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Dambudziko Rehuipi

Musi waKukadzi 12, 2009, mugakava naKyle Butt, Dan Barker akasimbisa pfungwa yokuti Mwari wemuBhaibheri haako. Maminitsi matatu nemasekonzi 15 muhurukuro yake yokutanga, akataura kuti chimwe chikonzero chokudavira kuti Mwari haako ndechokuti “hapana mhinduro dzakanaka dzokupokana kwokuvapo kwaMwari, dzakadai sechinetso chouipi. Chaunofanirwa kuita kupinda muchipatara chero chevana uye unoziva kuti hakuna Mwari. Munamato hauna mutsauko wazvinoita. Vanhu ivavo vanonamatira vana vavo vavanoda kuti vararame, uye vanofa” (Butt naBarker, 2009). Barker akakarakadza kuti “chinetso chouipi” chimwe chezvibvumikiso zvakasimba zvikurusa zvinopokana kuvapo kwaMwari.

Chii, chaizvoizvo, chinonzi “dambudziko rezvakaipa”? Vasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari vakaita saBarker vanoti Bhaibheri rinoratidza Mwari seane rudo uye ane simba rose. Zvamazvirokwazvo izvi ndezvechokwadi (semuenzaniso, 1 Johane 4:8; Genesi 17:1; Jobho 42:2; Mateo 19:26). Asi munhu wose anobvuma kuti uipi huripo munyika. Kuti Mwari abvumire uipi nokutambura kungangoreva kuti haadi zvose, kana kuti kana aine rudo rwose, haana simba rokuzvibvisa. Chero zvazvingava, Mwari weBhaibheri angadai asipo. Kuti ataure “dambudziko rehuipi” zvakanyatsojeka, asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari anopokana kuti theist webhaibheri haagone kuramba achisimbisa zvese zvitatu zvezvinotevera zvirevo:

  • Mwari vane masimba ose.
  • Mwari vakakwana pakunaka.
  • Uipi huripo.

Zvakare, asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari anoomerera pakuti kana Mwari ari wamasimba ose (seizvo Bhaibheri rinosimbisa), Iye haana kukwana murunako sezvo Iye achibvumira uipi nokutambura kutekeshera munyika. Kana, kune rumwe rutivi, Iye akakwana murunako, Iye haana simba rose sezvo kunaka Kwake kwaizomusunda kushandisa simba Rake kubvisa uipi paNyika. Sezvo MuKristu achitsigira zvose zviri zvitatu, asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari anotaura kuti vaKristu vane mhosva yokusimbisa kupokanidzana kune musoro, vachiita kuti chimiro chavo chive chenhema. Sezvinganzi, “dambudziko rehuipi” rinopa dambudziko risingakundike kune weChiKristu vanotenda muhuvepo hwamwari kana anamwari.

Kutaura idi, kunyanguvezvo, “dambudziko rouipi” chinetso cheasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari—kwete muKristu anodavira nhema. Kutanga, uzivi hwokuti hakuna Mwari hahugoni kupa tsanangudzo ye“zvakaipa.” Hapana nzira ine mufungo iyo kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari kunogona nenzira yakarurama kududza chinhu chipi nechipi se“chakaipa” kana kuti “chakanaka.” Musi waKukadzi 12, 1998, William Provine, purofesa muDhipatimendi reBhayoroji rinoona nezvezvirimwa neShanduko ye Bhayoloji paCornell Univhesiti yakakurumbira, akapa hurukuro inokosha paDarwin Day yechipiri yegore negore. Muchidimbu chehurukuro iyoyo yepaIndaneti yeDarwin Day, Dr. Provine akati: “Kushanduka-shanduka kwezvisikwa kune migumisiro yakajeka iyo Charles Darwin ainzwisisa zvakakwana. 1) Hapana vamwari vakakodzera kuvapo; 2) hapana hupenyu mushure mekufa huripo; 3) hapana hwaro hwekupedzisira hwetsika huripo; 4) hapana chinangwa chekupedzisira muhupenyu chiripo; uye 5) rusununguko rwemunhu rwekusarudza harupo” (Provine, 1998, emp. yakawedzerwa). Provine yaitevera meseji yakanangana nekutaura kwake kwechishanu maererano nekuzvisarudzira kwevanhu. Asati anyatsoongorora “nyama” yemharidzo yake, zvisinei, akati: “Zvinorehwa ne4 zvekutanga zviri pachena kune vemazuva ano vezvemhindumupindu zvekuti ndichapedza nguva shoma ndichizvidzivirira” (1998, emp. akawedzera). Kana pasina hwaro hwokuvakira mhedziso dzipi nedzipi dzetsika, zvino munhu asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari angati sei chiito chipi nechipi kana kuti chiitiko “chakaipa,” “chakashata,” kana kuti “chakaipa”?

Frederick Nietzsche ainyatsonzwisisa uzivi hwokuti hakuna Mwari zvokuti akataura kuti vanhu vakawanda havana kunzwisisa pfungwa dzakadai sokuti “zvakaipa” uye “zvakanaka.” Mubhuku rake rinonzi Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche akanyora, kuti: “Tinodavira kuti kuomarara, chisimba, uranda, ngozi mumugwagwa nomumwoyo, pakavanda, zvidhori, unyanzvi hwevaedzi uye udhimoni hworudzi rwose—kuti chinhu chiri chose chakaipa, chinotyisa, chinodzvinyirira; chikara, uye nyoka mumunhu, inoshandawo pakukwidziridza rudzi rwevanhu zvakapesana narwo” (2007, p. 35, emp. anovedzera). Pfungwa yaNietzsche yaingove yekuti izvo zvatingadaidza kuti tsika “zvakaipa,” zvinotobatsira vanhu kuvandudza masimba ekufunga, kukurumidza kufunga, kana hunyanzvi hwekugadzirisa matambudziko. Saka, kana chiitiko “chakaipa” chichibatsira vanhu “kushanduka,” saka hapangavi nezvikonzero zvine musoro zvekudaidza chiitiko ichi kuti “chakaipa.” Kutaura idi, mukuwirirana nemhindumupindu isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, chinhu chipi nechipi chinopfuuridzira rudzi rwomunhu chinofanira kurangarirwa se“chakanaka.”

Sezvo C.S. Lewis akaita rwendo rwake kubva pakusatenda kuvapo kwaMwari kuenda kuchitendero chaMwari, akaziva kuti “chinetso chouipi” chakaparira chinetso chikuru nokuda kwokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari kupfuura chakaita nokuda kwouMwari. Iye akati:

Kupokana kwangu naMwari kwaiva kuti zvinhu zvose zvakasikwa zvaiita sezvine utsinye uye zvisina kururama. Asi ndakanga ndawana sei pfungwa iyi yekungorurama uye kusarurama? Murume haati mutsara wakamonyoroka kunze kwekunge ane pfungwa yemutsara wakatwasuka. Chii chandaifananidza chadenga ichi nepandaiti hazvina kururama…? Chokwadi, ndingadai ndakasiya pfungwa yangu yeruramisiro nokutaura kuti yakanga isiri chinhu kunze kwomufungo wapachivande wangu. Asi kana ndikaita izvozvo, ipapo nharo dzangu dzokupikisa Mwari dzakapararawo—nokuti nharo yacho yaitsamira pakutaura kuti nyika yakanga isina kururama zvomenemene, kwete bedzi kuti hazvina kuitika kuti ndifadze mirangariro yangu yapachivande. Saka mukuedza chaiko kuedza kuratidza kuti Mwari haako—nemamwe mashoko, kuti chokwadi chose chakanga chisina musoro—ndakaona kuti ndaimanikidzwa kufunga kuti chimwe chikamu chechokwadi—kureva pfungwa yangu yeruramisiro—chaiva chizere nomusoro. . Nekuda kweizvozvo, kusatenda Mwari kunobva kwave nyore (Lewis, 1952, p. 45-46, muronyoro rwakatsveyama.).

Mutendi vekuvepo kwanamwari vazhinji, William Lane Craig, akapfupisa nyaya yacho chaizvo:

Ndinofunga kuti zvakaipa, zvinokatyamadza, zvinonyatsoratidza kuvapo kwaMwari. Nharo yangu yaizoenda seizvi: Kana Mwari asipo saka hunhu husina chinangwa haupo. (2) Uipi huripo, (3) naizvozvo tsika dzine chinangwa dziripo, ndiko kuti, zvimwe zvinhu zvakaipa chaizvo. Nokudaro, Mwari ariko. Nokudaro, kunyange zvazvo uipi uye kutambura pamwero mumwe kunoratidzika kuva kunopokanidza kuvapo kwaMwari, pamwero wakadzama zvikuru, zvinobvumikisa kuvapo kwaMwari (nd.d.).

Craig naLewis vakarurama. Kana uipi huripo chaizvoizvo munyika, uye zvimwe zvinhu zvisiri izvo “zvinofanira” kuva sezvazvinofanira kuva, ipapo panofanira kuva nomupimo uri kunze kwenyika womusikirwo unopa revo kumashoko okuti “zvakaipa” uye “zvakanaka”—uye vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari. kufungidzira kunoratidza nhema.

Kutsutsumwa mupfungwa

Mukuwedzera kuchokwadi chokuti “zvakaipa” hazvitombogoni kukurukurwa pasina kutaura nezvaMwari, Barker akaisa simba rezvaakataura pakukwezva pfungwa. Iye akati: “Chaunongofanira kuita kupinda muchipatara chipi nechipi chevana uye unoziva kuti hakuna Mwari.” Ichokwadi here kuti munhu upi noupi anopinda muchipatara chevana anorohwa pakarepo nesimba guru rokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari? Aiwa, hachisi chokwadi. Kutaura zvazviri, ndicho chinhu chiri kure zvikuru nechokwadi. Tichikarira nzira dzaBarker, mumwe wedu [KB] akashanyira chipatara chevana muColumbia, South Carolina ndokusangana nomumwe mukadzi aive akazvipira ikoko. Paakabvunzwa chikonzero nei akazvipira, akanongedza buri redehenya rake. Akati chaiva chikomborero chaakanga achiri mupenyu uye aida kudzosa chimwe chinhu sezvo Mwari akanga amubvumira kuti ararame. Paakabvunzwa kana vazvipiri vakawanda pachipatara chacho vainamata, akapindura kuti vakawanda vavo vaibva kumachechi munharaunda yacho, kureva kuti, machechi anotenda muna Mwari weBhaibheri.

Maererano ne“matauriro” aBarker, mukadzi watakataura naye haafaniri kudavira kuti kuna Mwari ane rudo, vazvipiri vakapa nguva yavo kuchipatara havafaniri kudavira kuti kuna Mwari ane rudo, hatifaniri kudavira kuti kuna Mwari ane rudo (20. kubva patakafamba muchipatara), kana mumwe munhu akamboshanyira nzvimbo iyoyo. Kunyepa kwekufunga kwakadaro kuri pachena. Kuona kutambura muchipatara chevana hakurevi hako kuti munhu asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari. Chokwadi ndechokuti, vanhu vakawanda vanoshanyira chipatara chevana, uye kunyange vane vana vari varwere ikoko, vanotenda muna Mwari weBhaibheri. Kutaura kwaBarker hakumirire kushoropodzwa zvine musoro.

Kupfuurirazve, kukwezva kwemirangariro kwaBarker kunogona kuchinjwa nyore nyore: Famba muchipatara chipi nechipi chavana ndokucherekedza rudo, tarisiro, uye itiro izvo vabereki, vanachiremba, uye ananyamukuta, vanoratidza vana, uye unoziva mhindumupindu isingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari haigoni kuva yechokwadi. Mushure mezvose, mhindumupindu ndeyekupona kwevakasimba, umo kurwisa kwakasimba kune vasina simba kuti vararame mumakwikwi asingaperi ekupfuudza majini avo. Kudai mhindumupindu yaiva yechokwadi, vabereki navanachiremba vaisazopambadza pfuma yavo inokosha pavana vasingazopfuudza majini avo. Vanotenda huvepo hwanamwari vazhizhi ndiwo chete vanogona kuzvidavirira nekuda kwekuzvipira uye kutarisira kwaunoona muzvipatara zvevana.

KUMWE KUTAMBURA KUNOBVIRIRWA

Apo “chinetso chezvakaipa” chinoratidzwa, zvinokurumidza kuva pachena kuti shoko rokuti “zvakaipa” harigoni kushandiswa nenzira ipi neipi ine revo nomunhu asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari. Saka nzira yacho ndeyokuchinjanisa mashoko okuti “kutambudzika,” “marwadzo,” kana kuti “kukuvadza” neshoko rokuti “zvakaipa,” uye kutaura kuti nyika yakazara nemarwadzo akawandisa, kukuvadza, uye kutambura. Sezvo zviri pachena kuti vanhu vasingaverengeki vanokuvadzwa mumuviri, mupfungwa, uye mupfungwa, asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari anopikisa kuti, kunyange zvazvo pasina “zvakaipa” chaizvoizvo, Mwari ane rudo haasati aizobvumira kutambura kwakadaro. [Cherechedza: Nharo yeasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari haina kunyatsochinja. Achiri kutaura kuti kutambura “kwakaipa” kana kuti “kwakaipa” uye hakuzovipo munyika “yakanaka”. Chokwadi, anoramba ari mudambudziko rimwe chetero rokuratidza kuti uipi huripo uye kuti kutambura kwakaipa.]

Pakutarira kwokutanga, kunoratidzika kuti asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari ari kutaura kuti Mwari ane rudo, ane tsika haasati aizobvumira zvisikwa Zvake, zvinhu zvorudo Rwake, kutambura. Zvakare, vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari vanorangarira kuti vanhu vanofanira kuva vanodiwa naMwari, asi ivo vanotambura. Nokudaro, Mwari haadi kana kuti haana simba rokumisa kutambura—uye naizvozvo haako.

Mucherechedzi ane mufungo nokukurumidza anoona chinetso neiyi nzira yokurangarira, iyo kunyange mupanikiri anomanikidzirwa kubvuma: kwakarurama mutsika kubvumira kutambura kwakati kuti kugounza kunaka kukuru. Pazviitiko zvakawanda, Dan Barker nevamwe vake vasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari vakabvuma huchokwadi hwechokwadi ichi. Munguva yekubvunzurudzwa kwe Butt/Barker Debate, Barker akati:

Iwe haugone kurarama nehupenyu pasina kumwe kukuvadzwa…. Ndinofunga tose tinobvumirana kuti hazvina kunaka kubaya tsono mucheche. Izvo zvinotyisa. Asi, kana mwana iyeye achida jekiseni rinoponesa upenyu, tichakonzera kukuvadza ikoko, tichazviita. Mwana haazvinzwisise, asi tichazviita nekuti pane chimwe chinhu chakanaka. Saka, tsika dzevanhu dzinonzwisisa kuti mune mamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, pane kukuvadza, uye kune kutengeserana kwemaitiro (Butt naBarker, 2009)

Mukukakavadzana kwake naPeter Payne, Barker akati: “Kazhinji tsika dzinobatanidza kukuvadza. Dzimwe nguva kukuvadza kwakanaka” (Barker naPayne, 2005, emp. akawedzera). Mubhuku rake, Maybe Right, Maybe Wrong: A Guide for Young Thinkers, Barker akanyora, kuti: “Pazvinobvira, unofanira kuedza kumisa marwadzo evamwe. Kana uchifanira kurwadzisa mumwe munhu, wobva wamukuvadza zvishoma sezvaunokwanisa…. Kana iwe uchifanira kukuvadza mumwe munhu, saka edza kumira nokukurumidza sezvinobvira. Munhu akanaka haafariri kukonzera marwadzo” (1992, p. 33, emp. yakawedzerwa).

Zvinova pachena kuti asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari haangapokani nepfungwa yaMwari yakavakirwa pakuvapowo zvako kwokutambura, nokuti vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vanomanikidzwa kubvuma kuti panogona kuva nezvikonzero zvinoruramiswa mutsika zvokutambura. Zvakare, nharo yakashandurwa. Hatisisiri kubata ne“dambudziko rezvakaipa,” sezvo pasina pfungwa yaMwari, shoko rokuti “zvakaipa” harina zvarinoreva. Uyezve, hatisisiri kutarisana ne“dambudziko rokutambura,” sezvo asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari anofanira kubvuma kuti kumwe kutambura kungave kwakarurama mutsika kuti kugounza kunaka kukuru. Asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari anofanira kuwedzera rimwe izwi kuti akwanise kutambura: “zvisina maturo.”

KUTAMBURA KUSINA MATURO

Sezvo munhu asina chokwadi nazvo achiziva kuti kumwe kutambura kunogona kuva kwakarurama mutsika, anomanikidzwa kuita nharo achipikisa mufungo weBhaibheri pamusoro paMwari nokutaura kuti kumwe kutambura kuri munyika ino hakuna maturo kana kuti hakuna madikanwa. Munhu asina chokwadi ipapo anosimbisa kuti munhu upi noupi anobvumira kutambura kusina maturo haangagoni kuva ane rudo kana kuti ane tsika. Mubhuku rake rinonzi The Miracle of Theism, J.L. Mackie akataura kuti kana munhu asingatendi wacho aigona kuratidza zviri pamutemo kuti kutambura kuri munyika kunobatsira neimwe nzira, pfungwa yaMwari weBhaibheri “inobvira, uye nheyo yayo haibatanidzi chokwadi. kusiya maonero edu emazuva ese ekupikisa pakati pezvakanaka nezvakaipa” (1982, p. 154). Nekuda kwechokwadi ichi, Mackie akabvuma kuti: “[A]nogona kubvuma kuti dambudziko rehuipi harisi, shure kwezvose, rinoratidza kuti dzidziso huru yedzidziso yaMwari haipindirani zvine musoro kune imwe neimwe” (p. 154). Mackie akakanda tauro rechirevo ndokubvuma kuti “chinetso” chouipi nokutambura hachishori Mwari here? Mukupesana, akakarakadza kuti kunyange zvazvo kutambura kwakati kana kuti uipi kungave kuri madikanwa kana kuti kuchibetsera, kune uipi hwakawandisa zvikuru husina maturo (anohuti “uipi husingafungidzirwi”) munyika kuti Mwari wegamuchidzanwa weBhaibheri avepo. Akabva apedzisa achiti: “Dambudziko, naizvozvo, zvino rinodzokororwa sedambudziko rezvakaipa zvisingabatiki, uye hatisati tisina nzira yokuyananisa nayo kuvapo kwavo nouko kwamwari werudzi rwechinyakare” (p. 155, emp. yakawedzerwa). Ona kuti Mackie akamanikidzwa sei kuchinja “dambudziko rehuipi” kuti rive “dambudziko rehuipi husingafungidziriki.”

Dan Barker anonzwisisa shanduko iyi mu”dambudziko rehuipi” uye akazvishandisa iye pachake. Mukukakavadzana naRubel Shelly, Dan akashandisa nharo yake yakajairika yokuti kutambura muchipatara chevana kwakakwana kuratidza kuti Mwari haako. Shelly akapindura nokuramba kwenguva refu, achibudisa pachena pfungwa yokuti kutambura munyika ino kunogona kutsinhiraniswa nguva dzose nezvinangwa zvaMwari kuvanhu. Mukupedzisa tsinhiro dzake, Shelly akati: “Rudzi rwenyika, sezviri pachena, iyo kusatenda kunoda inyika umo pasina chiito chakaipa chingava nemigumisiro yakaipa kana kuti kwatisingakwanisi kuita zviito zvakaipa” (Barker naShelly, 1999). Barker akapindura zvakataurwa naShelly, achiti:

Handisi kukumbira nyika isina marwadzo…. Hapana asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari ari kukumbira kuti nyika ichinje kana kuti inoda kuti kana kuna Mwari, Akwanise kuichinja. Ini handisi kukumbira nyika isina mhedzisiro. Ini ndinofunga kurwadziwa nemhedzisiro zvakakosha kudzidzo inonzwisisika…. Chandiri kukumbira ndechekuti vanhu vavavarire nepavanogona napo nyika isina kukuvadza kusingakoshi (1999, emp. anovedzera).

Barker akaenderera mberi achitsanangura chiitiko umo moto wesango unomanikidza mwana mucheche kuti atize imba yake. Mukuita kudaro, hanzi inobata gumbo rayo mumusungo uye inopedzwa nemirazvo yemoto. Barker akabva ataura kuti aitenda kuti hakuna mweya kana hunhu hwemunhu hwakavakwa nekutambudzika kwefawn, saka ungave muenzaniso wekutambura kusingakoshi kana kusingabatsiri. Barker akabvumazve kuti kunyange zvazvo kumwe kutambura kuchigamuchirika, kunongova kwakanyanyisa zvikuru kuti uyanane naMwari ane rudo. Pano zvakare, zvakakosha kuona kuti nharo yose yaBarker yakashandurwa. Hachisisiri “chinetso chezvakaipa (kukuvadza)” asi zvino akachigadziridza ku“chinetso chezvakaipa zvisingakoshi (zvinokuvadza).”

Mubvunzo unotevera unofanira kubvunzwa ndewekuti: Chii chingati kutambura “kusina zvakunobatsira,” “kusiri madikanwa,” kana “kusiri kubatwa”? Mhinduro yakapfava iyo dzidziso yokuti hakuna Mwari inofanira kupa ndeyokuti kutambura kupi nokupi uko munhu asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari asingaoni zvakakodzera hakuna maturo. Sezvakataurwa naTimothy Keller, chokwadi ndechekuti Mackie nevamwe vanoshandisa izwi rekuti “hazvina maturo” kureva kuti ivo pachavo havagoni kuona pfungwa yacho. Keller akati: “Kuti nyika izere nouipi husina maturo ipfungwa yakavanzika, yokuti kana zvakaipa zvikaonekwa sezvisina maturo kwandiri, zvinofanira kunge zvisina maturo” (2008, peji 23, tatsveyamisa mabhii). Keller akawedzera kuti:

Kufunga uku, chokwadika, manyepo. Kungoti hauoni kana kufungidzira chikonzero chakanaka nei Mwari angabvumira chimwe chinhu kuti chiitike hazvirevi kuti hapangavi nechimwe. Zvekare tinoona kuhwanda mukati mekusatenda-kukahadzika kwekutenda kwakakura muhunyanzvi hwemunhu hwekuziva. Kana pfungwa dzedu dzisingakwanisi kudzika-dzika kwechisiko chapose pose nokuda kwemhinduro dzakanaka dzokutambura, zvakanaka, ipapo, hapangagoni kuva nedzimwe! Uku rutendo rweupofu rwemhando yepamusoro (p. 23).

Zvirokwazvo, ndiye asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari anorarama nekutenda kweupofu kwaanofungidzira zvisiri izvo kune asingatendi.

CHINANGWA CHEKUVEPO KWEVANHU

Mubhuku rake guru rinonzi, Have Atheists Proved There Is No God?, muzivi Thomas B. Warren akashora zvachose kushandisa kwomunhu asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari padambudziko reuipi. Akaratidza nokunzwisisa kuti Bhaibheri rinodzidzisa kuti “Mwari ane chikonzero chakanaka chokusika nyika … umo uipi hunogona (uye huchiitika)” (1972, p. 16). Chikonzeroi ichocho? Mwari akasika nyika kuti ive “nzvimbo yakanaka yekusika mweya” (p. 16). Mwari akasika vanhu kuti vave vasingafi, vakasununguka kuzvisarudzira, vane mhosva yezviito zvavo, nehupenyu huno hwepanyika huri nguva yavo imwe chete yekuedzwa umo kuguma kwavo kusingagumi kunotsanangurwa nekuita kwavo kuda kwaMwari munguva yehupenyu hwepasi (p. 19). . Nokudaro, nyika “yakanaka (nekuda kwechinangwa chaMwari pakuisika) senyika ipi neipi inobvira” sezvo yakanga yakagadzirirwa kushanda se“mupata wokuita mweya” (p. 19). Mhoteredzo yenyama yaizogara vanhu yakanyatsogadzirwa iine hunhu hunodiwa pakuzadzisa chinangwa ichocho chikuru. Mhoteredzo iyi yaizofanira kurongeka zvokuti yaizoita kuti vanhu vave vakasununguka kuzvisarudzira, vagovapa zvinodiwa zvavo zvokunyama zvinokosha, kuvabvumira kupikiswa, uye kuvaita kuti vadzidze zvinhu zvavanoda zvikuru kudzidza (p. 47).

Nepo asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari anotsanangura “zvakaipa” sekurwadziwa kwenyama nekutambura, Bhaibheri, zvine musoro, rinotsanangura uipi sekutyora mutemo waMwari (1 Johane 3: 4). Cherekedza, naizvozvo, kuti chakaipa chega chega chivi, kureva, kusateerera kana kudarika mitemo yaMwari. Nokudaro, kurwadziwa uye kutambura hazvina kuipa. (“[Hu]ipi hwakanyanya padanho renyama hahupo” [p. 93]). Muchokwadi, kurwadziwa kwemhuka, njodzi dzinongoitika dzoga, uye kutambura kwevanhu zvese zvinodikanwa zvinokonzeresa nharaunda dzakagadzirirwa kusimudzira pamweya. Misiyano yakadaro, semuenzaniso, inorovedzera pavanhu kuona kwakakosha kuti hupenyu paPasi hauna chokwadi, hune njodzi, uye ndehwenguva pfupi. Vanoratidzawo kuti upenyu hwepanyika hupfupi—kuti huchapera nokukurumidza (p. 58). Kuziva kwakadaro hakungosundidzi vanhu kuti vafunge nezvemamiriro avo ezvinhu ekunamata, uye kudiwa kwokushandisa upenyu uhwu kugadzirira upenyu hwapashure porufu, kunoita kuti vanhu vafungisise nezvaMwari! Kutambura, kurwadziwa, uye kuomerwa zvinokurudzira vanhu kukudziridza mafungiro avo uye kukura mutsika—kuwana unhu hwakanaka hwakadai soushingi, mwoyo murefu, kuzvininipisa, uye ushingi. Kutambura kunogona kushanda sechirango nekurudziro yekukurudzira kukura pamweya nesimba. Zvinonyatsokurudzira vanhu kuti vave netsitsi, tsitsi, rudo, nekunzwira vamwe tsitsi (p. 81).

NDIANI ARI PACHINZVIMBO CHAKANAKA CHEKUZIVA?

Sezvo vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vasingagoni kutaura kuti uipi chaihwoihwo, hwetsika huripo, vanofanira kugadziridza kuramba kwavo ndokutaura kuti Mwari ane rudo haasati aizobvumira kutambura. Nzvimbo iyi inokurumidza kutadza kudzivirirwa, saka zvakare chinzvimbo chinoshandurwa kuratidza kuti kumwe kutambura kunotenderwa, asi kwete kutambura kusina maturo kana kusiri madikanwa. Ndiani, ipapoka, anofanira kuziva kana paine zvirokwazvo kutambura kusiri madikanwa kunozvidza murangariro waMwari? Vamwe vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, vakadai saBarker, vanokurumidza kuzvigadza savatongi vokupedzisira avo voga vanogona kugadza ganhuriro dzakafanira dzokutambura. Asi, kana miganhu iyoyo ikaongororwa, zvinova pachena zvakare kuti “dambudziko reuipi” idambudziko riri pamutemo remunhu asingatendi kuti kuna Mwari.

Mubhuku rake godless, Dan Barker akati: “Hapana chakavanzika chikuru patsika. Hunhu huri kungoita nechinangwa chekuderedza kukuvadzwa” (2008, p. 214). Mutsanangudzo yake pamusoro penzira yekuderedza kukuvadzwa, Barker akanyora kuti: “Uye nzira yekudzivisa kukanganisa ndeyekuedza kuva neruzivo sezvinobvira pamusoro pemigumisiro inogona kuitika yezviito zviri kufungwa” (p. 214). Kurangarira kubva mukutaura kwaBarker pamusoro pehunhu, kana zvechokwadi kuna Mwari anoziva zvese Anoziva mhedzisiro yezvose zvakamboitika kana kuti zvichazoitwa, ipapo Munhu iyeye, uye Iye chete Munhu, angave ari pachinzvimbo chekutaura nechiremera chakakwana. pamusoro pehuwandu uye rudzi rwekutambudzika “kunodiwa.” Barker nevamwe vake vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vangaramba kushivirira kwaMwari kutambura, asi kudai Mwari aizozvininipisa kuti ataure navo zvakananga, Aigona kungopindura nokutaura kuti: “Chausingazivi ndicho… zviuru zvezvikonzero pamusoro pemigumisiro yeramangwana iyo yaizobvumira kutambura kwaanobvumira.

Zvirokwazvo, uhwu ndihwo hungwaru hwakashandiswa naMwari naJobho, paakapikisa ruzivo rwaJobho nekunzwisisa zvakavanzika zvePasirose:

Ndianiko uyu anodzima zano rangu namashoko asina zivo? Chizvigadzira zvino somunhu; ndichakubvunza iwe, uye iwe uchandipindura. Iwe wakange uripi pandakaisa nheyo dzenyika? Ndiudze, kana uchinzwisisa. Wakanzwisisa upamhi hwenyika here? Ndiudze, kana uchiziva zvose izvi. Unozviziva here, zvawakanga waberekwa? Kana mazuva ako akawanda kwazvo? Ko, munhu anokakavara nowaMasimbaose angamuranga here? Anoraira Mwari ngaapindure; Iwe ungakonesa kutonga kwangu zvirokwazvo? Ungandipomera mhosva here kuti iwe ururamiswe? (Jobho 38:2-4, 18, 21; 40:2,8).

Kubvunzurudza kwaMwari Jobho kwakajekesa idi rezivo yakaganhurirwa yomunhu, zvikurukuru ine chokuita nokutambura. Kusiyana neizvi, Barker akanyora kuti:

Neiko pfungwa dzoumwari—wokunze—dzichikwanisa zviri nani kutonga zviito zvavanhu kupfuura mirangariro yavanhu vamene? Ndeipi pfungwa iri pachinzvimbo chiri nani chekutonga pamusoro pezviito nemanzwiro evanhu? Ndeipi pfungwa ine kuvimbika zvakanyanya? Ndechipi chine ruzivo rwakawanda munyika chaiyo? Ndeipi pfungwa ine kodzero? (2008, peji 211).

Hongu, mibvunzo yaBarker mibvunzonhando isina musoro yaifanira kumanikidza muverengi kuti apindure kuti vanhu vanokwanisa kunzwisisa zviri nani zviito, kana kuti kutambura kwakadini kunobvumirwa. Mukuona kwekutaura kwake pamusoro pekuziva migumisiro yezviito, zvisinei, nzvimbo yaBarker inowira pasi. Pfungwa dzaani dzinoziva zvakawanda pamusoro pemigumisiro yezviito zvose? Pfungwa dzaani dziri munzvimbo iri nani yekuziva zvichaitika kana ichi chiito chikabvumirwa? Pfungwa dzaani dzinokwanisa kuona mufananidzo mukuru? Uye Ndiani oga anogona kuziva kuti kutambura kwakawanda sei kunobvumirwa kuunza kunaka kwokupedzisira kurudzi rwomunhu? Iyeyo aizova Musiki asingagumi, asingagumi, anoziva zvose—Mwari weBhaibheri.

REFURENZI YEZVINYORWA

Barker, Dan (2008), godliness (Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press).

Barker, Dan (1992), Maybe Right, Maybe Wrong: A Guide for Young Thinkers (Amherst, NY: Prometheus).

Barker, Dan naRubel Shelly (1999), Barker/Shelly Mugakava: Mwari Ariko Here? (Brentwood, TN: Faith Matters).

Barker, Dan naPeter Payne (2005),Barker/Payne Mugakava: Does Ethics Require God?, [On-line], URL: http://www.ffrf.org/about/bybarker/ethics_debate.php.

Butt, Kyle naDan Barker (2009), Butt/Barker Mugakava: Mwari WemuBhaibheri Ariko Here? (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Craig, William Lane (hapana zuva), Mugakava reKurwadziswa neKutambura, Chikamu 1, [On-line], URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZTG5xyefEo.

Keller, Timothy (2008), The Reason for God (New York: Dutton).

Lewis, C.S. (1952), Mere Christianity (New York: Simon and Schuster).

Mackie, J.L. (1982), The Miracle of Theism: Arguments For and Against the Existence of God (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Nietzsche, Friedrich (2007 reprint), Beyond Good and Evil (Raleigh, NC: Hayes Barton Press), [On-line], URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=C7sRYOPWke0C&pg=PA1&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad= 0_1#PPP1,M1.

Provine, William (1998), “Evolution: Free Will and Punishment and Meaning in Life,” [On-line], URL: http://eeb.bio.utk.edu/darwin/DarwinDayProvineAddress.htm.

Warren, Thomas B. (1972), Have Atheists Proved There Is No God? (Ramer, TN: National Christian Press).

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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