Menu

ChiKristu Chechokwadi Chete Chinokwaniswa Kururamiswa

Nguva pfupi yapfuura ndakawa muhurukurirano ine zvibereko zvikuru navaviri vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari (maAtheitsi). Vakanga vari mumakore avo okutanga makumi matatu, vakangwara, uye vaitaura zvakanyanya. Takaronga musangano kuti tikurukure chikonzero nei vakanga vasarudza kugamuchira kusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari, uye kuramba Mwari nechiKristu. Mukati mekurukurirano yamaawa maviri, zvakava pachena kuti zhinji dzenyunyuto dzavo pamusoro pe“chiKristu” dzakanga dziri dzapamutemo. Kutaura idi, ndakabvumirana nomwoyo wose nemhomho yokuramba kwavo kwenguva refu, uye kuramba, “chiKristu.” Kuti ndirege kurasisa muverengi, zvisinei, regai nditsanangure. Ziva kuti ini ndaisa mune makotesheni mamaki e”chiKristu” chavakatuka, nekuti izwi rinoda kufanirwa. Zvakawanda zve“chiKristu” chakashatirisa majaya aya zvikuru chaibatanidza kumiririrwa kwenhema kwakakomba kwaMwari uye kududzirwa kusina kururama kwakashata kweBhaibheri. Somuenzaniso, pavaikurukurirana, mumwe wevarume vacho akatsanangura kuti kana, maererano nemaonero aJohn Calvin, Mwari aingosarudza kuti vamwe vanhu vaponeswe uye vamwe kuti varasikirwe pasinei nezvavasarudza, saka Mwari aizova asina kururama. Akatsanangura pfungwa iyi zvakadzama kwemaminitsi akati wandei. Pashure pokunyatsoteerera kuramba kwake kwoungwaru kwedzidziso yaCalvin, ndakabvumirana naye zvachose, asi ndakaona kuti dzidziso dzaCalvin hachisi chiKristu chechokwadi. Kwakaratidzika kuti sezvo chiCalvin chakanga chabatanidzwa zvisingaparadzanisiki zvikuru mu“zvimiro” zvakawanda zve“chiKristu” icho jaya iri rakanga rafumurwa kwachiri, rakashamiswa kuti “muKristu” upi noupi aizobvumirana nomutoo unodisa nenzvero yake yezvikanganiso zvacho zviri pachena.

Hurukuro nevarume ava, pamwe nekuverenga kwakadzama kwevanyori vekutanga vevanhu vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, yakasimbisa mupfungwa dzangu chokwadi chekuti vanyori vanokahadzika vane ruzivo rwekufumura chiKristu chemanyepo nekuda kwechikanganiso chachiri. Sezvineiwo, vatsoropodzi vanowanzoshandisa chiKristu chokunyepedzera uye kutsanangura zvisiri izvo zveBhaibheri zvokuti vanodenha zvakakwana serutsengwe zvokuti vanosimbira kuti zvinomiririra chiKristu chechokwadi. Muchokwadi, havadaro. Chidzidzo chinobatsira, zvisinei, kuona nzvimbo dzekududzira dzinoitwa zvisirizvo mubhaibheri nezvitendero zvisiri zvechiKristu izvo vapokani vakanyatsoona sedzisina kukanganiswa.

Shanduko yekutenda kuna Mwari umwechete haitizike

Muna 2006, David Mills akanyora bhuku rinonzi Atheist Universe: Mhinduro yeMunhu Anofunga kune Kukosha kweChiKrist. Zvakawanda zvemashoko ari mubhuku iroro hazvina kururama. Asi chitsauko chechitanhatu, chine musoro unoti “Genesi Inogona Kuwiriraniswa NeSayenzi Yemazuva Ano Here?” rine zvimwe zvinhu zvinokatyamadza zvokutaura pamusoro pevaya vanoti vanodavira Bhaibheri asi vanoedza kuchinjisa dudziro yaro kuti ienderane nenguva yezveshanduko yazvino uno. Pakutanga kwechitsauko, Mills akati:

Maererano naGenesi, Mwari akasika Adhamu naEvha pazuva rechitanhatu reVhiki yekusika. Madzinza aGenesi anobva adonongodza mazera chaiwoiwo apo Adhama navazukuru vake vechirume “vakabereka” vana vavo vechirume. Mabhuku eTestamente Itsva aMateo naRuka [Cherechedza: Mateo naRuka havapi mazera—KB] vozoenderera mberi nenhoroondo yedzinza kubva kuna Dhavhidhi kusvika kuna Jesu, vachitsanangura zvakare zera iro murume mumwe nomumwe wedzinza “akabereka” chizvarwa chinotevera. Sezvo tiine nguva “yenhoroondo” yakatarwa yokuzvarwa kwaJesu, vanodavira kuti zvinhu zvakasikwa vanoverenga kuti matenga neNyika zvakasikwa naMwari mugore ra4004 B.C. Nyika, naizvozvo, inongova nemakore 6000 ekare nekuverenga nguva kwebhaibheri. [Cherechedza: Kunyange zvazvo Mills akarurama pamusoro pezera rose remakore 6 000, kuverengwa kwenguva hakuna kunyatsojeka zvokuratidza musi chaiwo wa4004 B.C.—KB.] Pasinei nemaonero akasiyana-siyana, vanodavira kusikwa nenyanzvi dzezvinhu zvipenyu vanobvumirana pane chimwe chinhu chinokosha: Zviuru zvitanhatu zvemakore haina kukwana nguva yekuti shanduko igadzire hupenyu hwakaoma hwatinoona Panyika nhasi…. Nyika ine makore 6000 zvinoreva naizvozvo kuti Genesi nedzidziso yokushanduka-shanduka hazvipindirani zvachose (p. 137).

Mills akati zvakare:

Kana nhoroondo yeNyika yakatanga neVhiki reKusika, uye kana Genesisi achipa chinyorwa chenhau chakarurama, ipapo Nyika yakanga isina nhorondo yenguva dzekare, pasina vanhu vekare, uye pasina mhuka dzekare. Madhainaso akafamba nepaNyikazviuru zvishoma zvemakore zvapfuura, akatarisana nevanhu vemazuvano (p. 141).

Mills akapfuurira kunyora, kuti: “Kana vanodavira kusikwa zvino vachida kusiya nzvimbo yavo yenhau ndokubvumirana nePasi rekare, ipapo ndinorumbidza kufambira mberi kwavo. Asi manyepo kuramba tichiti Genesi haana kumboda nzvimbo diki yeNyika sezvo madzinza kana kuti marudzi zvaigaroitwa semadimikira” (p. 148,).

Pamusoro paavo vanoedza kubvumirana pane zvisina kufanira chimiro chaichoicho chaGenesi ndokugamuchira zvose zviri zviviri Bhaibheri nezveshanduko, Mills akanyora, kuti: “Achidudza rondedzero yeNguva Yezuva, ava Vanyepedzeri Vakuru vanoita kuti vadavire kuti Genesi inorondedzera zvomenemene Pasi rakare. Chinangwa cheunhu hwenjere uhwu hwunotutumadza kubvumira Vanyepedzeri Vakuru kuti ‘vave nazvo nenzira mbiri’—vachizviona sevanonamata uye vesainzi panguva imwe chete” (p. 151). Mune zvinonzwika chaizvoizvo sezvinyorwa zvomurevereri wechiKristu muduku, Mills ipapo akatsinhira, kuti: “Mukuratidzika kwokukarira nekurambwa kwokutanga kwedzidziso yeNguva Yezuva, zvisinei, Bhuku raGenesi rimene rinopa tsananguro yakajeka uye yakananga yeVhiki reChisiko… mangwanani’ rakanga riri zuva—zuva chairo remaawa makumi maviri namana” (p. 151).

Mills airuramisa chaizvo pamusoro peidi rokuti kubvumirana pane zvisina kufanira nhoroondo yaGenesi yeChisiko hakudzivirirwi uye hakuna mufungo. Anoita basa rakaisvonaka rokuratidza kuti kuteterera kunokosha kunodiwa kumonyanisa rugwaro rwaGenesisi kuti rubvumirane nepfungwa dzemazuva ano dzokushanduka-shanduka hakugoni kunyatsoongororwa. Anopedzisa nemazvo achiti: “Nyika ine makore 6000 inoreva kuti saka Genesi neChiitiko cheShanduko hazviwirirane zvachose” (p. 137). Avo vanobvumirana pane zvisina kufanira rugwaro rwaGenesi mukuedza kurimanikidza kubvumirana nedzidziso dzeshanduko dzazvino uno vakaruwana zvisina kururama, uye vangaita zvakanaka kuteerera kutsoropodza kwaMills kududzira kwavo kusina kururama.

Nehurombo, Mills anosiya kufunga kwake kwakadzama pamusuwo weongororo yake chaiyo yekuti Bhaibheri nedzidziso yekushanduka-shanduka hazviwirirane. Anotaura zvisiri izvo kuti Bhaibheri rave risina kururama nguva yose iyi uye kuti shanduko ndiyo mugadziri wechokwadi wepasi redu. Takaratidza kakawanda kuti zvakadaro hazvingave zvakadaro (tarisa. Jackson, nevamwe., 2008), naMills nevamwe vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vangaita zvakanaka kushandisa kufunga kwakafanana kudzidziso yezveshanduko yenhema sezvavanoita nemazvo kune zvisizvo zvisingadzivirirwe. yezvinyorwa zvebhaibheri.

Chivi Chenhaka

Vanhu vakawanda vanozviti maKristu nhasi vakabvuma pfungwa yokuti vanhu vanoberekwa vaine chivi. Vanhu vechitendero ava vanotenda kuti chivi chinogona kugarwa nhaka kubva kumadzitateguru emunhu, munhu wese, kunyangwe vacheche, vanokodzera rufu nekuda kwehunhu nhaka yechivi chekutadza kwevakuru. Zvisinei, Bhaibheri hapana parinodzidzisa dzidziso yakadaro. Nokudaro, apo vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari navapanikiri vakabata iyi dudziro yenhema yoRugwaro, vanoomerera nenzira yakarurama kuti dzidziso yakadaro yaizoratidzira kupokanidzana kwohunhu hwaMwari weBhaibheri.

Christopher Hitchens, muhurukuro yake yerufu RwaKristu pamuchinjikwa, akanyora kuti:

Pamusoro pazvo, ndinofanira kutenda kuti kurwadziswa kwacho kwaidiwa kuti ndiripe mhosva yakamboparwa yandakanga ndisina kumboitawo, chinova chivi chaAdhamu…. Nokudaro mhosva yangu munyaya iyi inonzi “yepakutanga” uye hainzvengeki. Zvakadaro, ndichiri kupihwa rusununguko rwekuzvisarudzira kuti ndirambe chipo chekudzikinura (2007, p. 209, ).

Hitchens akagumisa zvakarurama kuti pfungwa yakadaro “inopikisa pfungwa yetsika uye inonzwisisika yokuti vana havana mhosva dzevabereki vavo” (p. 99). Richard Dawkins akayerawo pfungwa yacho achiti: “Chivi chaAdhamu naEvha chinofungidzirwa kuti chakatapurirwa mumurudzi rwechirume —rwakaiswa kubudikidza nemuurume maererano naAugustine. Imhandoyi yerudzii rworuzivo runetsika inopa mhosva kumwana, kunyange asati aberekwa, kugariswa nhaka yechivi chatateguru vaasingazivi vakafa kare?” (Dawkins, 2006, p. 251,).

Hitchens, Dawkins, uye vamwe vanyori vakawanda vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari vanogumisa zvakarurama kuti Mwari anopa vana mhaka yekugara nhaka zvinova zvivi zvamadzitateguru avo airarama hupenyu husina kururama. Chimiro chebhaibheri pamusoro paMwari, zvisinei, hachisi chemunhu ane utsinye, asina kururama akadaro.  Bhaibheri rinoratidza zvakajeka kuti vana havagari nhaka yezvivi kana kuti mhosva yemadzitateguru avo. Muprofita Ezekieri akanyora kuti: “Munhu anotadza ndiye achafa. Mwanakomana haangavi nemhosva yababa vake, nababa havangavi nemhosva yomwanakomana. Kururama kwowakarurama kuchava pamusoro pake, uye kuipa kwowakaipa kuchava pamusoro pake” (18:20). Zvave zvichiratidzwa kakawanda nepasina kupokana kuti Bhaibheri harina kumboratidza kuti vana vanogara nhaka chivi kana mhosva kubva kuvabereki vavo (Butt, 2004), uyewo vana havamborangwa pamweya pamusana pezvivi zvevabereki vavo (Butt, 2003). Kunyange zvazvo chiri zvichitika zvokuti vana kazhinji kazhinji vanotambura nokuda kwesarudzo yakararamwa nevabereki vavo, zvakadai apo baba vakadhakwa vanobata vana vavo zvisina kufanira, hazvisi kuti vana ivavo vanotakura mhaka yovakuru kana mababa avo kana kuti kugara nhaka upi noupi wavabereki vavo chivi nzanga isina chokwadi ingashamiswa nechisikwa chinokandira vacheche vasina mhosva mugehena sechirango chezvivi zvevabereki vavo. Asi, dudziro yakarurama yeBhaibheri inoratidza kuti handizvo. Kunyange zvazvo zvichirwadza kuti vanhu vakawanda vezvitendero vakadzidzisa nhema dzakadaro, dzidziso yavo yenhema panyaya yacho, uye kubvuma kwevapoki dzidziso iyoyo yenhema setsanangudzo yeBhaibheri yakarurama, hazvigoni kushandiswa sechombo chiri pamutemo chokuzvidza hunhu. waMwari weBhaibheri.

TSANANGURO YAKAIPA YENZWI KUTENDA

Zvinosiririsa kuchiKristu kuti vamwe vanozviti vaKristu havanyatsonzwisisa pfungwa huru yekutenda. Nokuda kwavazhinji vari muchiKristu, kutenda kunzwa kwoushamwari mumwoyo yavo apo vanenge vakundikana kuwana umbowo hwakakwana hwokururamisa zvitendero zvavo. Maduramazwi emazuva ano akaita zvakawanda kupinza iyi tsanangudzo yenhema yekutenda muchiKristu chemazuva ano. Somuenzaniso, Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary inotaura kuti kutenda, “kutenda kwakasimba mune chimwe chinhu chisina uchapupu” (1988). The American Heritage Dictionary inopa setsanangudzo huru yekutenda: “kutenda kusingatsamiri pauchapupu kune musoro kana kunoonekwa” (2000, p. 636). Pfungwa yokuti kutenda manzwiro anodziya, asina kujeka akarambwa kubva pakufunga zvine musoro uye akaparadzaniswa ne“humbowo hwezvinhu” haaenderane nezvinotaurwa neBhaibheri nezvekutenda (tarisa Sztanyo, 1996). Sokutaura kwakaita Sztanyo zvakarurama: “Hakuna chinhu chimwe muchiKristu, icho mweya yedu inotsamira pachiri, icho ‘sechingangova’ bedzi chechokwadi. Muchiitiko chega chega, humbowo hunopihwa hwakakwana kuratidza humbowo hwechokwadi hwekutenda kwechiKristu” (1996, p. 7).

Murangariro wenhema wokuti kutenda “kusvetuka murima” pasina ufakazi hwakakwana unogovera nzanga isina chokwadi zvokudya zvakawanda nokuda kwekanoni dzavo dzisingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, dzinopesana neBhaibheri—uye nenzira yakarurama. Kana kudavira muna Mwari, kana kuti kufuridzirwa kwoumwari kweBhaibheri, kana kuti umwari hwaJesu Kristu kusina kugadzwa noumbowo hune mufungo, ipapo mifungo iyoyo haina kufanirwa nokudavirwa semifungo isingabvumirwi yokusadavira kuvapo kwaMwari nezveshanduko. Achiziva kusapindirana kwetsanangudzo yenhema yakadaro yokutenda, Sam Harris akanyora kuti: “Chaizvoizvo, chitendero chimwe nechimwe chinoparidza chokwadi chezvirevo zvisina uchapupu husingambofungidziriki. Izvi zvakaisa ‘kusvetuka’ mukusvetuka kwekutenda kwaKierkegaard” (Harris, 2004, p. 23). Christopher Hitchens, achitsigira pamusoro pepfungwa ye”kubata kwekutenda”, akafunga:

Chaizvoizvo, “kubata kwekutenda” -kuipa zita risingakanganwike iro Soren Kierkegaard raakapa pairi – hunyengeri. Sezvaakataura pachake, haisi “kubata” kunogona kuitwa kamwe uye zvachose. Iko kusvetuka kunofanirwa kuenderera mberi nekuitwa, kunyangwe paine humbowo hunowedzera hunopesana (2007, p. 65).

Mukuongorora kwake chitendero, Richard Dawkins akati: “Pfungwa yose yechitendero chechitendero, kusimba kwacho nembiri yacho huru, ndeyekuti hazvibvi pakururamisa zvine musoro” (2006, peji 23). Nemhaka yokudavira kwake kuti kutenda kweBhaibheri kudavira pasina chikonzero chine musoro, Dawkins akagumisa, kuti: “Tinodavira kunezveshanduko nemhaka yokuti umbowo hunoitsigira, uye taizoisiya kamwe kamwe kana umboo hutsva hwakamuka hwokuitsigira. Hakuna munhu anorambira pachokwadi angambotaura zvakadaro” (p. 283). Zvinonyatsorehwa naDawkins ndezvekuti hapana mutsigiri akagamuchira pfungwa yekuti kutenda hakunei nekururamisa kunonzwisisika angasiya kutenda kwake kana humbowo hwakapihwa hunopesana. Asi kana rondedzero yake yokutenda isina kururama, ipapo haana kururama kugumisa kuti avo vanodavira muna Mwari, kufuridzirwa kwoumwari kweBhaibheri, uye uMwari hwaKristu havasati vaizochinja mirangariro yavo yakavakirwa paumbowo. Kutaura zvazviri, maererano netsanangudzo yakakodzera yekutenda kweBhaibheri, zvinongoitika chete nokuda kwezvikonzero zvine musoro uye uchapupu hune musoro huripo kuti vaKristu vechokwadi vanobatisisa zvavanotenda.

Apo Dawkins anoti, “ChiKristu, kungofanana nechiIsiramu, chinodzidzisa vana kuti kutenda kusingapikiswei chinhu chakanaka chakakosha. Haufanire kuita nyaya pane zvaunotenda” (p. 306), anoratidza kusaziva kwake kuti kutenda kwebhaibheri chii. Kutenda kweBhaibheri kwakavakirwa zvakakwana uye chete pachokwadi nechikonzero, sezvakataurwa nemuapostora Pauro muchidimbu muna Mabasa 26:25. Muporofita Isaya akasimbisa ichi chokwadi chinokosha pamusoro pokutenda kweBhaibheri apo Iye akanyora kokero yaMwari kuvaIsraeri: “‘Chiuyai zvino, titaurirane,’ anodaro Jehovha” (1:18). Ruka, musumo yake yebhuku raMabasa, akasimbisa pfundo rokuti rumuko rwaJesu rwakapupurirwa “nouchapupu huzhinji husingakundikane” (1:3). Kuti munhu adavire rumuko zvinoda kutenda, kwakavakirwa paumbowo husingakanganisiki.

Sam Harris akanyora kuti: “Inguva yatakabvuma kuti kutenda hakusi chinhu kunze kwerezinesi vanhu vechitendero vanopa mumwe nemumwe kuti varambe vachitenda kana zvikonzero zvakundikana” (Harris, 2006, p. 67). Mhosva yaHarris inoruramiswa kana ikashandiswa kuzvitendero zvenhema, uye kune avo vanoedza kudzivirira chiKristu pasina kupa chikonzero chine musoro, chekutenda kwavo. Asi zvirevo zvake, uye manzwiro akafanana kubva kuna Dawkins, Hitchens, uye vamwe vasingadaviri kuvapo kwaMwari, hazvina kukwana zvachose kurwisa kutenda kwechokwadi, kwebhaibheri. Nenzira inosuruvarisa, vazhinji vanozviti vaKristu vanozarurira nzanga isina chokwadi mukana wokuparadza “kutenda” kwechiKristu, nepo, chaizvoizvo, “kutenda” kuri kuparadzwa kwakanga kusati kuri kweBhaibheri pakutanga.

ZVISHAMISA ZVINO

Kazhinji kazhinji “ChiKristu” chinoshandiswa zvisina kufanira navashori vazvino uno nemhaka yekombamiro yavazhinji muchiKristu chokutaura kuti Mweya Mutsvene unopfuurira kuita zvishamiso nhasi sezvaAkaita munguva dzeTestamente Itsva. Asingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari Dan Barker akanyora nezvenguva yaakakandwa kunze kwe”Peter Popoff’s ‘chishamiso’ rally” (1992, p. 291). Barker akanyora kuti Popoff “akabata musoro wemukadzi, akadzvomora bvudzi rake nemaune, akamuzunza uye aiti apora” (p. 293). Panguva yemitambo yaPopoff yokuporesa, Barker akati, “Vateereri vakanyora ‘kuporesa’ kwake nokutaura nendimi zvinonzwika, vachisimudza maoko avo, vachidedera, vachichema, uye vachidaidzira kuti ‘Ameni,’ ‘Maita henyu, Jesu!’ manzwire eimwe yemakwikwi aya emutsimba paTV” (p. 293).

Ongororo yaBarker pachiitiko ichi yaiti, “Zvakasekesa; nezvaisiririsa. Murume wacho aiita zvemishonga asina rezinesi, achimutsa tariro dzenhema uye achiisa upenyu pangozi. (Vatendi vake vazhinji vakarasa mishonga kana kukanzura kugadzwa kwachiremba.) Ndinorangarira ndakatora rutivi mumisangano seizvi apo ndakanga ndiri muevhangeri wevhangeri rakazara, uye ndainyara” (p. 294). Barker’s muimbi ongororo yePopoff’s “kutenda kuporesa” ndeyechokwadi munzira dzakawanda. Sokubvuma kwakaita Barker, pane imwe nguva munguva yake yakapfuura akapinda muzviitiko zvakawanda zvokuporesa kwenhema, uye nokudaro anoziva kusatendeseka kwomuzvarirwo kunobatanidzwa mukunyengedza kwakadaro. Pano zvakare nzanga isina chokwadi yakagumisa zvine musoro uye zvakarurama kuti kuporesa nokutenda kwakadaro hakuna maturo. Sokunyora kwakaita David Mills, kuti: “Kana Mwari ane simba rokurapa vamwe nenzira yenenji (kunyange zvazvo nenzira isingachinji nenzira isina kujeka uye isina chokwadi), neiko Mwari asingambobatsiri vakadimburwa mitezo?” (2006, peji 161).

Mills akaruramisira kutaura kuti kana simba rezvishamiso rakanga riripo munguva yavaapostora richiripo nanhasi, sezvo maKristu mazhinji anodzidzisa nokudavira nenzira isina kururama, ipapo zvishamiso zvinogona kubvumikiswa nesimba sokuporesa kwevakadimburwa mitezo zvinofanira kunyorwa. Pashure pezvose, kunyange vavengi vevaapostora vaifanira kubvuma kuti zvishamiso zvakaitwa navaapostora zvakanga zvine uchokwadi hwesimba: “Nokuti zvirokwazvo, chiratidzo chinozikanwa chakaitwa navo chiri pachena kuna vose vagere Jerusarema, uye isu hatigoni kuzviramba. ” (Mabasa 4:16).

Muchokwadi, nharaunda inokahadzika inoita basa rakanakisa rekuratidza kuti “kuporesa nokutenda” kwakadai zviitiko zvinoshungurudza zvisingaburitse mhedzisiro yekurapa. Dambudziko rinomuka, zvisinei, apo nharaunda inokahadzika inoedza kukanda maKristu ese muforoma iyi, kana kuedza kushandisa zvishamiso zvenhema izvi kurerutsa mukana wechero chishamiso chero nguva munhoroondo. Chokwadi chenyaya ndechekuti, Bhaibheri rakafanotaura kuti simba rezvishamiso raivepo kune vaapositori raizosvika kumagumo, uye raisazoenderera mberi mumazera kusvika nguva dzazvino (Miller, 2003). Uyezve, zvave zvichiratidzwa kakawanda uye zvakajeka kuti zvishamiso zvenhema zvakadaro zvinotsigira kukosha kwekupokana kunopesana nenhoroondo yezvishamiso zvechokwadi zvakanyorwa muBhaibheri, zvakadai sekumuka kwaKristu (Butt, 2002).

MHEDZISO

Mortimer J. Adler akamboti, “ChiKristu ndicho chega kutenda kune mufungo, kusingachinji munyika” (sezvakataurwa muSharp naBergman, 2008, p. 288). Sezvineiwo, chokwadi chekutaura kwake chinowanzovharika nehuzhinji, huzivi hwenhema uye dudziro dzebhaibheri dzisina kururama dzinoita seChiKristu. Chidzidziso chaCalvin, dzidziso yozvokushanduka, chivi chakagarwa nhaka, kutenda kusina kutsanangurirwa, nekudavira kuporesa kunoshamisa kwemazuva ano zvinongova zvimhingamupinyi zvishomanana zvinomira munzira yekunzwisisa kwakafanira kwechiKristu cheTestamente Itsva. Pane iyi ndaza yaigona kuwedzerwa mazana epfungwa dzakafanana dzakazadzwa nemhosho dzakadai sepfungwa dzisiri dzomumagwaro dzekunamata vanhu, kufuridzirwa naMwari kwomuzuva razvino uno, kutsungirira kwevasande, ne“kufanotaura” kunosekesa kunonzi kwakabva murugwaro rweBhaibheri. Zvakazarurwa. Avo vanoshuvira zvapachokwadi kudzivirira huchokwadi hwechiKristu cheTestamente Itsva vanofanira kuva nechido uye vanokwanisa kuongorora zvinyorwa zvevashori vemazuva ano, vachiparadzanisa gorosi nehundi. Kupfurikidza nokubvuma zvikanganiso zviri mumirangariro yenhema ye“chiKristu,” mutsvaki wezvokwadi ane mwoyo wakatendeseka anogona kutungamirirwa kuona kuti zvikanganiso zvakadaro nezvikanganiso hazviparadzi chiKristu chechokwadi, chinodzivirirwa.

Zvinyorwa

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language  (2000), (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin), edhitioni yechina.

Barker, Dan (1992), Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist (Madison, WI: Freedom From Religion).

Butt, Kyle (2002), “Jesus Christ—Dead or Alive?” Reason & Revelation https://apologeticspress.org/articles/121.

Butt, Kyle (2003), “Vacheche Vanoenda Kugehena Kana Vafa?” https://apologeticspress.org/articles/2255.

Butt, Kyle (2004), “Vana Vanogara Nhaka Yezvivi zvevabereki?”  https://apologeticspress.org/articles/2543.

Dawkins, Richard (2006), The God Delusion (New York: Houghton Mifflin).

Harris, Sam (2004),The End of Faith (New York: W.W. Norton).

Harris, Sam (2006), Letter to a Christian Nation (New York: Alfred A. Knopf).

Hitchens, Christopher (2007) god Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (New York: The Gumi Nevaviri).

Jackson, Wayne, Eric Lyons naKyle Butt (2008), Letter to a Christian Nation (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Miller, Dave (2003), ““Modern Day Miracles, Tongue-Speaking and Holy Spirit Baptism—A Refutation,” Reason & Revelation, https://apologeticspress.org/articles/2569.

Mills, David (2006), Atheist Universe: The Thinking Person’s Answer to Christian Fundamentalism (Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press).

Sharp, Doug naJerry Bergman, ed. (2008), Persuaded by the Evidence (Green Forest, AR: Master Books).

Sztanyo, Dick (1996), Faith and Reason (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1988), (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster).

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


Published

A copied sheet of paper

REPRODUCTION & DISCLAIMERS: We are happy to grant permission for this article to be reproduced in part or in its entirety, as long as our stipulations are observed.

Reproduction Stipulations→