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Kubatana kweBhaibheri

Vanhu vakawanda vanoverenga Bhaibheri muzana remakore rechi 21 havawanzomira kuti vafunge nezvemabhuku 66 akasiyana-siyana anoumba Magwaro matsvene. Nekuti mabhuku makumi matanhatu nematanhatu anopindirana zvakanyanya, zviri nyore kuatora sechikamu chimwe chezvisikwa. Madingindira makuru nenyaya kubva munaGenesi, bhuku rekutanga reBhaibheri, anoyerera nemumabhuku asara, uye zvaanoreva nezvaanoreva zvinokudziridzwa muraibhurari yese yebhaibheri. Nemhaka yokubatana kwaro kusingachinji, vashomanana vanotora nguva yokufunga kuti mabhuku 66 eBhaibheri akanyorwa neboka guru revanyori munguva kwenguva refu. Mabhuku mashanu ekutanga eTestamente Yekare akanyorwa naMosesi munenge muna 1,450 B.C. (ona Lyons and Staff, 2003). Zvakazarurwa, bhuku rekupedzisira reTestamente Itsva, rakanyorwa naJohane, mupostora waJesu uye mukoma waJakobho, pakati pemakore 60-100 A.D. (ona Guthrie, 1970, p. 949-961). Nokudaro, kuumbwa kweraibhurari yose yemabhuku 66 kwakatora makore anenge 1 600.

Mumakore iwayo, mabhuku eBhaibheri akanyorwa nevarume vanenge 40 vane mamiriro ezvinhu akasiyana-siyana, tsika, uye dzidzo. Bhuku raAmosi rakanyorwa nomufudzi wemombe wokuTekoa (1:1). Mapisarema akawanda akanyorwa naDhavhidhi, mufudzi-mukomana akange akatendeuka kuva mambo. Ezra, “munyori ane unyanzvi muMutemo waMosesi,” akanyora bhuku rine zita rake (7:6). Nehemia, mudiri waMambo Artaxerxes, akanyora bhuku reTestamende Yekare rakatumidzwa zita rake. Mambo Soromoni, aizivikanwa munyika yekare nokuda kwouchenjeri hwake hukuru, akanyora bhuku raZvirevo nemabhuku ose aMuparidzi uye Rwiyo rwaSoromoni. Muapostora Pauro, murume akadzidza zvikuru patsoka dzemudzidzisi wechiJudha Gamarieri, akanyora 13 pamabhuku 27 eTestamente Itsva. Ruka, chiremba womuzana remakore rokutanga, akanyora nhoroondo yeevhangeri ine zita rake uyewo mubhuku reMabasa. Vamwe vanyori veTestamende Itsva vaisanganisira Johane naPetro, vaive vabati vehove vasina kudzidza.

Kutaura kuti vanyori veBhaibheri vakanga vakasiyana-siyana kwaizova kushora. Bva, kunyange zvazvo migariro yavo yedzidzo netsika yaisiyana zvikuru, uye kunyange zvazvo vamazhinji vawo vakaparadzaniswa namazana amakore anoverengeka, mabhuku 66 anoumba Bhaibheri anowirirana zvakakwana. Kuita basa rakadaro nokungoshandisa njere nouchenjeri zvomunhu zvaisazobvira. Kutaura zvazviri, hazvingaiti mukuona kwevanhu kuunganidza zvakanyorwa nevarume 40 vetsika imwe chete, vane ruzivo rwakafanana, panguva imwe cheteyo, uye kuwana chero chinhu chipi zvacho pedyo nekubatana kunooneka muBhaibheri. Kubatana kweBhaibheri chikamu chouchapupu hunoshamisa hunoratidza mavambo aro ouMwari. Rutivi rwasara rwechinyorwa chino ruchatsaurirwa kuratidza mativi akati kuti akasiyana-siyana echinzwano cheBhaibheri. [Cherechedza: Mumwe wemienzaniso yekutanga yekubatana kweBhaibheri wakanangana nezviporofita zvaMesiasi zviri muTestamende Yekare uye kuzadzikiswa kwahwo muTestamende Itsva. Dingindira raMesiasi ndiro riri pasi pezvinyorwa zvese zvemabhuku 66 eBhaibheri, uye rakamboongororwa mu Chikonzero & Zvakazarurwa (ona. Butt, 2006a).]

KUBATANA KWERONDEDZERO YEZVINHU

Vazhinji vavanyori veBhaibheri vakashandisa nhauro dzenhau kunyora zviitiko zvaiva nechokuita nezvinyorwa zvavo. Nhau dzakadai seareka yaNoa neMafashamo, matambudziko gumi muEgipita, uye Dhanieri akakandirwa kushumba dzinozivikanwa kunyange pakati paavo vane zivo shomanene yeBhaibheri. Kunyatsoongorora mabhuku 66 eBhaibheri kunokurumidza kuratidza kubatana kunoshamisa kuri pakati pemabhuku aya paanenge achitaura nezvenhoroondo dzakadaro.

Mafashamo aNoa

Nhoroondo yenhau inorondedzera zviitiko zveMafashamo enyika yose aNoa inopa muenzaniso wakaisvonaka wekubatana kweBhaibheri. Muna Genesi 6-9, Mosesi akanyora zviitiko zvakakomberedza chiitiko chikuru chenjodzi munhoroondo yePasi. Munyaya iyi, Mwari akasarudza murume ainzi Noa kuti avake areka huru yaizotakura mhuka mbiri mbiri dzemarudzi ose, vanhu vasere (Noa, mudzimai wake, vanakomana vake vatatu, nemadzimai avo—Genesisi 7:13) zvese zvinodiwa. Noa paakapedza kuvaka ngarava iyi inoshamisa, Genesisi anonyora kuti Mwari akatuma mafashamo kuti aparadze pasi rose. Rugwaro rwacho runoti: “Mvura ikakwirira kwazvo kwazvo panyika, zvikomo zvose zvakakwirira zviri pasi pedenga rose zvakafukidzwa . . . Zvipenyu zvose zvaifamba panyika zvikafa, zvaiti: shiri, nemombe, nemhuka, nezvose zvinokambaira, zvaikambaira panyika, navanhu vose.”— Genesi 7:19-21 . Mafashamo enyika yose akaparadza zvisikwa zvose zvaiva nomweya woupenyu kunze kweizvo zvakaponeswa muareka. Zviitiko izvi zvakanyorwa naMosesi munenge muna 1,450 B.C.

Sezvatinonzvera mabhuku asara eBhaibheri, tinowana tsinhirano yakakwana pamusoro pezviitiko zvakapoteredza Noa, vazukuru vake, uye Mafashamo enyika yose. Muna 1 Makoronike, chinyorwa chacho chinokarakadza kuti vanakomana vatatu vaNoa vaiva Shemu, Hamu, naJafeti, sezvinongoita Genesi 7:13 (1:4). Muprofita Isaya akataurawo nezvaNoa (chitsauko 54). Murugwaro irworwo, muprofita wacho akanyora mashoko akataurwa naMwari kuvaIsraeri vomuzuva raIsaya, okuti: “Nokuti izvi zvakaita semvura yaNoa kwandiri; nokuti sezvandakapika kuti mvura yaNowa haingazofukidzizve nyika, saizvozvo ndakapika kuti handichazokutsamwira, kana kukutuka” (54:9). Mhiko iyo Isaya akanongedzera kwairi inowanwa pana Genesi 9:11 , apo Mwari akati kuna Noa: “Saizvozvo ndinosimbisa sungano yangu newe: Zvipenyu zvose hazvingazoparadzwizve nemvura yamafashamo; hakuchazovizve nemafashamo kuti aparadze nyika. Zvinoshamisa kuti tsinhiro yaIsaya inoratidza kunzwisisa kwakakwana uye kuziva zvakataurwa naMwari kuna Noa, asi zvakanyorwa nomuprofita wacho zvakaparadzaniswa nekunyora kwaMosesi kwePentateuch nemakore anopfuura 600. Mukuwedzera, muporofita Ezekieri akabvuma nhau yaNoa apo akanyora Shoko raMwari kuvaIsraeri vomuzuva rake, kuti: “‘Kana kuti kana ndikatuma hosha yakaipa munyika iyo, ndikadurura hasha dzangu pamusoro payo neropa, ndikaparadzapo munhu. nemhuka, kunyange nowa naDhanyeri naJobho vaivamo, noupenyu hwangu ndizvo zvinotaura Ishe Jehovha, hadzina kurwira mwanakomana kana mwanasikana; vaizozvirwira ivo vamene bedzi nokururama kwavo.”— 14:19-20.

Mabhuku eTestamente Itsva anoratidza kubatana kumwechete maererano nenhau yaNowa seayo ekare. Mateo anonyora mashoko aJesu pamusoro paNoa: “Asi sezvakanga zvakaita mazuva aNoa, ndizvo zvichaitawo kuuya kwoMwanakomana woMunhu. Nekuti sapamazuva mafashame asati auya, vaidya nokunwa, vachiwana, nokuwaniswa, kusvikira zuva iro Nowa raakapinda naro muareka, uye vakanga vasingazivi, kusvikira mafashame asvika, avabvisa vose, kuchaita saizvozvowo kuuya kwaNoa. Mwanakomana womunhu ngaave” (24:36-39). Cherechedza pfungwa dzinobvumirana pakati pemashoko aJesu nezvakanyorwa muna Genesisi. Jesu akati Noa ndiye murume akavaka areka. Akataurawo kuti mafashamo makuru akavaparadza “vose,” achireva munhu wose aiva kunze kweareka, sezvakatsanangurwa nenhoroondo yaGenesi. Kutaura idi, kunyange zvazvo Jesu asina kudonongodza muudzame hukuru, rutivi rwuri rwose rwokutaura Kwake runobvumirana zvakakwana namashoko akanyorwa muTestamende Yekare pamusoro peMafashamo. Ruka akanyora zvakafanana naJesu muna Ruka 17:26-27, inova ndima inofambirana naMateo 24:36-39. Akaratidza kubatana kwokuwedzera naGenesi mukuti akanyora kuti mwanakomana waNoa aiva Shemu (Ruka 3:36).

Muna VaHebheru 11 , munyori weBhaibheri akati: “Nokutenda Noa, wakati anyeverwa pamusoro pezvinhu zvichigere kuonekwa, nokutya Mwari akagadzira areka kuti aponese mhuri yake; mukururama kunobva pakutenda” (11:7) Ichi chinyorwa chaVaHebheru chinowirirana nedzimwe ndima dzakasiana-siana dzinoratidzira kuti Noa akavaka areka iyo mhuri yake yakaponeswa nayo. Uyezve, muapostora Petro akadudza kaviri Noa neMafashamo enyika yose. Akati: “Kushivirira kwoumwari pakwakamirira mumazuva aNoa, areka payakanga ichigadzirwa, umo vashoma, iyo mweya misere, yakaponeswa nemvura” (1 Petro 3:20). Akatiwo: “[Ini] kana Mwari asina kurega ngirozi dzakatadza, asi akadzikanda mugehena akadziisa mumaketani erima, kuti dzichengeterwe kutongwa; uye haana kuregerera nyika yekare, asi akaponesa Noa, mumwe wevanhu vasere, muparidzi wokururama, paakauyisa mafashamo panyika yevasingadi Mwari.” (2 Petro 2:5) Chokwadi, Noa, muparidzi wokururama, akanga ari mumwe wevanhu vasere. Cherekedza zvinhu zvinoverengeka pamusoro petsinhiro dzaPetro pamusoro paNoa. Kutanga, anonyora kuti Noa ndiye murume akavaka areka. Anobva ataura nhamba chaiyo yevanhu vakaponeswa muareka iyoyo—vasere. Iyi nhamba inowirirana zvakakwana nokutaura kuri muna Genesi 7:13 umo Mosesi akataura kuti Noa, mudzimai wake, vanakomana vake vatatu, uye vadzimai vavo vakaponeswa. Kupfuurirazve, Petro anotaura kuti Mafashamo akaparadza “vasingadi Mwari.” Rondedzero yake yemararamiro avo vakaparadzwa muMafashamo inowirirana zvakakwana nenhauro yaGenesi inoti: “Ipapo Jehovha wakaona kuti kuipa kwomunhu kwakanga kuri kukuru panyika, uye kuti ndangariro dzokufunga kwomwoyo wake dzakanga dzakaipa bedzi nguva dzose.” (Genesi 6:5). Nokudaro, kubva mubhuku rekutanga reTestamente Yekare kusvika kuna 2 Petro, rimwe remabhuku ekupedzisira akanyorwa muTestamente Itsva, Bhaibheri rinoratidza kubatana kwakakwana uye kwakakwana mukubata kwaro naNoa neMafashamo. [Cherechedza: Hachisi chinangwa chekurukurirano iyi kuratidza uchokwadi uye chokwadi cheMafashamo enyika yose aNoa. Izvo zvakaitwa zvinobudirira kumwe kunhu (ona Thompson, 1999). Chinangwa chikuru cheiyi kurukurirano ndechokuratidza kuti vanyori veBhaibheri vakasiyana-siyana vanobvumirana mumwe nomumwe mukunzvera kwavo kwomunhu oga nokutaura pamusoro paNoa neMafashamo.]

Sodhoma neGomora

Mazita emaguta eSodhoma neGomora akafanana nouipi mumabhuku ose eBhaibheri. Genesisi anotsanangura kuti Abrahamu naRoti vakanga vachifamba pamwe chete vabva muguta reHarani. Nekuda kwekuwanda kwemombe dzevarume vaviri ava, vafudzi vavo vakatanga kunetsana. Asingadi kuti mudzi upi noupi wegakava utange pakati pavo, Abrahama akakumbira Roti kusarudza nyika yaaizotora, uye Abrahama akakarakadza kuti aizoparadzana naRoti kupfurikidza nokutamira kune imwe nzvimbo. Roti akatarira kubani reJoridhani ndokuona kuti rakanga rine mvura yakawanda, naizvozvo “akadzika tende rake kusvikira kuSodhoma” (Genesi 13:12). Muchinyorwa nokukurumidza pashure pesarudzo yaRoti, Bhaibheri rinoti: “Asi varume veSodhoma vakanga vakaipa kwazvo, vakatadzira Jehovha.”—Genesi 13:13.

Sodhomu neGomora rakanga rakaipa kwazvo zvokuti Jehovha akafunga kuparadza maguta acho nokutumira moto nesarufa zvichiburuka kubva kudenga kuti zviaparadze. Muna Genesi 19, ndima yacho inotsanangura kuti Roti akaratidza mutsa kungirozi dzakatumwa kubva kuna Mwari. Roti akaedza kudzivirira ngirozi kuti dzisabatwa zvisina kunaka nevarume veSodhoma. ngirozi dzakabatsirawo Roti kutiza guta racho Mwari asati ariparadza. Rugwaro rwacho runonyorawo kuti mudzimai waRoti haana kuteerera murayiro waMwari wakapiwa nengirozi paakatarira shure kuguta. Sechirango chokusateerera kwake, akachinjwa kuva shongwe yomunyu (Genesi 19:26).

Mumabhuku ose eBhaibheri 66, kuparadzwa kweSodhoma neGomora kunotaurwa somuenzaniso wokuvenga kunoita Mwari chivi uye kutonga kwake kwakarurama. Guta reSodhoma rinotaurwa kanopfuura ka40. Ruzhinji rwezviitiko izvi zvine chekuita nekuparadzwa kwakaunzwa paguta nekuda kwehuipi hwevagari varo. Muporofita Isaya, mukuporofita pamusoro poruparadziko rweBhabhironi, akacherekedza kuti guta rakashata raizova “sepanguva yakaparadza Mwari Sodhoma neGomora” (13:19). Muuporofita hwaJeremia pamusoro porudzi rwaEdhomi, muprofita wacho akati: “‘Sokupandukirwa kweSodhoma neGomora nevavakidzani vayo,’ ndizvo zvinotaura Jehovha, ‘Hapana achasara imomo, uyewo hapana mwanakomana womunhu achagara mairi.’” (Jeremia 49:18). Jeremia akatiwo: “Kurangwa kwezvakaipa zvomukunda wavanhu vangu kukuru kupfuura kurohwa kwechivi cheSodhoma, iro rakaparadzwa kamwe-kamwe, kusina ruoko rungamubatsira.” (Mariro 4:6). Ezekieri akataura kuti Sodhoma yaizvikudza uye yakaita zvinonyangadza pamberi paJehovha, naizvozvo Jehovha akabvisa guta sezvaaiona zvakakodzera (16:50). Amosi akataurawo nezvekuparadzwa kweSodhoma neGomora uye akabatanidza nemoto nekupisa (4:11).

Mabhuku eTestamente Itsva anopa mufananidzo umwechete unotyisa wehuipi nekuparadzwa sevakatangira muTestamende Yekare. Munhoroondo yake yevhangeri, Ruka akanyora mashoko aJesu, anoti: “Sezvazvaivawo mumazuva aRoti: Vaidya, vainwa, vaitenga, vaitengesa, vaidyara, vaivaka; asi nezuva iro Roti akabuda muSodhoma kwakanaya moto nesarufa zvichibva kudenga zvikavaparadza vose” (17:28-29 , emp. anovedzera). Cherechedza kufanana pakati pechirevo chakataurwa naJesu nerondedzero yeTestamente Yekare. Kutanga, Roti akabatanidzwa neguta reSodhoma. Chechipiri, guta racho rakaparadzwa pa“zuva” rakasiya Roti, sezvinotaura nhoroondo yaGenesi. Chechitatu, kuparadzwa kwakakonzerwa nomoto nesarufa zvakatumwa kubva kudenga (tarisa. Genesi. 19:24). Uyezve, muna Ruka 17:31-32 , apo Jesu akarayira vateereri vake kuti vasacheuke pavakatiza Jerusarema, akati: “Yeukai mudzimai waRoti.” Zviri pachena kuti akanga achireva kuti akachinjwa kuva shongwe yomunyu paakatarira shure kuSodhoma.

Muapostora Petro akacherechedza kuti Mwari akaparadza Sodhoma neGomora, achiaita madota, asi akaponesa Roti akanga akarurama akanga adzvinyirirwa nomufambiro wakaipa wevaSodhoma (2 Petro 2:6-8 ; enzanisa Judhasi 7). Kururama kwaRoti kunonongedzerwa naPetro uye kunoonekwa munhoroondo yaGenesi paakatarisana nevarume vakaipa veSodhoma vakanga vakatsunga kushungurudza ngirozi dzaishanya. Roti akabuda akaenda kuvaSodhoma ndokuti: “Ndapota, hama dzangu, musaita zvakaipa kudaro.” (Genesi 19:7) Roti akabuda akaenda kuSodhoma. Zvakare, muapostora Johane anotaura zvishoma nezveuipi hweSodhoma muna Zvakazarurwa 11:8. Saka, kubva mubhuku rekutanga reTestamende yekare kusvika kubhuku rekupedzisira reTestamente Itsva, tine mufananidzo yakanyatsobatanidzwa yekuparadzwa kwemaguta eSodhoma neGomora zvichibva pakuipa kwawo.

Chokwadi, nhoroondo dzeMafashamo aNoa nokuparadzwa kweSodhoma neGomora inongova miviri bedzi yemazana chaiwoiwo emienzaniso inogona kubudiswa kubvumikisa chinzwano cheBhaibheri. Nhau dzaMosesi, Abrahama, Adhama naEvha, Kaini naAbheri, Jakobho naEsau, Josefa, Dhanieri, uye Jona dzinogovera mienzaniso inoorora yakaenzana yetsinhirano yakakwana yeBhaibheri.

KUBATANA KWETSIKA KWEBHAIBHERI

Mabhuku eBhaibheri ane misoro yetsika yakasiana-siana inobatwa nenzira yakafanana mundaza yose yemabhuku 66. Ndaza yemisoro yose yakadaro yaizopedza mwoyo murefu womuverengi, uye yaizoda gwaro rinoenzana pakureba neBhaibheri rimene. Muenzaniso mupfupi, zvisinei, weidzi nhau dzetsika unobvumikisa kuva unofadza uye unokosha kukurukurirano yose yokubatana kweBhaibheri.

Kunyepa

MuBhaibheri rose, vanyori vanoramba vachitaura nhema nenzira isina kunaka, vachiirondedzera sechivi. Muna Johane 8:44 , Jesu anonokorwa mashoko seanotaura kuti Dhiyabhorosi “haamiri muzvokwadi, nokuti maari hamuna zvokwadi. Kana achireva nhema, unoreva zvake, nekuti murevi wenhema, nababa vadzo. Mashoko aJesu pamusoro padhiyabhorosi anotsigirwa nebhuku raGenesi, umo dhiyabhorosi akanyengera Evha kuti afunge kuti aizopukunyuka rufu kunyange kana akasateerera Mwari ndokudya muchero wakarambidzwa (Genesi 3:1-5, 13). Muapostora Pauro akapupurirawo kunyengera kwaEvha muna 1 Timotio 2:14—“Uye Adhama haana kunyengerwa, asi mukadzi akanyengerwa akava mukudarika.”

Kubva muzvitsauko zvekutanga zvaGenesi, umo nhema dzekutanga dzadhiabhorosi dzakanyorwa, kusvika kubhuku rekupedzisira raZvakazarurwa, kunyepa kunoshorwa zvakanyanya. Mosesi akakwira Gomo reSinai ndokugamuchira Mirairo ine Gumi kubva kuna Mwari, wechipfumbamwe waiti, “Usapupurira wokwako nhema” (Dhuteronomio 5:20), kana kuti nemamwe mashoko, “usareva nhema pamusoro pomuvakidzani wako. ” Munyori wepisarema akanyora kuti: “Nhema ndinodzivenga uye ndinodzisema; Soromoni, murume akachenjera zvikurusa akararama munguva yake, akanyora kuti: “Zvinhu zvitanhatu izvi zvinovengwa naJehovha… rurimi runoreva nhema… chapupu chinonyengera chinoreva nhema” (Zvirevo 6:16-19). Vaporofita veTestamente Yekare vakanyora mashoko akafanana pamusoro pokureva nhema: “Chienda zvino, uzvinyore pamberi pavo pabwendefa… kuti ava rudzi runondimukira, vana vane nhema, vana vasingadi kunzwa murayiro waJehovha.”— Isaya 30:8-9)

Testamente Itsva inoenderera mberi nepfungwa yeTestamente Yekare mukushora kwayo kunyepa. Pane imwe nhambo, rimwe jaya rakapfuma rakauya kuna Jesu, richimubvunza chaidikanwa kuti riwane nhaka youpenyu husingaperi. Jesu akapindura nekumuudza kuti achengete mirairo. Jaya racho rakazobvunza Jesu mirayiro yaaifanira kuchengeta. Jesu akati: “Usaita upombwe, usauraya, usaba, usapupura nhema, usabiridzira, kudza baba namai vako.” (Mako 10:19 , NW). Mukutaura nezvekunyepa, zvakatocherechedzwa kuti Jesu akati chiitiko chakadai chakaitwa nadhiyabhorosi, uye akachishora sechiito chisiri chekare kuhunhu hwaMwari (Johane 8:44).

Ruka, munyori webhuku raMabasa, akanyora nyaya yaAnaniasi naSafira, umo Mwari akauraya murume nomudzimai wake nokuda kwokunyepa (Mabasa 5:1-11). Muapostora Pauro, mutsamba yake kumuparidzi muduku Tito, akataura kuti Mwari haangarevi nhema (Tito 1:2). Pauro akanyorerawo vaKristu vomuEfeso kuti: “Naizvozvo, muchirasa nhema, mumwe nomumwe ngaataure chokwadi nomuvakidzani wake, nokuti tiri mitezo yomumwe nomumwe.” (VaEfeso 4:25) Pauro akanyorera vaKristu vokuEfeso kuti: Muna Zvakazarurwa, bhuku rokupedzisira reTestamende Itsva, Johane akanyora, kuti: “Asi mbwende, navasingatendi, navanonyangadza, nemhondi, nemhombwe, navaroyi, navanonamata zvifananidzo, navose varevi venhema, vachava nomugove wavo mudziva rinopfuta nomoto nesarufa, ndirwo rufu rwechipiri” (Zvakazarurwa 21:8).

Pasina kukundikana, munyori wose weBhaibheri anotsinhira pamusoro poukoshi hwetsika hwokureva nhema anoshora tsika yacho. Iri idi, pakutanga, ringaratidzika kuva risingashamisi, sezvo vazhinji vachifunga kuti kureva nhema kwave kuchishorwa netsika dzose munhau yose. Asi hazvina kudaro. Mune mamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, vazivi vakawanda nevadzidzisi vetsika vakakarakadza kuti kureva nhema kunogona kugamuchirwa mune mamwe mamiriro ezvinhu. Munyori asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari Dan Barker akanyora kuti: “Tose tinoziva kuti pane dzimwe nguva zvakakodzera kureva nhema kuitira kudzivirira mumwe munhu kubva pakukuvadzwa” (1992, p. 345, emp. yakawedzerwa). Barker ipapo anoenzanisira nemuenzaniso womumwe mukadzi ari kuvhimwa nomurume wake anoshinha, uye akagumisa, kuti: “Ndinokurangarira kuva chiito chetsika kureva nhema kumurume.” Bva, havasati vachingova bedzi vafungi vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vakadai saBarker vakakarakadza kuti kureva nhema kunogona kuva kwetsika. Vanyori vechechi vekare vairemekedzwa Origen naJohn Chrysostom vose vaidavira uye vakanyora kuti mumamiriro ezvinhu akati, kureva nhema kwaigona kugamuchirwa mutsika. Uye muzivi wechiGiriki Plato akatora chimiro chakafanana (ona Slater, 2007).

Asi Bhaibheri rinotaura kuti kureva nhema nguva dzose kwakaipa mutsika, hakutongobvumirwi mutsika. Mukati memakore 1 600 okubudiswa kwaro, mabhuku eBhaibheri anoramba achitsigira pfungwa yokuti kureva nhema unzenza. Muitiro wacho hauna kumboruramiswa nomumwe wevanyori makumi mana vakasiyana. Kunyange zvazvo vatsoropodzi vachiti Bhaibheri rinobvumira kunyepa mune mamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, kupomerwa kwakadaro kwakaratidza kuti hakuna nheyo uye nhema (ona Thompson naEstabrook, 2004). Hapana munyori weBhaibheri mumwe akatsveyama kunyange chikamu chiduku mukushurikidza pamwe chete kwokureva nhema souipi hwetsika.

Mienzaniso yokuwedzera yechinzwano chetsika cheBhaibheri inogona kududzwa nyore nyore, kubatanidza kushurikidza kweBhaibheri upombwe, murairo wokukudza vabereki vako, kurambidza kuba uye vazhinji vavamwe. [Cherechedza: Mupokani dzimwe nguva anopokana kuti sezvo Mutemo weTestamende Yekare usingachashandi uye mirau yeTestamente Itsva ichisiyana neyekare, saka tsika dzaMwari dzakashandukawo. Zvisinei, kupomerwa uku manyepo. Nekushandura hurongwa hwezvibayiro zvemhuka uye zvisungo zvenyama muTesitamende Yekare, tsika dzaMwari hadzina kushanduka. Somuenzaniso, kana mitemo yebaseball ikachinja kuti munhu arove kana pane katatu, izvozvo hazvirevi kuti munhu wacho aigona kubiridzira achishandisa chiremwaremwa chine uremu. Shanduko mumirau haina kuenzana nekuchinja kwekutonga kwetsika.]

KUBATANA KWEDZIDZISO DZETESTAMENDI ITSVA

Vakuru Zvinodiwa

Chaizvoizvo zviuru zvezviitiko zvechibvumirano chemukati pakati pemabhuku eTestamente Itsva zvinogona kunyorwa. Mumwe muenzaniso wakadaro unobatanidza kududzwa kwamanomano kwaPetro somukuru. Muna 1 Petro 5:1, ndima yacho inoti: “Ndinokurudzira vakuru vari pakati penyu, ini mukuru pamwe chete nemi uye chapupu chematambudziko aKristu, uye nomugovani wokubwinya kuchazoratidzwa.” Refariro idi rokuti, kuti ave mukuru, murume anofanira kuva “murume womukadzi mumwe,” sezvinotaurwa naPauro mutsamba yake kuna Tito (1:6). Kubva mukurava nhoroondo yaRuka youpenyu hwaJesu, tinowana kuti pane imwe nhambo Jesu akashanyira imba yaSimoni Petro, panguva iyo Iye akarapa “mai vomukadzi” vaPetro vakanga vane fivha huru (4:38). Nokudaro, tinoziva kuti Petro akanga akaroora uye aizosvitsa chinodikanwa chokuva mukuru kupfurikidza nokuva murume womudzimai mumwe. Chinofadzazve idi rokuti muapostora Pauro, kunyange zvazvo akagovera dzidziso huru nekuvaka kuchechi, haasati achitongorondedzerwa seane chinzvimbo chomukuru muchechi. Mashoko ari pana 1 VaKorinde 7 anoratidza kuti Pauro akaramba asina kuroora kana kuroorwa kuitira kuti aise pfungwa dzake paushumiri hwake. Nokudaro, Pauro angadai asina kuva murume womudzimai mumwe, uye angadai asina kukwaniriswa kuva mukuru. Apo aya maidi anobatanidzwa, ipapoka, tinogona kunzwisisa kuti kutaura kwamanomano kuri mumabhuku a1 Petro, Tito, Ruka, uye 1 VaKorinte anopindirana zvakakwana kupa mufananidzo unotsinhirana wezvikwaniriso zvomukuru sezvaanobatanidza noupenyu hwaPetro naPauro.

Kudya KweTafura yaShe 

Mienzaniso nemirayiridzo zvine chokuita neKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru zvinopa mumwe muenzaniso wakajeka wekubatana kweTestamente Itsva. Pedyo nomugumo wenhoroondo dzose ina dzeevhangeri, Jesu nevaapostora 12 vakaungana muimba yepamusoro kuti vadye Paseka. Pamutambo iwoyo, Jesu akatanga chinozivikanwa nhasi seKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Nhoroondo yaRuka yechiitiko chacho inoti: “Akatora chingwa, akaonga, akachimedura, ndokuvapa, achiti: ‘Uyu muviri wangu, unopirwa imi; itai izvi muchindirangarira.’ Nenzira yakafanana akatorawo mukombe pashure pokurayira, achiti: ‘Mukombe uyu isungano itsva muropa rangu, rinodururirwa imi’” (22:19-20). Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru, kunozivikanwawo sechirairo (1 Vakorinde 10:16), kwave kuchidyiwa mumagungano ekereke kubva payakatangwa.

Nenzira inofadza, muapostora Pauro akanga asipo naShe navamwe vaapostora usiku ihwohwo. Kutaura zvazviri, panguva iyoyo, zita rake rakanga richiri Sauro, uye akanga ari mutungamiriri wechiJudha asina kutendeuka. Bva, makore anoverengeka pashure pokunge atendeuka, mutsamba yake yokutanga kuvaKorinde, Pauro akanyora kuti:

Nekuti ini ndakagamuchira kubva kuna Ishe icho chandakakumikidzawo kwamuri: kuti Ishe Jesu neusiku uhwo hwaakatengeswa wakatora chingwa; zvino wakati avonga akachimedura, akati: Torai, mudye; uyu ndiwo muviri wangu unomedurirwa imwi; itai izvi muchindirangarira.” Nenzira imwecheteyo akatora mukombewo mushure mekurayira, achiti: Mukombe uyu isungano itsva muropa rangu; itai izvi nguva dzose kana muchiinwa, muchindirangarira. Nokuti nguva dzose kana muchidya chingwa ichi nokunwa mukombe uyu, munoparidza rufu rwaShe kusvikira achiuya (1 VaKorinde 11:23-26).

Cherechedza kuti mashoko aPauro akafanana sei nemashoko aJesu ari muna Ruka. Vose vari vaviri Ruka naPauro vanobvuma kuti izvi zvakaitika usiku hwokutengeswa kwaKristu. Pauro anobva atora mashoko aJesu neshoko mumitsara yakawanda, maererano zvakakwana nenhoroondo dzakanyorwa muEvhangeri.

Pauro anotaura kuti akawana kupi mashoko ane chokuita neKudyaKetafura yaShe yakadyiwa manheru? Akatsanangurira VaKorinde kuti akanga akazvigamuchira “kubva kunaShe” (1 VaKorinte 11:23). Asi kudai Pauro akanga asiri mukamuri repamusoro pausiku hwokutengeswa, aizodai akawana sei mashoko akadaro “kubva kunaShe”? Muchitsauko chokutanga chetsamba yaPauro kuvaGaratiya, anomanikidzwa kudzivirira kuva kwake muapostora. Mumashoko iwayo akapoteredza, akanyorera vaGaratia, kuti: “Asi ndinokuzivisai, hama dzangu, kuti Evhangeri yakaparidzwa neni, haina kuita seyavanhu; Nokuti handina kuigamuchira kumunhu kana kuidzidziswa, asi ndakairatidzwa naJesu Kristu” (VaGaratia 1:11-12). Nokudaro, kutaura kwaPauro kwokuti akanga agamuchira mashoko ane chokuita neKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru kubva kuna Jesu kwaizoenderana nekurukurirano yakananga naKristu yaanoti aiva nayo paainyorera vaGaratiya. [Cherechedza: Ini handisi pano, kuyedza kudzivirira kutaura kwaPauro kwekufemerwa uye zvakazarurwa zvakananga kubva kuna Kristu. Humbowo hwekunze hwekufemerwa kweBhaibheri hwakambokurukurwa muChikonzero neZvakazarurwa (tsrisa. Butt, 2004a; Butt, 2004b; Butt, 2006b; Butt, 2006c). Matauriro aPauro maererano neizvi ari kushandiswa kuratidza kubatana uye kuenderana kwemukati muzvinyorwa zveTestamente Itsva.]

Pamusoro pekuenderana kunoshamisa uye kufanana kwezvakataurwa naPauro muna 1 Vakorinde 11 maererano neKudya kwaShe Kwemanheru uye izvo zviri munhoroondo dzeevhangeri, mamwe mashoko ane chekuita nechirairo anosimbisa kubatana kwemagwaro eTestamente Itsva. Nhoroondo dzevhangeri dzinojekesa kuti Jesu akamuka “nezuva rokutanga revhiki” (tarisa. Johani. 20:1; Ruka. 24:1; Mako. 16:2; Mateu. 28:1). Muna 1 VaKorinde 11, mumashoko akapoteredza eChirairo chaShe, Pauro anotsanangura kuti vaKorinde vakanga “vachiungana” kuti vatore Kudya kwaShe inova tafura yaIshe. Mashoko ake anoratidza kuti chechi yeKorinde yaidya Chirairo chaShe panguva yegungano ravo rekunamata. Maganhuro mashanu gare gare, apo Pauro akapa mirairidzo yokuunganidzwa kwemari yechechi, akanyora, kuti: “Nomusi wokutanga wevhiki mumwe nomumwe wenyu ngaaise parutivi chimwe chinhu, sekuvanoswa kwakakaita naIshe, kuti kuunganidza kurege kuvapo kana ini ndichinge ndichisvika.” (1 VaKorinde 16:2). Ndima iyi inoratidza kuti kereke yeKorinde yaisangana pazuva rekutanga revhiki, panguva iyo vangadai vakadya Chirairo chaShe uye kutora mupiro wavo wemari.

Muna Mabasa 20:7, ndima yacho inoti: “Zvino nomusi wokutanga wevhiki, vadzidzi vakati vaungana kumedura chingwa, Pauro, oda kuenda mangwana, akataura navo . . . Izwi rekuti “kumedura chingwa” rinoshandiswa pano kureva Kudya kwetafura yaShe (ona Lyons, 2005b). Nokudaro, Bhaibheri rinopa muenzaniso wechechi yaitora Chidyo chetafura yaShe pazuva rokutanga revhiki uye ungano yevaKorinde yakaungana pazuva rokutanga revhiki kuti vatore kuunganidza kwavo uye kudya Kudya kwaShe Kwemanheru. Zuva rekutanga revhiki raive zuva rekusangana kweTestamende Itsva zvichibva panhoroondo yekuti Jesu akamuka pazuva iroro. Kupindirana kwemukati kwakadaro pakati paRuka, Mabasa, na1 VaKorinde kunopupurira kufemerwa kweTestamende Itsva.

Rubhabhatidzo

MuTestamende Itsva yese, vanyori veBhaibheri vakasiyana-siyana vanotaura nezvedingindira rerubhabhatidzo nenzira inoshamisa. Kutsinhirana kwakadaro kunotoshamisa zvikuru mukurangarira mirangariro yakasiana-siana neinopokanidzana yavazhinji nhasi munyika yorudzidziso pamusoro penhau yacho.

Mushure mokumuka kwaJesu, asati akwira kudenga, akadana vadzidzi vake pamwe chete uye akavapa iro rinowanzonzi Kutumwa Kukuru. Akati: “Ndakapiwa simba rose kudenga nepanyika. Naizvozvo endai muite vadzidzi vamarudzi ose, muchivabhabhatidza muzita raBaba neroMwanakomana neromweya  mutsvene, muchivadzidzisa kuchengeta zvinhu zvose zvandakakurayirai imi.” (Mateo 28:18-20;) Kubva mumirayiridzo yake, zviri pachena kuti rubhabhatidzo rune basa guru mukutendeuka kwevakarasika. Kutaura idi, munhauro yaMako yeEvhangeri, anotora mashoko Jesu paanoti: “Endai munyika yose muparidze evhangeri kuzvisikwa zvose. Uyo anotenda akabhabhatidzwa achaponeswa; asi usingatendi uchapiwa mhosva” (Mako 16:15-16). Nhoroondo yaMako yekutaura kwaJesu inojekesa basa rerubhabhatidzo, kuratidza kuti idanho rinokosha mukuita ruponeso.

Bhuku raMabasa rinonyora nhoroondo yevadzidzi vachizadzikisa Basa guru ravakapiwa naKristu. Muna Mabasa 2, tine mharidzo yevhangeri yekutanga yakanyorwa yakaparidzwa naPetro kumaJuda muJerusarema. Mumharidzo yake ine simba, Petro akatsanangurira vaJudha kuti vakanga varoverera Jesu, Mesiya uye Mwanakomana waMwari. Vazhinji vevateereri vakatenda Petro uye vakabvunza zvavaifanira kuita. Petro akapindura achiti: “Tendeukai, uye mumwe nomumwe wenyu abhabhatidzwe muzita raJesu Kristu kuti mukanganwirwe zvivi” (Mabasa 2:38). Ona kuti Petro akabatanidza rubhabhatidzo nekuregererwa kwezvivi, zvinonyatsoenderana nemashoko aJesu ari muna Mako aida rubhabhatidzo kuti aponeswe. Mubhuku rose raMabasa, rubhapatidzo rwomumvura runoratidzirwa senhano yakafanira mukutendeutswa kwevakarasika kuna Kristu (Mabasa 8:37-38; 9:18; 10:48; 16:15, 31-33; 19:5). Kutaura idi, apo muapostora Pauro akarondedzera kutendeuka kwake, akanokora mashoko  aAnaniasi kwaari sezvinotevera: “Zvino wakamirirei? Simuka ubhabhatidzwe usukwe zvivi zvako, udane zita raShe” (Mabasa 22:16). Pano, zvakare, rubhabhatidzo rwakabatana nekusukwa kana kukanganwirwa kwezvivi.

Mutsamba, rubhabhatidzo runoratidzwa nguva dzose nenzira inoenderana zvakakwana nenhoroondo dzevhangeri naMabasa. Mutsamba yake kuvaRoma, Pauro akati:

Ko hamuzivi here kuti isu tose takabhabhatidzwa muna Kristu Jesu, takabhabhatidzwa murufu Rwake? Naizvozvo takavigwa pamwe chete naye kubudikidza nokubhabhatidzwa murufu kuitira kuti, sokumutswa kwatakaitwa munaKristu kubva kuvakafa nokubwinya kwaBaba, saizvozvo nesuwo tirarame upenyu hutsva. Nokuti kana takabatanidzwa pamwe chete mumufananidzo worufu rwake, zvirokwazvo tichavawo pakufanana nokumuka kwake (VaRoma 6:3-5).

Mundima idzi, Pauro anotaura kuti munhu anobhabhatidzwa muna Kristu (enzanisa na. vaGaratiya 3:27). Muna 2 Timotio 2:10, Pauro anoti ruponeso ruri muna Kristu. Saka, kuti uwane ruponeso ruri muna Kristu munhu anofanira kubhabhatidzwa muna Kristu. Ona zvakare kuti Pauro anoti munhu anobhabhatidzwa murufu rwaKristu (enzanisa na. VaKorose. 2:12). Muna VaEfeso 1:7, Pauro akataura kuti ropa raKristu isimba romweya rinokanganwira zvivi zvomunhu. Ropa iroro rakadeurwa pakufa kwake. Nokudaro, kana munhu akabhapatidzwa murufu rwaKristu, iye anobata ropa raKristu, achibatanidza rubhapatidzo nokuregererwa kwezvivi chaizvoizvo sezvinoratidzwa muna Mabasa 2:38, Mabasa 22:16 , uye sezvinorehwa muna Mako 16 : 15-16. Muapostora Petro akataurawo nezvorubhabhatidzo nenzira inopindirana zvakakwana naPauro, Ruka, Mateu, naMako. Petro akati: “Iyo mufananidzo worubhabhatidzo runotiponesa zvino, rusingarevi kubviswa kwetsvina yenyama, asi mhinduro yehana yakanaka kuna Mwari, nokumuka kwaJesu Kristu.” ( 1 Petro 3:21 ) Kubhabhatidzwa kwaJesu kunoreva kuti “kumutswa kwehana yakanaka kuna Mwari” kunotiponesa sei? ) Cherechedza kuti Petro anobatanidza rubhabhatidzo neruponeso sevamwe vanyori, zvinoenderana nekumuka kwaKristu, sezvakaita Pauro. Kupa kweTestamente Itsva rubhabhatidzo kunopa mufananidzo wakatanhamara wekubatana kwemabhuku eTestamente Itsva. [Cherechedza: Vasina chokwadi vanowanzopomera Bhaibheri kuti rinopokana pane dzimwe pfungwa dzine chekuita nedzidziso yerubhabhatidzo. Kuti urambe pfungwa yakadai ona Lyons, 2005a, pp. 193-198.]

ZVIRAMBISO

Vanyori Vakakopana

Munhu asina chokwadi angaedza kutaura kuti kubvumirana kwakawanda uye kubatana kunowanikwa muBhaibheri hazvishamisi nokuti vanyori vacho vangadai vakakopa mashoko acho kubva mumabhuku akanyorwa vasati vanyora. Ngatinyatsoongororai kuramba kwakadaro. Kutanga, kurambawo zvako kunotora kubatana kwakakwana kwemabhuku 66 eBhaibheri. Sei munhu asina chokwadi angamanikidzwa kutaura kuti vanyori vakasiyana-siyana vakakopa mumwe nemumwe kana kubatana kwavo nekubvumirana kwavo zvichigona kupokana? Idi rokuti munhu asina chokwadi anofanira kushandisa pomero iyi uchapupu hwokuti Bhaibheri rakabatana.

Chechipiri, fungidziro iyi inofungidzira kuti vaporofita vakasiyana-siyana veTestamende Yekare nevanyori veTestamende Itsva vaikwanisa kuwana magwaro akachengetedzwa zvakakwana emabhuku akasiyana-siyana avai“kopa.” Sezvineiwo, vatsoropodzi vanowanzoramba kupfuudzwa kwakarurama uye kwakakwana kwechinyorwa chacho. Kana munhu asina chokwadi akarayira kuti kubatana kwacho kukonzerwa nokukopa, achamanikidzwa kubvuma kuchengetedzwa kunoshamisa kwemagwaro eBhaibheri. Uye, nepo MuKristu achibvuma nomufaro kuti kuchengetwa kwakadaro kwakaitika, uye kuti zvimwe zvinhu zvaizovakirwa nenzira yomuzvarirwo pamagwaro ekare, hakuzati kuri kudaro kuti vanyori vakasiyana-siyana vaizova vakagadzirira kuwana magwaro ose vasati vanyora.

Kupfuurirazve, vanyori vasiri vomundaza yamanyoro matsvene avo vakanga vane akawanda emagwaro mamwe chetewo akachengeterwa ivo vakanyora mashoko aipokanidza Magwaro echokwadi. Neiko pasina kana bhuku rimwe mundaza yemabhuku 66 rine kupokanidzana kumwe chete kuri pamutemo? Kunyange kudai munyori ari wose aiva nekopi yerimwe bhuku riri pamberi pake asati anyora, chinzwano chakadaro chaizova chisingabviri mukuona kwomunhu. Muchokwadi, vanhu vanowanzo pikisa zvinyorwa zvavo nekuda kwekutsvedza kwepfungwa kana shanduko mukufunga kwavo kwekare. Bva hapana kutsvedza kwakadaro, chinjo, kana kuti zvimwe zvinoitika zvisina kururama zvinogona kuwanwa muraibhurari yamabhuku 66 yeBhaibheri.

Bhaibheri Rine Zvipokanidza

Vatsoropodzi vanowanzokarakadza kuti kubatana kweBhaibheri ndekwechipameso chete. Vanoti kunyange hazvo ringaite senge rakabatana mumadingindira aro, kana rikanyatsotariswa rine mazana emakakatanwa ekupokana. Dennis McKinsey, munyori weThe Skeptics Annotated Bible, akati:

Wese muongorori weBhaibheri anofanirwa kuziva kuti Bhuku iri rizere nechokwadi chekupokana, kusapindirana, kusarurama, sainzi yakaipa, masvomhu akashata, geogirafu isina kururama, unzenza, magamba akaparara, zviporofita zvenhema, kudzokorora kunofinha, kutenda mashura kwevana, zvishamiso zvisina musoro, uye hurukuro yakaoma. Asi kupesana kunoramba kuri pachena, kwakasimba, kuri nyore kuratidzwa, uye dambudziko rinonyanya kunetsa muBhuku (1995, p. 71, emp. anovedzera).

Bva, McKinsey navamwe havana hwaro huri pamutemo hwokutsigira pomero yokuti Bhaibheri rinozvipokanidza rimene. Murevereri wechiKristu Eric Lyons akaita basa rakawanda pamusoro pezvinonzi kupesana kweBhaibheri, umo akabudirira kuramba pfungwa yokuti mabhuku akasiyana-siyana eBhaibheri anopokanidzana. Akanyora mavhoriyamu maviri eThe Anvil Rings anopa anopfuura 500 mapeji ezvinhu zvinoramba zvaipomerwa neanoshora (2003; 2005a). Muchokwadi, kwemakore ekupedzisira ekuma 2,000, mutsara wakareba wevanyori vechiKristu vane hunyanzvi vakaramba zvakakwana uye zvinobudirira kupomerwa kwezvinonzi kupesana kwebhaibheri (semuenzaniso, Gaussen, 1850; Haley, 1876; nevamwe). Kunyange kungotarisa kutsvakurudza kwakadaro kunomanikidza mudzidzi akatendeseka kufunga kuti kana Bhaibheri, kutaura zvazviri, riine kupesana chaiko kwerumwe rudzi, harisati rawanikwa. Kana chokwadi chose chikatariswa, kumwe kunonzi kupokanidzana kwebhaibheri kwakaratidzwa kuva chimwe chinhu chisiri kupokanidzana kuri pamutemo. Aya mashoko ane simba, tichifunga nezvokuti hapana bhuku munyika rakanyatsoongororwa kana kuti rakanyatsoongororwa. Pashure pokunge Bhaibheri raiswa pasi pemaikorosikopu ine simba guru rokutsoropodza kwoutsinye, uye ratsemurwa nebadza-inopinza mhezi yokupokanidzana kunofungidzirwa, rinosimuka kubva pakuvhiyiwa kusina mavanga kana kuti mavanga, zvisina kuipa zvikuru pakupfekwa.

MHEDZISO

Hapana nhevedzano yamabhuku munhau yavanhu yakachengeta kutsinhirana kwomukati kunopfuura kwomuzvarirwo kunowanikwa mumapeji eBhaibheri. Kubva mubhuku rokutanga raGenesisi kusvika kubhuku rokupedzisira raZvakazarurwa, varume vanenge 40 vakanyora nyaya dzakasiyana-siyana dzinobatana kuti dzigadzire bhuku rinotengwa zvikuru, rinoparadzirwa zvikuru, rakanyatsobatanidzwa, rakanyorwa zvisina mhosva risati rambobudiswa. Munhuwo zvake ane njere angadai asina kuita chinhu chinoshamisa zvakadaro. Seizvo wezvamapisarema akataura nomutoo wakakodzera nezveShoko raMwari makore 3 000 apfuura: “Shoko renyu rose izvokwadi, uye zvose zvamakatonga zvakarurama zvinogara nokusingaperi.” (Pisarema 119:160) Naizvozvo, Bhaibheri rinoti: “Kururama kwenyu kunogara nokusingaperi;

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Butt, Kyle (2004a), “Archaeology and the Old Testament,” Reason & Revelation, 24[3]:17-23.

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Butt, Kyle (2006a), “(2006a), “The Predicted Messiah,”Reason & Revelation, 26[1]:1-7.

Butt, Kyle (2006b), “Scientific Foreknowledge and Medical Acumen of the Bible,” Reason & Revelation, 26[12]:89-95.

Butt, Kyle (2006c), “Tyre in Prophecy,” Reason & Revelation, 24[10]:73-79.

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KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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