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Dambudziko Rokutambura

Kungove munhu kubata nekurwadziwa mupfungwa uye mumuviri zuva nezuva. Iri ndiro dambudziko rinoshanda uye riripo rekutambura rinokanganisa, uye rinobatwa nemaonero edu enyika. Kunyange vaKristu, vanoreurura kuti ndiMwari mupenyu (Mateu 16:16) vangashamisika kuti: Mwari uyu aripi patinenge tichimuda? Sei Asingaiti chimwe chinhu? Iyi mibvunzo inogona kutungamira mukupokana, uyezve kusatenda. Vasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari vanongoona kusimbiswa muzviitiko zvakaita sekubhomba kwe1995 Muguta reOklahoma . Ivo vanonzwa amai panhau dzamanheru vachizivisa, kuti, “Inenji kuti mwana wangu apona,” uye vanoshamisika: Kwaizova kunetswa kukuru here kuti Mwari ave akaita zvimwe chetezvo nokuda kwavamwe vose? Iyi haisi nharo itsva. Asi vachipiwa rusununguko rwedzidzo muyunivhesiti yenyika yazvino uno, vasingatendi vanokwanisa kushandisa ukuru noukuru hwokutambura kwomunhu nomugumisiro unoparadza pakutenda kusina hwaro.

Kana tikanzwisisa dambudziko renjere rekutambura, tinogona kuve nemukana uri nani wekuuya nepakati pemanzwiro edambudziko. Zvisinei, chinangwa changu chikuru ndechekudzivirira vanotenda kuna Mwari mumwechete, uye ChiKristu kunyanya, pamhosva dzinopomerwa nevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari. Mukuita izvi, ndinoda kuratidza nzira imwe chete yakajairika inogona kutitsausa kubva pamhinduro inonangana naMwari.

KUPOKANA

Dambudziko renjere rekutambura idambudziko rakasiyana nevenotenda muvamwari vazhinji. Ne”vasingatendi mlMwari umwe” ndinoreva ani nani anotenda muMunhu Aripo kupfuura kana kunze kwepasirese, asi Anokwanisa kuve nechekuita mukufamba kwezviitiko zvevanhu. Izvi hazvibatanidzi vanamwari, semuenzaniso, vanotenda kuti Munhu Mukurusa akasika nyika, uye akaisiya iri yoga. MaKristu, maJuda, uye maMoslem, kazhinji, vanozvitora sevatsvene. Zvikurukuru, vaverengi vazhinji vechinyorwa chino vachave maKristu anotenda kuti Mwari ane hunhu husingagumi pachiyero: kuti Anogara nekusingaperi, ane simba rose, anoziva zvese, ane rudo rwese, zvichingodaro.

Ipapo mubvunzo unotevera unomuka: Tinotsinhiranisa sei kuvapo kwokutambura nokuvapo kwaMwari ane rudo rwose, anoziva zvose? Seizvi:

1. Kana Mwari aine simba rose, anogona kuita chimwe chinhu kuti adzivise kana kupedza kutambura.

2. Kana Mwari aine rudo rukuru, angada kudzivirira kana kupedza kutambura.

3. Munyika mune kutambura kukuru.

4. Naizvozvo, Mwari haasi ane rudo zvose kana kuti haana simba rose.

Chikonzero chandinotaura kuti iri idambudziko kune matheisiti ndechekuti havatendi kuti kuna Mwari havatendi munzvimbo mbiri dzekutanga. Anoramba kuti kuna Mwari Angaita chimwe chinhu pamusoro pokutambura kudai Aine simba, uye anoramba kuti kuna Mwari Angaita chimwe chinhu pamusoro pokutambura kana Aiva nekariro. Haarambi chirevo chechitatu—chokuti kune kutambura. Kufanana nemunhu wese, anotarisana nedambudziko riripo rekutambura. Kana ari iye, kutambura kunongova: rutivi rwokuvapo kwedu kusina kurongwa, kusina chinangwa. Isu tinorarama, tinofa-kuguma kwenyaya. Nekuda kwegakava riripo chete iro asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari anopa kuvepo kwaMwari. Zvese zvaari kukumbira kuti tiite, semateisti, kuyananisa kana kururamisa kutambura, zvichipihwa kuti Mwari anofanirwa kuve ane rudo rwese uye ane simba rese.

Kubvisa Dambudziko

Vamwe vanhu vakaedza kunzvenga chinetso chacho nokuramba chimwe chezvivako zvitatu zvarongwa pamusoro apa. Iyi yakanga iri nzira yakatorwa naHarold Kushner, rabhi wechiJudha uyo akarasikirwa nomwanakomana wake pazera duku nehosha youtsinye uye inopedza simba. Mwari akanaka zvisingaverengeki, Kushner akagumisa mubhuku rake rine mukurumbira zvikuru, Kana Zvakaipa Zvichiitika Kuvanhu Vakanaka (1981), asi Haana-zvose.

Vamwe vafundisi vakakarakadza kuti Mwari haana simba risingaperi kana kuti akanaka zvisingaverengeki, asi bedzi mumuitiro wokuwana hunhu uhu. Saka zvinonzwisisika kuti munyika medu munofanira kuva nekusakwana nokuti kunyange zvazvo Mwari ari mukuru, haana kukwana kana kuti haana kukwana. Kufanana naKushner, “mhinduro” yavo ndeyekusiya Mwari wezvakajairika matheisimu (semuenzaniso, Edwards, 1972, p. 213). Zvinosuruvarisa, sezvakataurwa naJohn M. Frame, mwari ane magumo akadaro haapi “tariro yechokwadi yekukunda kwezvakaipa” (1994, p. 157). Pakupedzisira, mwari uyu haasi Mwari uyo vaKristu vakawanda vangada kudzivirira.

Pakupedzisira, mumwe munhu angashuva kuramba chirevo chechitatu nokuchengeta kuti kutambura hakusi kwechokwadi. Zvatinoti “kutambudzika,” vangadaro, inhema. Iyi ndiyo nzvimbo yezvitendwa zveKukabvazuva. Spinoza, muzivi wechiJudha anonyanyisa, akaramba achiti uipi hwaingova hurombo. Kana tichifunga kuti tiri kutambura, zvose zvatiri kuita sevana vakanyimwa matoyi kana zvihwitsi. Dai taiva nemufananidzo wakakwana wezvokwadi, Spinoza aizoti, taizoziva Mwari, uye hapana chaizoratidzika kuva chisina kukwana. Asi kuna Spinoza, zvisikwa uye Mwari zvaive zvakafanana. Zvakare, uyu haasi Mwari wetheisimu. VaKristu vakawanda, kufanana nevasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vakawanda, vanobvuma kuti kutambura chinhu chaichoicho. Zvamazvirokwazvo, kuti Jesu akatambura nokuda kworudzi rwomunhu rutivi runokosha rwokutenda kwechiKristu (Mateo 16:21; Ruka 24:26; Mabasa 17:3; VaFiripi 3:10; 1 Petro 2:20-25; 4:12 -19; nezvimwewo).

Kubvisa Dambudziko

Saka, ngatitaurei kuti tinoda kubata nedambudziko iri tisingaregi chero api neapi ehunhu hunokosha hwaMwari. Tinotangira papi? Imwe nzira ndeyekuchengetedza kuti hapana tsananguro inodiwa. Isu, sevanhuwo zvavo, hatifanire ku“ruramisa nzira dzaMwari kuVanhu” (kushandisa mutsara waJohn Milton). Kana, mumashoko erwiyo rwaSimon naGarfunkel, “Mwari vane hurongwa, asi hahuwanikwe kuvanhuwo zvavo.” Kana Mwari ari Iye watinofunga kuti ndiye, saka panofanira kuva netsananguro, asi hatigoni kubata.

Alvin Plantinga (1977) anotora imwe nzira yekudzivirira. Anoratidza kuti kutambura, uye zvinotaurwa pamusoro paMwari, hazvipokanidzi. Hazvina sekutaura, semuenzaniso,

Shiri chete dzine minhenga. Tweety ine minhenga. Naizvozvo, Tweety haisi shiri.

Zviripachena, mutsara wekupedzisira unopesana nemitsetse yapfuura. Asi kupokanidzana kupi mukusimbisa zvose zviri zviviri kuti kune kutambura, uye kuti Mwari Munhu ane rudo rwose uye ane simba rose? Izvo zvinofanirwa kuitwa nemutsoropodzi kupa imwe nzvimbo yekuwedzera (semuenzaniso, Mackie, 1990, p. 26). Aizofanira kusimbirira, semuenzaniso, kuti Mwari akanaka kwazvo wetheisti anogara achibvisa uipi nepaaigona napo. Kuti kune huipi hwakawanda hunofanira kuratidza kuti Mwari haana kunaka zvachose. Kupfuurirazve, mutsoropodzi anofanira kusimbirira kuti hapana miganhu pane izvo Munhu uyu anogona kuita. Kuti kune huipi hwakawanda hunofanirwa kuratidza kuti masimba aMwari ane muganhu.

Dambudziko nderokuti, izvi zvikumbiro zvekuwedzera zvezvingaitwa kana kuti zvaigona kuita Mwari zvinotadza kufunga nezvemufananidzo wakazara waMwari. Kuti Mwari ‘abvise uipi nepaAigona napo’ zvingangoreva kuti tine uipi hwakawanda munyika, nokuti kuhuderedza kungakanganisa humwe hwounhu hwaMwari. Isu hatizivi kuti ndeapi mamiriro angaita kuti kuvepo kwezvose zviri zviviri Mwari nehuipi hupesana (onawo Pike, 1990, pp. 48,52). Nezvesimba raMwari, hapana miganhu pamusoro pezvaAngakwanisa kuita mumamiriro ezvinhu chero api zvawo. Zvakadaro, simba chairo raAnoshandisa rinoenderana nezvimwe zvinhu, zvakaita senyasha, rudo, tsitsi, zvichingodaro. Panguva yekusungwa Kwake, Mwanakomana waMwari angadai akadana mapoka gumi nemaviri engirozi, asi kwete pasina kupikisa zvipikirwa zvaBaba vake vari kudenga (Mateo 26:52-56).

Plantinga akatipa nzvimbo yakanaka yekutanga. Theisti vanogona kutaura, pakutanga, kuti hapana chinhu chisina musoro pamusoro pekutenda muna Mwari uye kubvuma chokwadi chezvakaipa. Kunyange zvakadaro, vanhu vangafunga kuti iri idambudziko iro vaKristu vanofanira kugadzirisa. Tine zvimwe zvekutaura here?

Kupindura Dambudziko

Chimwe chikonzero chokufungira kuti panofanira kuva nemhinduro dzakawanda ndechokuti Bhaibheri—hwaro hwokutenda kwedu (VaRoma 10:17)—harina kunyarara chaizvoizvo panhau yacho. Bhuku raJobho rinoratidza kuti Mwari akamira kumashure akabvumira munhu kutambura neMuvengi. Nyika yaJobho yakamupoteredza. Akarasikirwa nepfuma yake, vana vake, uye utano hwake. Panguva iyi akanga asingazivi kuti sei zvinhu izvi zvaiitika kwaari. Mudzimai waJobho akamuudza kuti “tuka Mwari ufe” ( 2:9 ). Shamwari dzake nhatu dzakafunga kuti zvivi zvakaipisisa ndizvo zvakakonzera matambudziko akadaro. Jobho pachake akasvika pakusava nechokwadi nokunaka kwaMwari nesimba. Pakupedzisira, chokwadika, Jobho akawanazve kutenda kwake, pfuma, nezvimwe zvakawanda.

Asi tingati zviitiko zvose izvi zvinotyisa zvaikosha here? Zvimwe tinogona kudzidza chimwe chinhu kubva muzviitiko izvi, asi tingapembedza sei kukuvara kwechibatiso? Mhepo huru yakaputsira imba pavana vaJobho, ichiuraya munhu ari wose mukati (1:18-19). Ngwavaira dzomusikirwo dzakauraya mhuka dzake, uye vapambi vakauraya varanda vake (1:15-17). Rufu rwose urwu rwakanga rwuri madikanwa kudzidzisa Jobho, nesu, chidzidzo pamusoro pokutambura here?

Uye zvakadini norufu rwaKristu? Zvimwe—zvichida—asina chokwadi angaendawo nesu obvuma kuti Jesu aifanira kufa kuti atinunure pazvivi zvedu. Asi sei aifanira kufa nekunyadziswa kwakadaro, nekurohwa nekurohwa, nerufu runorwadza pamuchinjikwa? Neiko Mwari asina kuita basa riri nani rokuronga zvinoitika kuti Mwanakomana Wake amene agogona kufa nenzira yohunhu? Kunze kwezvo, kana rudzi rwomunhu rwune mhaka, huregererei kuranga rudzi rwose rwomunhu? Nei yaifanira kubuditswa pane Mumwe Munhu?

Kune avo vari kunze kwekutenda, zvese izvi hazvina musoro, asi zviri pakati pechiKristu. Uye ipapo ndipo pane dambudziko. Kana ndichiti “hazvina musoro,” ndinoreva kuti hazvina musoro pasina kukwezva pfungwa dzechitendero dzinowanikwa muMagwaro. “Asi nei ndichifanira kudavira Bhaibheri?,” mutsoropodzi achapindura. Uyu mubvunzo wakanaka, uyo vaKristu vanogona kupa marudzi ose ezvikonzero zvakanaka, asi handizvo zvatakakumbirwa nomupokani kuti tiite panyaya iyi. Chokwadi ndechekuti, pfungwa dzese dzakakosha kuchiKristu dzinobva muBhaibheri, saka kuBhaibheri tinofanira kuenda kana tichizotsvaga mhinduro dzinoenderana nezvatiri kutaura pamusoro pechiKristu. Pakupedzisira, ndinofungidzira, ndosaka maKristu akadzikama achiramba asina kudzivirirwa kurwiswa nevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari pamberi apa. Pamwero wakati kana kuti mumwe, vanoziva kuti kutambura hakuratidziri zvakaipa pane zvavanonzwisisa nezvaMwari.

Nenzira yakafanana, kana tikasuma mirangariro yakadai sechivi, ruponeso, manenji, uye zvichingodaro, asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari kazhinji kazhinji anopindura kuti, “Hongu, asi zvinotsamira pakuvapo kwaMwari. Kana Mwari asipo, tsanangudzo idzi dzinopera.” Zvekare, kana Mwari ariko hazvina zvazvinobatsira. Vasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari vakatipikisa kuti tibatanidze humwe unhu hwaMwari nekuvapo kwezvakaipa. Vakanga vasiri kutipikisa (pachiitiko ichi) kudzivirira kuvapo kwaMwari. Dambudziko chairo, sezvarinounzwa kwatiri, rinopa kuti Mwari ariko.

Iri izano rakajairika zvekuti ndinofanira kujekesa pfungwa iyi: asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari haagone kutipomera kupokana kuri mukati mekutenda kwedu, uye obva atitadzisa kuunza zvese zvirimo zvekutenda ikoko (kusiyana nekungokurukura zvine musoro zvinoti yakaitwa pamusoro pehunhu hwaMwari). Zvichida ndosaka kupokana kuchidzika muhuzivi, nepo chaizvo, iri nyaya yezvidzidzo zvouMwari. Marilyn McCord Adams anobvumirana nazvo:

Uko kubatanidzwa kwemukati kwegadziriro yezvitendero zvechitendero kuri mungozi, nharo dzinobudirira nokuda kwekusawirirana kwayo dzinofanira kutora panzvimbo (zviri pachena kana kuti pachena) mukati megadziriro iyoyo kana kuti zvinogamuchirika zviri pachena kuvateveri vayo; saizvozvowo pakubudirira kurambwa kana tsananguro dzekusachinja-chinja (1990, p. 210).

DZIMWE MHINDURO

Kwakabva Kutambura

Sezvinowanzoitika, Bhuku reKutanga ndiyo nzvimbo yakanaka yekutanga mukubata nemibvunzo yakakosha. Genesisi anotiudza kuti Mwari akaisa Adhamu naEvha mubindu, uye akavapa mukana wekupinda Muti weHupenyu. Vaizorarama nokusingaperi chero bedzi vaigona kudya muchero womuti uyu (Genesi 3:22), asi vakanga vasingafi. Mwari akavaudza kuti vasadya zveMuti Wezivo yezvakanaka nezvakaipa, kana zvikasadaro vaizofa zvirokwazvo (Genesi 2:17).

Pane imwe nguva, sezviri pachena isati iri nguva refu zvikuru pashure pevhiki yokusika, Satani akaedza Evha kuti adye muchero wakarambidzwa uye iyewo, akapesvedzera Adhama kuita zvimwe chetezvo. Izvi zvakaunza kutongwa naMwari. Akavaparadzanisa kubva paMuti weHupenyu, uye akavimbisa kuti vanhu vaizotambura, uye kuti Satani achakundwa (Genesi 3:14-19). Zvakaoma kunzwisisa kukura kwemamiriro ezvinhu aya. Tinotambura—kunyange vana vasina mhosva vanotambura—nemhaka yechivi chevanhu vaviri. Mwari aizobvumira sei kutambura kwakawanda kudaro kwenguva yakareba kudaro?

Mwari Ndiye Changamire

Mukuona kwaMwari, danho rokutanga hakusi kupindura mubvunzo wakadai, asi kubata nokupomera kwedu. Jobho muenzaniso chaiwo. Baba vekare vakapomera Mwari

  • vachimutonga zvenhema (9:20)
  • kumukanganisa (19:6) kumutambudza (19:22)
  • kusatonga vakaipa (24:1-12),
  • uye vachifuratira mabasa ake ose akanaka (31:1 zvichienda mberi).
  • Kuchema kwaJobho, sekwedu, kunoratidzika kuva “Nei Mwari? Sei?!”

Mhinduro yaMwari yaive yekubvunza mibvunzo yaJobho inoongorora:

Ko, munhu anokakavara nowaMasimbaose angamuranga here? Anotuka Mwari ngaapindure…. Iwe ungakonesa kutonga kwangu zvirokwazvo? Ungandipomera mhosva here kuti iwe ururamiswe? (40:2, 8).

Mukubvunza kwake, Jobho akafunga kuti Mwari akanga ane mhaka. Shamwari dzake nhatu—Erifazi, Bhiridhadhi, naZofari—vakafunga kuti Jobho akanga ane mhaka nokuda kwechimwe chivi chikuru chaaifanira kuva akaita, uye Mwari akavaranga nokuda kwouku kuzvikudza, zvakare (42:7 zvichiendamberi).

Pakupedzisira, Erihu muduku akaziva kuti, pane dzimwe nguva, kutambura kunogona kuva nedonzo. Mwari anogona kuushandisa kutonga vakaipa, kusimbisa vakatendeka, kubatsira vakadzvinyirirwa, uye kukomborera vakarurama. Uye zvakadaro, mukutsoropodza kwake Jobho, Erihu aiva mukuru akasimbisa uchangamire hwaMwari: “Munokakavara naye seiko? Nokuti haazvidaviriri pamusoro pamashoko ake” (33:13).

Pauro akatevera dingindira rimwe chetero munaVaRoma 9. Muapostora akanga achipindura chirevo “chisina kunaka” chevaKristu vechiJudha. Sezviri pachena, vamwe vavo vakafunga kuti ivo, savazukuru vaAbrahama, vaikodzera mugove mukuru munhaka youmambo hwaMwari. Chokwadi, seizvo Pauro akaonesa mundima 8, vana vechipikirwa, kwete vana venyama, vaizova vana vaMwari uye, naizvozvo, vadyi venhaka yoruponeso. Akaenzanisira ikoku nomuenzaniso waEsau naJakobho. Vamwe vangataura kuti kuva nenzvimbo yakakwirira kwaJakobho kupfuura mukoma wake kwakanga kuri kusaruramisira, asi Mwari akanga ane gadziriro yaisarangarira tsika dzavanhu dzenhaka. Kumunhu upi noupi aizopomera Mwari kuva asina kururama munhau iyi (ndima 14), Pauro aizovayeuchidza nezvouchangamire hwaMwari, kuti: “Ndichanzwira ngoni wandinoda kunzwira ngoni, uye ndichanzwira tsitsi wandichanzwira tsitsi” h(ndima. 15).

Paakanga achiri kudaro, Pauro akabata neimwe pomero yaizivikanwa: “Zvino uchati kwandiri, ‘Neiko iye achiri kuwanira mhosva? Nokuti ndiani akapikisa kuda kwake?’” (ndima. 19). Nemamwe mashoko, “kana zvinhu zvinoitika muupenyu hwangu zviri kuda kwaMwari, saka zvamazvirokwazvo hazvisi musimba rangu, uye kana upenyu hwangu husiri hwangu pachangu, zvino nei Mwari vachifanira kunditi ndine mutoro wezvinhu zvandinoita? Hazvina kunaka kuti titambure kana Mwari achifanirwa kunge ari kutonga. ” Zvakare, Pauro akapindura neanopikisa: “Ndiwe aniko unopindura Mwari? Chinhu chakaumbwa chingati here kune wakachiumba, ‘Wakandiitirei zvakadai?’” (ndima. 20). Basa redu nderekuita zvakanaka, kwete kunetseka kuti Mwari ari kuitei uye nei.

Achidzokera kumubvunzo wapakuvamba pamusoro paVamarudzi, Pauro akaratidzira kuti Mwari akanga achishanda munhau yose kuti aunze ngoni Dzake. Ari munzira, akatambura kusateerera kweVemamwe Marudzi nemaJuda zvakafanana. Mwari “akatsungirira nemoyo murefu zvikuru midziyo yokutsamwirwa yakagadzirirwa kuparadzwa” (vs. 22). Asi, nokudzidzisa kwake uye nokufumura zano rokudzikinura, Mwari akanga “azivisa pfuma yokubwinya kwake pamidziyo yengoni” (ndima. 23). VaJudha navaHedheni vose vakanga vari midziyo yakanga izere nokusarurama, asi Mwari akanunura avo vaakadana, akavazadza netsitsi dzake (ndima. 24).

Mwari Akarurama

Matauriro aPauro pamusoro petsitsi anotitungamirira kumhinduro yechipiri: haasi Mwari chete ane hutongi, asi tsitsi dzake dzinoratidza kuti akarurama. Tsitsi dzinoratidzwa muchirongwa chaMwari cherudzikinuro: “Nokuti Mwari akada nyika nokudaro, kuti akapa Mwanakomana wake akaberekwa ari mumwe oga, kuti ani naani anotenda kwaari arege kufa asi ave noupenyu husingaperi” (Johani 3:16). Chinangwa chaMwari ndechekudzikinura. Haadi kuti titambure chero upi zvake wedu; Anoshuva kuti dai taiva naye kudenga uko kusina marwadzo uye kutambura. Ngatidzokerei kuna VaRoma, asi chitsauko 3 panguva ino. Pauro akanyora, kuti: “Nokuti vose vakatadza, vakasasvika pakubwinya kwaMwari, vachiruramiswa pachena nenyasha dzake norudzikinuro ruri muna Kristu Jesu, wakagadzwa naMwari, seyananiso [chibayiro chinoyananisa—TM] neropa rake; nokutenda” (ndima. 23-25a).

Nokutiruramisa, Mwari anoratidza kuti akarurama; nokutiita vakarurama, anoratidza kuti akarurama. Tinoruramiswa nokutenda

… kuti aratidze kururama kwake, nokuti mukutsungirira kwake Mwari akanga aregerera zvivi zvakaitwa kare, kuti aratidze kururama kwake panguva ino, kuti ave akarurama uye anoruramisa uyo anotenda muna Jesu (ndima 25b-26).

Kazhinji tinofunga kuti Mwari anotiruramisa, asi pano tinoona kuti kururama kwaMwari kunoratidzwa kwatiri panguva imwe chete. Izvi zvakanga zvisiri pachena kuvanhu veTestamente Yekare vakanga vasina uchapupu hwakajeka hwechibayiro chaKristu pamuchinjikwa. Kana Mwari akatozivisa zvakawanda kwatiri munhoroondo, tinogona chete kumirira tichishamisika kuti tione zvichazoratidzwa kwatiri mune ramangwana: “Kana tichitarisira chatisingaoni, tinochimirira nemoyo murefu” (*NW) VaRoma 8:18, 25).

Semaonero aFrame, VaRoma ndiyo Testamende Itsva yakaenzana naJobho. Zvakawanda pamusoro pekururamiswa kwaMwari (kururamiswa kwoumwari) sezvazviri pamusoro pekururamiswa kwemunhu.

VaRoma vanosimbisa, naizvozvo, zvatakaona kumwewo muMagwaro. (1) Hatina kodzero yokunyunyutira Mwari, uye patinodaro, tinozvifumura sevasingateereri. (2) Mwari haasungirwi kutipa mhinduro inogutsa padambudziko rehuipi. Anotarisira kuti tivimbe naye pasinei naizvozvo. (3) uchangamire hwaMwari hahufaniri kupokana maererano nechinetso chouipi; zviri nani kusimbiswa. (4) Shoko raMwari, chokwadi chake, rakavimbika zvachose. (5) Chokwadi, Mwari haasi asina kururama. Iye mutsvene, akarurama, uye akanaka (Frame, 1994, p. 178).

MHEDZISO

Mwari akanaka, Mwari ane simba rose, uye hongu, kune kutambura kwakawanda. Vanhu vave vachinetseka nedambudziko iri rinooneka mumakore ose. Dzimwe nguva isu vanhu venyama tingaedza kureverera Mwari wedu nekufungidzira kuziva pfungwa dzake, asi Mwari anoti “ndichanzwira nyasha wandinoda kunzwira nyasha, ndichanzwira tsitsi wandinoda kunzwira tsitsi” (Eksodo 33:19). Muchidimbu, Mwari ndiye changamire. Hapana chakaipa nekubvunza mibvunzo yekuti “nei”, asi kana yava kupomera, tinopikisa uchangamire Hwake. Mukadzi uyu akabatwa chibharo nei? Nei zviuru zvakafa nedutu rinopisa? Hapana anogona kupindura iyi mibvunzo zvakaringana, kungofanana neane makore maviri okukura asinganzwisise kuti sei achifanira kuvhiyiwa mwoyo (Adams, 1990, p. 217; onawo Frame, 1994, pp. 150-151). Musikana muduku haavengi vabereki vake nokuda kwemarwadzo, asi anoramba achivada uye kuvimba navo zvichienderana nehupenyu hwake.

Tichifunga nezvokutambura kukuru kuri munyika ino, hatingafungi here kuti Mwari ndiye changamire, mutongi asina hutsinye? Nokumwe kutaura, chibayiro chaKristu uye chido Chake pamuchinjikwa chakaratidza kuva Mwari akarurama.

VaKristu vane zvikonzero zvakanaka, ndine chokwadi, vane fungidziro yakasimba yekuti nharo dzevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari padambudziko rekutambura hadzina kunaka. Mhinduro dzavanowana dzine zvakawanda zvokuita “sei” kutenda kwechiKristu, kupfuura “kwo”kuzvikudza kuna Mwari. Vanoda kupindura naJobho, uye vanoda kupindura naKristu, nekuti iyi mienzaniso inoita zvine musoro kubva mukutambura kwavari, asi vasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari vanogara vachiedza kuvhara chikamu ichi chehurukuro. Vanoseka Bhaibheri nechiitiko chechiKristu. Vanopa nyaya dzechienzi nezvevanhu vakarasa kutenda kwavo mukutambura. Vanobvuma pachena kuti dambudziko renjere rekutambura raive rakakosha pakufamba kwavo kubva pakutenda. Uye, kana zvimwe zvose zvikakundikana, pane kumira kwekare kwokusatenda: “Handigoni kudavira kuti [uri benzi zvakakwana] kunamata Mwari Uyo [anotyisa kwazvo zvokuti Iye] angabvumira kutambura kwakawanda kwazvo munyika ino.” Asi mamiriro ekurukurirano pamavambo chaipo anofungidzira kuti Mwari ariko. Kubva ipapo zvichienda mberi, hazvina basa nekuda kwenharo kuti vatsoropodzi vanodavira kuti Bhaibheri nderechokwadi here, kana kuti tose tiri vatadzi vanoda ruponeso, kana kuti Mwari akamutsa Mwanakomana Wake kubva muguva. Sezvo Adams anopikisa:

Sezvinongoita vazivi vangawana kana kusawana kuvapo kwaMwari kune musoro, saka vanogona kukwezwa zvakasiyana-siyana kana kusemeswa netsika dzeChiKristu dzenyasha nechibayiro chokudzikinura. Asi kubvumirana pane chokwadi-kukosha hakufanirwe kubvumirana pane kuenderana kwemukati. Nharo yangu yanga iri yekuti hazvisi zvepamutemo chete, asi, zvakapiwa zvakaipa zvinotyisa, zvakakosha kuti MaKristu vanyudze mudura ravo rakapfuma rezvinhu zvinokosha kuti varatidze kuwirirana kwa[Mwari ane rudo rwose, ane simba rose] uye [kuvapo kwezvakaipa.] (1990, peji 220).

Iri “dura rakwana rine zvinhu zvinokosha” kuMuKristu rinobatanidza kwete bedzi kugamuchirwa kwoungwaru kwouchangamire hwaMwari nokururamisira, asi nezvinoitika zvisingaperi zvaMwari muupenyu hwavo. Tariro yenyika iri nani yakaita kuti VaKristu vapone munguva dzakaipa zvikuru. Iyi haisi tsananguro yekuti sei tichitambura, asi kururamiswa kwerudo rwaMwari, pakuti taizotarisira kuti Musiki wedu atipe kugona kuwana kukosha kwakakosha muhupenyu hwedu (Adams, 1990, p. 216).

Mukupesana nokutaura kwavasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari, kutenda kwomuKristu muna Mwari hakusi nzira yokuderedza nayo mirangariro, asi manyuko omufaro mukukurira chinetso chinoshanda uye chiripo chokutambura. MaKristu, ndinotenda, vanoziva mukati mavo kuti kutenda kwavo kwave kuri tsime resimba. Chavanoona mupomero dzevasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari inyaya yekusapindirana kwemukati mevanhu avo, kazhinji, vasingazive chero chinhu cheMagwaro, uye avo, pamwe, vasina kumbobvira vasangana nehupenyu hwakazara, hwemweya.

Kuburikidza nekutendeseka kuna Mwari chete ndipo patinogona kupupura kuratidzwa kwakakwana kwechirongwa chake cherudzikinuro, chinova chekuti isu tigare Naye nokusingaperi. “Haufungi here kuti zvakaipa,” asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari anotaurazve nokusatenda, “kuti Mwari achashora vanhu vose vasingakotami nokumunamata uye Iye oga?” Chaizonyanya kuipa ndechokuti kudai kwakanga kusina Mwari wokuranga vanaNero, vanaHitler, uye vanoshinha nevana venyika ino. Mwari ariko, kana kururamisira kuriko. Panguva ino, mashoko aPetro anotiyeuchidza kuti Jehovha “haanonoki pachipikirwa chake, sezvinofunga vamwe vachiti anononoka, asi ane mwoyo murefu kwamuri, uyo usingadi kuti chero ani zvake aparare asi kuti vose vasvike pakutendeuka.” (2 Petro 3 :9). Mwari akarurama pamberi pedu; mubvunzo chete wasara ndewokuti: Tiri pamberi pake here?

REFURENZI YEZVINYORWA

Adams, Marilyn McCord (1990), “Zvakashata Zvinotyisa uye Kunaka kwaMwari,” Dambudziko reZvakaipa, ed. Marilyn McCord Adams naRobert Merrihew Adams (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; yakatanga kuburitswa muProceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1989, 63S:297-310), mapeji 207-221.

Edwards, Rem (1972), Chikonzero neChitendero (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).

Frame, John M. (1994), Apologetics to the Glory of God: An Introduction (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R).

Kushner, Harold (1981), Kana Zvinhu Zvakaipa Zvichiitika Kuvanhu Vakanaka (New York: Shocken Books).

Mackie, J.L. (1990), “Evil and Almbasence,” Dambudziko reZvakaipa, ed. Marilyn McCord Adams naRobert Merrihew Adams (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; originally published in Mind, 1955, 64:200-12), mapeji 25-37.

Pike, Nelson (1990), “Hume on Evil,” Problem of Evil, ed. Marilyn McCord Adams naRobert Merrihew Adams (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; yakatanga kuburitswa muThe Philosophical Review, 1963, 72:180-197), mapeji 38-52.

Plantinga, Alvin (1977), Mwari, Rusununguko, neZvakaipa (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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