaru kufunga kuti zvese zvinokambaira unekugara mumvura zvinogona kuve tsime reSalmonella (2007, emp. yakawedzera).

Tichifunga nezvouchapupu hwakadaro, hwechirambidzo chaMosesi chokudya kana kubata zvitunha zvemhuka zvinokambaira kunonyatsooneka.

Chinonyanya kufarirwa inyaya yekuti kusvibiswa kwegorondo reSalmonella kunogona kuitika pasina kana kubata chikara. Kana munhu akabata chinhu chabata chikara utachiona hunogona kupararira. ARAV (Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians) yakataura mashoko aya: “Mabhakitiriya eSalmonella anopararira nyore nyore kubva pazvinokambaira achienda kuvanhu. Vanhu vanogona kutapukirwa kana vakaisa maoko avo pazvinhu, kusanganisira zvekudya, zvanga zvakasangana netsvina yezvinokambaira, mumiromo yavo” (“Salmonella Bacteria…,” 2007).

Kana chirevo cheARAV ichi chichienzaniswa nemirairo iri muna Revhitiko 11:32-47, kururama kunoshamisa kwemutemo weTestamende Yekare kunosimbiswa zvakare.

Chinhu chipi nechipi chinowirwa nechimwe chazvo kana chakafa chichava chisina kunaka, kana chiri chinhu chamatanda, kana nguvo, kana debwe, kana hombodo, kana chiri chinhu chipi nechipi chinoitwa basa ripi neripi, chinofanira kuiswa mumvura. Zvichava zvisina kunaka kusvikira madeko; ipapo ichava yakanaka. Hari ipi neipi yevhu yawirwa mukati mayo nechimwe chazvo, munofanira kuiputsa; nezvose zviri mukati mayo zvinofanira kuva zvisina kunaka: Mumudziyo iwoyo, zvokudya zvose zvinodyiwa, kana yamwirwa mvura, zvichava zvisina kunaka, uye chipi nechipi chingamwiwa chingava chisina kunaka (Revhitiko 11:32-34).

Pashure pokunge ndaverenga Revhitiko 11:32-34, zvinoita sokunge imwe nyanzvi yezvipenyu yaiva naMosesi kuti itsanangure nzira dzakanakisisa dzokudzivisa kuparadzira kweSalmonella nohunwe utachiona kubva kune zvinokambaira kuenda kuvanhu. Mosesi angadai akaronga sei zvakarurama mirau yakadaro inodavira kunzwisisa kukuru kwemabhakitiriya? Muravi akatendeseka anofanira kugumisa kuti akanga ane betsero youmwari.

Zviremwaremwa neChimbwamupengo

Mosesi akarambidza zviripachena kuvaIsraeri kudya zviremwaremwa (Revhitiko 11:19). Uchenjeri hwomurayiridzo uyu hunoratidzwa neidi rokuti zviremwaremwa zvinowanzotakura chimbwamupengo. Kunyange zvazvo chiri chokwadi kuti mhuka dzakawanda dzinobatwa nechirwere chechimbwamupengo, zviremwaremwa ndizvo zvakanyanya kudaro. MuKoreji yeAmerican  yeEmergency Physicians yakanyora kuti pakati pe1992 ne2002, chimbwamupengo chakauya kubva kuzviremwaremwa zvakakonzera makumi maviri nemana kufa kwevanhu kubva kuzvibwamupengo muUnited States (“Human Rabies …,” 2002). Muchinyorwa che Sainzi chinotsanangura tsvakurudzo iyi, “Robert V. Gibbons, MD, MPH, weWalter Reed Army Institute of Research muSilver Spring, MD, akaongorora nyaya dzinoita 24 dzevanhu vane chimbwamupengo.” Kubva mutsvakurudzo yake, akayambira “veruzhinji kuti vatsvage rubatsiro rwechimbichimbi rwekudzivirira chimbwamupengo kana kusangana nechiremwaremwa kwakaitika” (“Human Rabies…,” 2002). Murayiridzo waMosesi wokudzivisa zviremwaremwa unowirirana zvakakwana nenzvero yazvino uno. Zvakare, huchenjeri hwepamusoro-soro hwakapiwa kuburikidza naMosesi naMwari hahugoni kurambwa nemudzidzi anongwarira weTestamende Yekare. Senyanzvi yezvinocherwa mumatongo yakakurumbira, W.F. Albright, mukuenzanisa rondedzero yemhuka dzakachena nedzisina kuchena dzakatsanangurwa muPentateuch, akataura kuti mune dzimwe budiriro dzekare, “hatiwani kupatsanurwa kunonzwisisika seizvi mune chero rondedzero yakaomesesa yemhuka kana tsika dzetsika” (1968, p. 180).

Yanya Irimudariro: Kudyiwa kwenguruve

Imwe yemitemo yezvokudya yeTestamende Yekare inonyanya kuzivikanwa ndeyekurambidza kudya nyama yenguruve (Revhitiko 11: 7). Mukunyatsoongorora, kurambidza uku kunoratidza kukosha kwemitemo yeBhaibheri ine chokuita nemhuka dzakachena nedzisina kuchena. Mumazuva aMosesi, mabikirwo ezvokudya akakodzera uye mabikirwo akanga asina nguva dzose. Muchokwadi, ruzivo rwese rwekudikanwa kwekuparadzanisa zvimwe zvikafu zvisina kubikwa, kunyanya nyama, panguva yekugadzirira kubva kune zvimwe zvekudya zvaive zvisipo. Dzimwe nyama, kana dzakabatwa mbishi kana dzisina kubikwa, dzine mukana mukuru wekutakura utachiona uye mamwe mabhakitiriya anokuvadza anogona kukanganisa mutengi (munyaya iyi, vanhu).

Nekuda kwekuti nguruve idzodzi, uye dzinodya chero chinhu, dzinowanzodya zvipembenene nemabhakitiriya padzinodya zvitunha zvedzimwe mhuka dzakafa. Aya maparasite uye mabhakitiriya anogona, uye kazhinji anoita, kugara munyama yenguruve. Kunyatsobika nyama kunogona kuuraya zvipuka izvi zvinokuvadza, asi kutadza kubika nyama zvachose kunogona kukonzera kukanganisa kwakawanda. R.K. Harrison akanyora zvirwere zvakati kana zvimwe zvirwere zvinogona kuitika nekuda kwekudyiwa kwenguruve isina kubikwa. Akataura kuti nguruve kazhinji ndidzo dzine hutachiwana. Kutapukirwa neparasite iyi kunogona kuita kuti tubundu tudiki tubude mumuviri wese, kusanganisira paganda, maziso, uye tsandanyama. Uyezve, mapundu aya anogona kukanganisa uropi uye kukonzera pfari. Pamusoro pazvo, vanhu vanokwanisa kuita chirwere chetrichaniasisi (trichinosis) kubva mukudya zvisina kunyatsobikwa, pamwe nehutachiwana inozivikanwa seEchiococcus granulosus kubva mumvura yakasvibiswa nenguruve. Uyezve, nguruve dzinogona kupfuudza ma microorganisms anokonzera toxoplamosis, chirwere chinokanganisa hurongwa hwemagetsi (Harrison, 1982, p. 644).

Nekuda kweruzivo rwakadzama rwezvezvipembenene uye utachiona, vaverengi vemazuva ano vari kuwedzera kuenderana nenjodzi dzekudya nyama yenguruve mbishi kana isina kubikwa. Muchokwadi, nyama yenguruve yakawanda inotengwa muzvitoro zvegirosari ine zvinhu zvakaiswa munyama kudzivirira kukura kwehutachiona hunokuvadza. Asi Mosesi navaIsraeri vakanga vasingakwanisi kuwana zivo yazvino uno yakadaro. Kunodaro sei kuti mirau yezvokudya yakanyorwa naMosesi makore anopfuura 3 000 apfuura ine nzwisiso yakarurama yakadaro yokudzora hosha? Albright akacherechedza maererano neizvi, “nekuda kwemitemo yezvokudya uye yehutsanana yemutemo waMosesi … nhoroondo yakatevera yakaratidzwa nekubudirira kukuru mune izvi zvaiitwa nevaJudha pamusoro pemamwe marudzi ose akafanana nemapoka ezvitendero” (1968, p. 181).

Kudzingiswa

Mubhuku raGenesisi, ndima yacho inorondedzera kuti Mwari akasarudza Abrahamu nevazukuru vake kuti vave vanhu “vakatsaurwa” vakanga vakatsaurwa kubva kune mamwe marudzi ose. Sungano yakaitwa naMwari naAbrahamu yaisanganisira “chiratidzo” chaicho chaizoshandiswa muzvizvarwa zvose zvaizotevera zvevazukuru vaAbrahamu. Maererano norugwaro, Mwari akati:

Une mazuva masere pakati penyu unofanira kudzingiswa, pamazera enyu, unoberekerwa mumba mako, neunotengwa nemari kumutorwa upi neupi, usiri wembeu yako. Unoberekerwa mumba mako newakatengwa nemari yako unofanira kudzingiswa, uye sungano yangu ichava panyama yenyu, ive sungano yekusingaperi. Zvino chirume chisina kudzingiswa, chine nyama yechikanda chepamberi isina kudzingiswa, munhu uyo anofanira kubviswa pakati porudzi rwake; aputsa sungano yangu (Genesi 17:12-14).

Saka, sungano yakaitwa naAbrahamu nevana vake yaifanira kuiswa chiratidzo chisingadzimiki munyama yemukomana wose.

Kubatanidzwa kwouyu muitiro wokurapa, wokuvhiya kunogovera mumwe muenzaniso wakaisvonaka woruzivo rwokurapa rworugwaro rweBhaibheri. Zvinhu zviviri zvakakosha zvekudzingiswa kwebhaibheri zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa. Kutanga, kubva pane izvo mishonga yemazuva ano yakakwanisa kuunganidza, kudzingiswa kunogona kuderedza mikana yekuwana zvimwe zvirwere. Chiremba wevana, Dorothy Greenbaum akati maererano nezvakanakira kuchecheudzwa pautano: “Mukurapa, kuchecheudzwa kune utano nekuti kunoderedza zvakanyanya kuwanda kwechirwere cheweti kuvakomana, zvikuru avo vari pasi pegore. Zvimwe zvidzidzo zvinodudzwa mubumbiro remitemo yevana zvinoshuma ka10 kusvika ka20 kuwanda kweutachiona hwetsvina muvanhu vasina kuchecheudzwa kana vachienzaniswa nevakomana vakachecheudzwa.” Akataura zvakare kuti zvirwere zvepabonde zvinopfuudzwa nyore nyore pakati pevarume vasina kuchecheudzwa (2006). Pamusoro pezvo, kuchecheudzwa kunobvisa mukana wegomarara repeni. Muchinyorwa chakanzi “Benefits of Circumcision,” rugwaro rwakati: “Kuchecheudzwa kwevacheche kunopedza njodzi [yegomarara resikarudzi-KB]” uye “gomarara resikarudzi rinoitika zvachose muvarume vasina kudzingiswa” (Morris, 2006). [Cherechedza: Basa raMorris rinonyanya kufarirwa nekuda kwekuti rine rusaruro rwemhindumupindu uye harina kunyorerwa kusimbisa kutenda mune rekodhi rebhaibheri.]

Haisi chete litani yezvibatsiro zvehutano zvinogona kuunganidzwa kukurudzira tsika yekuchecheudzwa kwevacheche, asi zuva iro rekodhi rebhaibheri rinoraira kuti tsika iyi iitwe rakakosha zvakanyanya zvakare. Basa reencyclopedic Holt Pediatrics nhasi richiri rimwe remabhuku ane simba zvikuru ati ambonyorwa pamusoro pokuchengeta vana, chirwere chevana, nezvimwe zvinonetsa utano maererano nevana. Kutanga kunyorwa muna 1896 naL. Emmet Holt, Jr. uye kudzokororwa kunoverengeka kusvikira mugore ra1953, rinoda kusvika gore remapeji 1 500 muunganidzwa mukuru wemishonga “yazvino uno” yezuva rayo. Chimwe chikamu, chinotangira papeji 125 yechigumi nembiri, chine musoro unoti “Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn.” Ruzivo rwakasanganisirwa muchikamu chinodonongodza kuitika kwekubuda ropa kweapo neapo pakati pevachangozvarwa izvo dzimwe nguva zvinogona kukonzera kukuvadzwa kwakanyanya kunhengo huru dzakaita seuropi, uye kunyange rufu. Muhurukuro ine chokuita nezvikonzero zvokubuda ropa kwakadaro, vanyori vanocherechedza kuti kubuda ropa kwakanyanyisa kunonyanya kukonzerwa nokuderera kwechikamu cheprothrombin, ichowo chinoparirwa nokusakwana kwevhitamini K. Rugwaro rwacho runotaurawo kuti kubatwa kwevana “kwakatoshamisa. ” (zvinoreva kuti “pamusoro”) “pakati pezuva rechipiri nerechishanu roupenyu” (1953, p. 126).

Muchimiro chechati, Holt Pediatrics inoratidza kuti chikamu cheprothrombin chiripo mumwana achangoberekwa chinonyura kubva pa90% chenguva dzose pazuva raazvarwa kusvika pa35% pazuva rechitatu rekurarama kunze kwechibereko. Mushure mezuva rechitatu, prothrombin inowanikwa inotanga kukwira. Pakazosvika zuva rechisere rehupenyu hwemwana, inowanikwa yeprothrombin inenge 110% yenguva dzose, inenge 20% yakakwirira kudarika zuva rokutanga, uye inenge 10% kupfuura iyo ichava munguva yehupenyu hwemwana. Mashoko akadai anoratidza kuti zuva rechisere ndiro zuva rakakwana rekuita oparesheni huru yakaita sekuchecheudzwa.

Mosesi akaziva sei mashoko ane udzame akadaro pamusoro pokubuda ropa kuchangoberekwa? Vamwe vakakarakadza kuti VaHebheru vapakuvamba vakacherekedza zvakawanda pamusoro pavachangobva kuberekwa kuti vaone zuva rakakwana rokuvhiyiwa. Asi pfungwa yakadaro ine zvishoma. McMillen naStern vakati:

Mabhuku ezvokurapa azvino uno dzimwe nguva anokarakadza kuti vaHebheru vainzvera nokungwarira kombamiro dzokubuda ropa. Asi humbowo ndehupi? Kubuda ropa kwakanyanya kunoitika mumwana mumwe chete pa200. Kusarudza zuva rakachengeteka rekuchecheudzwa kungadai kwakada kuedza kwakangwarira, kucherechedza zviuru zvekuchecheudzwa. Abrahama (mufambi wekare, aigara mugwenga) angadai akaita izvozvo here (2000, peji 84)?

Kutaura idi, kururama kunoshamisa kwakadaro kwokurapa hakugoni kuverengwa nokuda kwoungwaru hwomunhu munyika yekare. Kudai kudzingiswa uriwo bedzi muenzaniso wokururama kwakadaro, uye manyoro echiHebheru akanga akazara nemirayiro yezvokurapa isina kururama, inokuvadza, tsananguro yakadaro ingava inonzwisisika. Asi chokwadi chekuti Testamende Yekare yese ine maitiro ekurapa angangove achibatsira munyika dzechitatu dzepasirese, pasina kakukanganisika maererano nechero mushonga; kutarisira kwaMwari ndiyo chete mhinduro ine musoro.

MHEDZISO

Muchokwadi, mabhuku ese anogona kunyorwa pamusoro peTestamende Yekare yezvekurapa inoshamisa. Vanachiremba McMillen naStern vakaita izvozvo muvhoriyamu yavo inonakidza kwazvo Hapana cheZvirwere Izvi. Vanachiremba vakawanda vakaenzanisa mirayiridzo yaMosesi yokurapa nemitoo yemazuva ano inoshanda vakasvika pakuziva kukosha kunoshamisa uye kunzwisisa kwemagwaro eTestamende Yekare. Sokunyora kwakaita Dhokota Macht: “Shoko rimwe nerimwe muMagwaro echiHebheru rakanyatsosarudzwa uye rine zivo inokosha noukoshi hwakadzama” (Macht, 1953, p. 450). Ndizvo zvazvinoita maererano nemiitiro yokurapa yakarongwa mumapeji aro. Zvamazvirokwazvo, miitiro yokurapa yakarurama yakarongwa zviuru zvamakore revo yawo isati yanzwisiswa zvakakwana inogovera ufakazi hwakaisvonaka hwokufuridzirwa kwouMwari kweBhaibheri.

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Yakabudiswa Zvita 3, 2006

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