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Bhaibheri Rakapfuudzwa Kwatiri Zvakarurama Here

[Chiziviso chemupepeti: Chinyorwa ichi chakatorwa muAppendikisi 1 yebhuku remunyori rinonzi Kubudiswa Pachena KweKorani.]

Sayenzi yekutsoropodza magwaro ibasa rekubvunzurudza rave rakakosha pakuona kuverenga kwekutanga kwechinyorwa cheTestamente Itsva. Kutsoropodzwa kwemavara kunosanganisira “kuzivikanwa kwechimiro chechokwadi chebhuku, sezvakagadzirwa nekunyorwa pasi nemunyori waro.”1Kuti makopi ezvinyorwa zvepakutanga haapo,2uye kuti makopi emakopi ezvinyorwa zvepakutanga. vakapona, zvaita kuti vamwe vafunge zvenhema kuti kuverenga kwekutanga kwemagwaro eTestamente Itsva hakugone kuzivikanwa. Somuenzaniso, veMomoni vanowanzoedza kuratidza ukuru hweBhuku raMomoni kupfuura Bhaibheri nokuomerera kuti Bhaibheri rakashatiswa kwemazana emakore richishandurwa (gakava rinoitwa neIsiramu mukuedza kwayo kutsanangura kupokanidzana kunowanzoitwa kweBhaibheri neKorani). Nekudaro, kupinda munyika inonakidza yekutsoropodza zvinyorwa kunobvisa mumhedziso yepamberi neisina ruzivo.

Basa revatsoropodzi vemagwaro—vaya vanoongorora uchapupu huchiripo hunotsigira mashoko eTestamende Itsva—ndekuongorora zvakasiyana-siyana zvemashoko (kureva, kuverenga kunopesana pakati pekunyora anosanganisira shoko, ndima, kana ndima) mukuedza kugadzira patsva kuverenga kwekutanga kwechinyorwa. Iyi ndima yokubvunzurudza yakagumisa kutii maererano nokutendeseka uye uchokwadi hweBhaibheri?

Testamende Yekare ichiri Yakavimbika here?3

Kana paine zvikanganiso zvevanyori mumakopi emazuva ano eTestamende Yekare, vazhinji vanoshamisika kuti tingava sei nechokwadi chekuti rugwaro rweBhaibheri rwakafambiswa zvakatendeka kwemazana emakore. Hakubviri here kuti yakashatiswa zvokuti chimiro chayo muBhaibheri redu razvino uno chakasiana zvikuru nemanyuko apakuvamba?

Kururama kwemagwaro eTestamende Yekare kwakaratidzwa nesimba nokuwanwa kwemipumburu yeGungwa Rakafa. Gore ra1947 risati rasvika, manyoro ekaresa echiHebheru akareba zvikuru akanga asina mavambo ezana ramakore rechipfumbamwe A.D. Zvisinei, apo mipumburu yamanyoro yeGungwa Rakafa yakawanikwa (ine zvikamu zvamabhuku ose eTestamente Yekare kunze kwaEstere), uku kuwanwa kwakasundira chinyorwa cheTestamente Yekare. rugwaro kumashure anenge makore 1 000. Makopi aya akagadzirwa imwe nguva pakati pe200 B.C. uye A.D. 100. Mumwe mupumburu wakawanwa mumapako eQumran wakanga uchikosha zvikuru. Wakanga uri mupumburu webhuku raIsaya, waingova nemashoko mashoma asipo. Chaishamisa pamupumburu uyu ndechokuti pawaienzaniswa nerugwaro rwaIsaya rwakabudiswa makore 900 pashure pawo, miviri yacho yaipindirana rinenge shoko neshoko, ichingova nemisiyano mishomanana chete. Mukutsinhira pamusoro pouku kuraviwa kwokuenzanisa kwemagwaro maviri, A.W. Adams akati:

Chibvumirano chepedyo cheMupumburu wechipiri waIsaya kubva kuGungwa Rakafa nemanyoro ezana ramakore rechipfumbamwe neregumi chinoratidza kuti gamuchidzanwa ravanomiririra rakachengetedzwa sei…. Naizvozvo tinogona kugutsikana kuti chinyorwa cheTestamende yedu Yekare chakapihwa mumutsara mumwechete pasina shanduko huru kubva pakutanga kwenguva yechiKristu uye kunyange zvisati zvaitika.4

Zvinoshamisa kuti kuenzaniswa kwemagwaro echiHebheru ekare neayo emupumburu weGungwa Rakafa kwakaratidza kuti maviri acho anenge akafanana. Misiyano (inenge 5%) yakaitika chete mumisiyano midiki yechiperengo uye zvikanganiso zvevakopi. Nokudaro, sokutaura kwakaita Rene Paché: “Sezvo kuchigona kuratidzirwa kuti rugwaro rweTestamende Yekare rwakapfuudzwa nenzira yakarurama kwamakore 2 000 apfuura, mumwe munhu angarangarira nenzira ine mufungo kuti rwakanga rwapfuudzwa kudaro kubvira pakuvamba.”5

Kunyange mukati mezvikamu zvakasiyana-siyana zveMagwaro, nongedzero dzakawanda kumakopi eShoko raMwari rakanyorwa dzinogona kuwanwa. Kopi ye“bhuku yomurayiro” yakawanwa muTembere mumazuva aMambo Josia (c. 621 B.C.), nokudaro zvichiratidzira kuti manyoro aMosesi akanga adzivirirwa mukati menhambo yaanenge makore 1 000 (2 Madzimambo 22). Zvimwe zvikamu zveTestamende Yekare zvinotaura nezvekuchengetedzwa kweMagwaro Matsvene mumakore ose (Jeremia 36; Ezra 7:14; Nehemia 8:1-18).

Muushumiri hwaJesu pachake, Akaverenga mupumburu waIsaya musinagogi kuNazareta, uye akaudana kuti “Rugwaro” (Ruka 4:16-21)—shoko rinoshandiswa muBhaibheri pakunyora zveuMwari. Jesu akatsigira chokwadi chokuti Magwaro eTestamente Yekare akanga achengetwa akatendeka. Kunyange zvazvo Jesu akaverenga kubva mukopi yaIsaya, Akanga achiri kuiona seShoko raMwari. Saka, Rugwaro rwakanga rwachengetedzwa zvakavimbika mumhando yakanyorwa. Pamusoro pazvo, kunyange zvazvo Jesu akashora vanyori venguva yake nokuda kwezvivi zvavo zvizhinji, haana kana kumboratidza kuti vakanga vasina kutendeka mubasa ravo sevanyori. Zvirokwazvo, Jesu akapa mvumo kwete chete kumakopi, asi kunyange kushandurudzo (semuenzaniso, Seputugendi) yeTestamende Yekare nokuverenga nokunokora mashoko kubva mairi.

Mumwe wenyanzvi dzemutauro mukuru wezvinyorwa zveTestamente Yekare aive Dr. Robert Dick Wilson. Wilson, uyo aiva shasha yemitauro inopfuura 35, akanyatsoenzanisa zvinyorwa zveTestamende Yekare nezvakanyorwa pamatombo ekare. Somugumisiro wenzvero yake, akazivisa, kuti: “Tine chokwadi nesayenzi kuti tine rugwaro rumwe cheterwo rwakanga rwuri muna Kristu navaapostora uye, sokuziva kunoita munhu upi noupi, zvimwe chetezvo neizvo zvakanyorwa navanyori vapakuvamba vebhuku rakanyorwa. magwaro eTestamente Yekare.”6

Testamente Itsva ichiri Yakavimbika here?

Zvakadiniko nokuvimbika kweTestamente Itsva? Mumwe angataura asingazezi uye nechivimbo kuti kuchengetwa kusina kushatiswa kweTestamente Itsva kwakanyatsosimbiswa. Mukuongorora zvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva, vatsoropodzi vemagwaro vanoshanda neumbowo hukuru hwezvinyorwa, huwandu hwahwo hwakakura kwazvo kupfuura hunowanika chero munyori wekare.7 Kubva muna 2018, nhamba yezvinyorwa zvechiGiriki—zvose uye zvishoma. —inopupurira Testamende Itsva inopfuura 5,874.8 nhamba iyi haisanganisi mamwe mabviro euchapupu hwakadai sekuwanda kukuru kwezvinyorwa zvekutenda nyika neshanduro dzekare. Manyoro akanakisisa eTestamende Itsva ndeaya munenge muna A.D. 350, zvichida rimwe reaya anokosha zvikurusa riri Codex Vaticanus, “pfuma huru yeVatican Library muRome,” uye Codex Sinaiticus, iyo yakatengwa nesangano. British kubva kuHurumende yeSoviet muna 1933.9 Uyezve, mapepa enhokwe eChester Beatty, akabudiswa pachena muna 1931, ane makodhekisi gumi nerimwe (mavhoriyamu ezvinyorwa), matatu acho ane akawanda eTestamente Itsva (kusanganisira nhoroondo dzeEvhangeri). Maviri emakodhekisi aya anodada neaya ari muhafu yekutanga yezana ramakore rechitatu, nepo yechitatu iri gare gare zvishoma, ichinyorwa muhafu yekupedzisira yezana ramakore rimwe chetero.10 Raibhurari yaJohn Rylands inokoshesa kunyange humbowo hwekare. Kodhekisi yenhokwe ine zvikamu zvaJohani 18 inotangira kunguva yaHadrian, akatonga kubva muna A.D. 117 kusvika 138.11

Humwe humbowo hweuchokwadi hwemagwaro eTestamente Itsva hunogona kuwanikwa muzvinyorwa zvevainzi “madzibaba evaapostora”—varume vakararama kubva muna A.D. 100 kusvika 550, uye vaiwanzonokora mashoko kubva mumagwaro eTestamente Itsva.12 Irenaeus, Clement of . Alexandria, Tertullian, Tatian, Clement weRoma, naIgnatius (vakanyora zana remakore rechipiri risati rapera) vose vakapa mashoko akatorwa kubva munhoroondo imwe kana kupfuura dzeEvhangeri.13 Zvimwe zvapupu zvouchokwadi hweTestamende Itsva iBhaibheri Rekare, iro ine zvinyorwa zveTestamente Itsva zvakaturikirwa mundimi dzakasiyana. Mavara echiLatin ekare uye Old Syriac ndiwo ekare zvikuru, akanyorwa kubva pakati pezana remakore rechipiri.14

Chokwadi ndechokuti, Testamende Itsva inonakidzwa nezvinyorwa zvekare kupfuura mamwe mabhuku ati ambozivikanwa. Zvichienzaniswa ne5,700+ zvinyorwa zvechiGiriki zvinotsigira Testamende Itsva, kunongova nemakopi 643 eHomer’s Iliad, iro risingarambiki kuti ndiro bhuku rine mukurumbira muGreece yekare. Hapana anopokana rugwaro rweGallic Wars dzaJulius Caesar, asi tine makopi gumi chete ayo, ekutanga-tanga akaitwa makore 1,000 mushure mekunge yanyorwa. Tine zvinyorwa zviviri chete zveTacitus’ Zvenhorondo neMwaka, chimwe chezana ramakore rechipfumbamwe uye chimwe chegumi nerimwe.

Nhoroondo yaThucydides, rimwe bhuku rekare rinonyatsozivikanwa, rinotsamira pamanyoro masere chete, ekare pane aya akanyorwa munenge muna A.D. 900 (pamwe chete nezvinyorwa zvishoma zvenhokwe zvakanyorwa pakutanga kwechiKristu). Uye Nhoroondo yaHerodotus inozviona iri mumamiriro ezvinhu akafanana. “Asi hapana nyanzvi yepakutanga ingateerera kupokana kwokuti uchokwadi hwaHerodotus kana Thucydides hahuna chokwadi nokuti MSS [manyoro—DM] ekare emabasa avo ane basa chero ripi zvaro kwatiri anopfuura makore 1 300 gare gare kupfuura epakutanga.”15 Nokudaro Bruce akazivisa, kuti: “Iidi rinoda kuziva kuti vanyori venhau dzakaitika kazhinji kazhinji vave vakagadzirira zvikuru kuvimba nezvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva kupfuura kuva nenyanzvi dzezverudzidziso dzakawanda.”16 Kunyange shure sa1968, Bruce Metzger, purofesa wenguva refu womutauro weTestamende Itsva namabhuku paPrinceton. , yakati: “Kuwanda kwouchapupu hwemagwaro eTestamende Itsva… hukuru zvikuru kupfuura hunowanika kumunyori wekare chero upi zvake wekare zvokuti kudiwa kwokuchinja kunoderedzwa kusvika padikidiki.”17 Chokwadi, kuva nezvakawanda zvakadaro. zvemakopi eTestamente Itsva kubva mukati memakore makumi manomwe ekunyora kwavo hazvishamisi.18

Mune imwe pfungwa, basa romutsoropodzi wemagwaro rave risiri madikanwa, sezvo misiyano mizhinji yezvinyorwa ichibatanidza tunhu tuduku tusingakanganisi dzidziso maererano nokuponeswa kwomunhu. Kunyange misiyano iyo inganzi inokosha padzidziso ine chokuita nenyaya dzinobatwa kune imwe nzvimbo muBhaibheri umo mubvunzo wouchokwadi uye mavambo usina kuvharika. Hapana chinhu chedzidziso yechiKristu chiri mungozi. Sezvakataurwa naEwert: “[K]urava kwechinyakare mumanyoro edu hakukanganisi dzidziso ipi neipi inokosha yeTestamende Itsva.”19Nyanzvi yeTestamende Yekare Gleason Archer akanyora achibvumirana kuti:

Zvakadaro, zvakagara zvichizivikanwa nenyanzvi dzepamusoro mukutsoropodza magwaro kuti kana chero shanduko ine humbowo inopupurirwa yakatorwa kubva mumudziyo uri pazasi pepeji uye ikatsiviwa nekuverenga kunogamuchirwa kwemavara emazuva ese, paisamboitika. kuva kumwe, shanduko huru mudzidziso kana shoko.20

Zvakadaro, vatsoropodzi vemagwaro vakabudirira mukuratidza kuti parizvino Testamente Itsva haina kusiyana zvikuru nemagwaro epakutanga. Kana humbowo hwese hwemagwaro hukatariswa, kuwanda kwekurava kunopesana kwakagadziriswa.21Munhu anounzwa pakutenda kwakasimba kuti tine Testamende Itsva yedu sezvinodiwa naMwari.

Vatsoropodzi vezvinyorwa vepasi rose vakasimbisa iyi mhedziso. Sir Frederic Kenyon, mutungamiriri wenguva refu nomutarisiri mukuru weraibhurari paBritish Museum, ane ruzivo rwokuzviwanira nounyanzvi hwokutaura zviziviso pamusoro pokutsoropodza magwaro zvakanga zviri zvishoma kune imwe neimwe, akati: “Zvose zviri zviviri uchokwadi nokuperera kwose kwamabhuku eTestamende Itsva zvinganzi pakupedzisira yakasimbiswa.”22 Mushakabvu F.F. Bruce, Purofesa wenguva refu weRylands Wokutsoropodza Bhaibheri paYunivhesiti yeManchester, England, akati: “Kurava kwakasiana uko kunoramba kuri panikiro pamusoro pazvo pakati pavatsoropodzi vorugwaro veTestamende Itsva hakugadzirisi nhau yechokwadi yenhau kana kuti yokutenda uye miitiro yechiKristu.”23 J.W. McGarvey, akaziviswa neLondon Times se“nyanzvi yeBhaibheri yakagwinya kupfuura dzimwe dzose pasi pano,”24 akabatana kuti: “Chiremera chose noukoshi zvaiva nemabhuku aya paakatanga kunyorwa ndezvawo.”25 Uye vatsoropodzi vemagwaro vakatanhamara Westcott naHort akaisa nyaya yese mugwara pavakati:

Sezvo kutsoropodzwa kwemagwaro kune kurava kwakasiyana-siyana kwechidzidzo chacho, uye kusarura kwokurava kwechokwadi kubva mukuora nokuda kwedonzo rayo, nhaurirano pamusoro pokutsoropodza magwaro dzinenge dzisingadzivisiki chokwadi chakapfava chokuti misiyano inongova zviitiko zvechipiri zvechinyorwa chimwe chete uye chakafanana. MuTestamende Itsva kunyanya zvakaoma kunzvenga fungidziro yokuwedzeredza pamusoro pechikamu icho mazwi ari pasi pemutsauko anechirevo chechinyorwa chose, uye zvakare, kazhinji, pamusoro pekukosha kwawo kwemukati. Naizvozvo hazvina kunyanyokosha kutaura zvakajeka kuti mashoko akawanda eTestamende Itsva akakwirira kupfuura maitiro ose erusarura ekutsoropodza, nokuti haana misiyano, uye anongoda kunyorwa chete.26

Vachinyora anopfuura makore zana apfuura mukupera kwezana remakore rechi 19, uye vachiona kuti ruzivo rwemazana maviri emakore ekuferefeta nekurukurirano rwakanga rwaitwa, nyanzvi idzi dzakagumisa kuti: “[A]notaura semaonero edu achiri asina chokwadi haatombokwanisi kuwedzera. kupfuura chikamu chechuru cheTestamende Itsva yose.”27 Izvi zvinoreva kuti 999/1000 yezvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva zvakangofanana nanhasi sezvazvakabva muzvinyorwa zvevanyori vakafemerwa. Chikamu chidiki chinoramba chisina kujeka (1/1000th) chine zvinhu zvidiki-diki zvisingaite panyaya dzekutenda kana dzidziso. J.I. Packer, Board of Governors Purofesa weZvidzidzo zveBhaibheri paRegent College muVancouver, muBritish Columbia, akataura chokwadi ichi muchidimbu achiti: “[Kutenda] kukwana kwemagwaro kunosimbiswa, nepose pazvinogona, nemutongo wakabvumirana wenyanzvi dzemagwaro kuti chinyorwa chebhaibheri chakachengetedzwa zvakanakisa, uye hapana pfungwa yedzidziso inotsamira pachiverengero chipi nechipi chezvinoitika zvishoma umo kurava kwechokwadi kunoramba kusina chokwadi.”28 Chokwadi, zvakare mumashoko enyanzvi yezvinyorwa F.F. Bruce: “No‘kutarisira kumwe nokutarisira’ kwaMwari rugwaro rweBhaibheri rwakauya kwatiri rukachena zvikuru zvokuti kunyange shanduro isingatsoropodzi zvikuru yechiHebheru kana kuti chiGiriki… kuponesa simba.”29 Naizvozvo, pomero inonzi namaMuslim (nevaMormon), yokuti Bhaibheri rakashatiswa mukuparadzira, inhema chose.

Kuenzaniswa KweKorani

Chero ani akatora nguva yekuongorora humbowo huripo hwekuziva mamiriro ekutanga eBhaibheri anoziva kuti tine Bhaibheri sezvarakaita sezvarakabva—zvisati zvaitwa neKorani. Pfungwa dzakapiwa pakuziva mamiriro yekutanga yerugwaro rweKorani hadzina kuenzaniswa nedzinopiwa kuBhaibheri rose zvaro, uye kunyanya Testamende Itsva. Sezvakataurwa naJohn Gilchrist:

[P]ano hapana shanduro yeQur’an ingaenzaniswa neshanduro dzeBhaibheri dzakadai seRevised Standard Version kana New American Standard Version. Izvi zvakaitwa nemakomiti enyanzvi uye mhedzisiro yacho yave iri shanduro inowirirana uye yakarurama yepakutanga. Kuturikirwa kwese kunozivikanwa kweQur’an kwave kuri basa remunhu uye, kune imwe nhanho kana imwe muzviitiko zvese, kukosha kwechigadzirwa chekupedzisira kunodzikamiswa nekuvapo kwezvitendiso nedudziro zvemunyori.30

Zvamazvirokwazvo, kutaura kusina humbowo kunoitwa pakufambiswa kweKorani: “[Ma]Moziremu ose vanobvuma kuti Korani ndicho chizaruro chechiito chaMwari. Vanobvumiranawo pamusoro pezvinyorwa zvayo uye zvinyorwa; kureva kuti, hapana magwaro akasiyana anowanikwa pakati pezvimwe zvikoro.31 Chokwadi chokuti maMusirimu vanoti pfungwa dzakafanana maererano nokuchena kwemagwaro eKorani hazviratidzi kuti Korani yakabviswa pazvakasiyana-siyana zvekusiyana kwezvinyorwa izvo vose zvinyorwa kubva munhoroondo zvine musoro.

Sezvineiwo, Korani pachayo inopa tsinhiro dzakajeka uye dzakajeka dzekuperera kwezvinyorwa zvebhaibheri —pamamiriro azvo panguva yakabuda Korani mukutanga kwezana ramakore rechinomwe:

Uye tendai mune zvandiri kuburitsa, zvichisimbisa izvo zvamunazvo kare (muGwaro), uye musatanga kusatenda mazviri, uye musagovane nezviratidzo zvangu nemutengo muduku, uye chengetai maNdiri. Usasanganisa chokwadi nenhema, kana kuvanza chokwadi uchiziva…. Munorayira vanhu kururama here imi muchikanganwa kuzviita? Uye imi muri vaverengi veRugwaro! Hamuna njere here?… Imi vana vaIsraeri! Rangarirai tsitsi dzangu dzandakakuitirai zvakanaka uye kuti ndakakudai sei pane (zvose) zvisikwa (Surah 2:41-42,44,47).32 

Kana kuti vanoti, “Ndiye akazvinyora here”? Iti: “Dai ndakainyengera, hamungandiwanire (maropafadzo) kubva kuna Allah. Anoziva zvakanyanya pane zvamunotaura (zvishoma)! Akakwana kuti ave chapupu pakati pangu newe! Uye Anogara achikanganwira, Ane tsitsi.” Iti: “Ini handisi muunzi wedzidziso itsva pakati peVatumwa, uye handizivi zvichaitwa kwandiri kana nemi. Ini ndinotevera asi izvo zvakaratidzwa kwandiri; Ini ndinongova Munyevereri akajeka uye akajeka.” Iti: “Unoona here? Kana (dzidziso iyi) yakabva kuna Allah, uye imi muchiiramba, uye chapupu kubva muvana vaIsraeri kikapupura kufanana kwayo (negwaro rekutanga), uye rikatenda imi muchizvikudza, (makatadza sei! Zvirokwazvo, Allah havatungamiriri vanhu vasina kururama.” Vasingatendi vanoti kune avo vanotenda: “Dai (Mharidzo iyi) chaive chinhu chakanaka, (vakadaro) vangadai vasina kutanga vaenda kwachiri pamberi pedu. Uye vachiona kuti havazvifambisi mazviri, vachati: “Idzi inhema (dzekare)! Uye izvi zvisati zvaitika, rakanga riri Bhuku raMosesi segwara uye netsitsi: uye Bhuku iri rinosimbisa (riri) mumutauro wechiArabu; kuraira vasakarurama, uye seEvhangeri kune avo vanoita zvakanaka…. “Imi vanhu vedu! Takanzwa Bhuku rakaziviswa shure kwaMosesi, rinosimbisa zvakauya mberi kwaro” (Surah 46:8-12,30).33

Iti: “Imi vanhu veBhuku! Munotiramba here pasina chimwe chikonzero kunze kwekuti tinotenda muna Allah, uye zvakazarurwa zvakauya kwatiri uye zvakauya mberi (kwedu), uye (zvichida) kuti vazhinji venyu vanomukira uye vasingateereri?…. Dai vakanga vakamira zvakasimba neMutemo, Evhangeri, uye nokuzarurirwa kwese kwakatumirwa kwavari kubva kuna Ishe wavo, vangadai vakawana mufaro kubva kumativi ose. Kune rimwe divi pakati pavo riri mugwara rakanaka, asi vazhinji vavo vanotevera nzira yakaipa. Iwe Mutumwa! paridza (Mharidzo) yawakatumirwa kubva kuna Tenzi vako. Dai usina, ungadai usina kuzadzisa nekuzivisa Basa Rake. Uye Allah vachakudzivirirai kubva kuvanhu (vanoreva zvakaipa). Nokuti Allah havatungamiriri avo vanoramba kutenda. Iti: “Imi vanhu veBhuku! Hamuna chikonzero chekumira pachiri kunze kwekunge makamira zvakasimba neMutemo, Vhangeri, uye nekuratidzwa kwese kwakauya kwamuri kubva kuna Tenzi venyu. Icho chiratidzo chinouya kwauri kubva kuna Tenzi vako, icho chinowedzera muvazhinji vavo kumukira nekunyomba kwavo. Asi iwe hauchemedzi pamusoro (ava) vanhu vasina kutenda. Avo vanotenda (muQur’an), avo vanotevera maJudha (magwaro), nemaSabhii nemaKirisitu, avo vanotenda muna Allah nemuZuva rekupedzisira, uye vakaita zvakanaka, hapana kutya pavari. uye havazochemedzi (Surah 5:59, 66-69; cf. 2:62).34

Uye kana iwe (Muhammad) uri mukupokana pamusoro pezvatinokuzarurira, bvunza avo vanoverenga Gwaro (raive) pamberi pako. Zvirokwazvo, chokwadi kubva kuna Tenzi vako chasvika kwauri. Saka usava mumwe wevanotsauka (Surah 10:95).35

Aya mavhesi emuKorani anopa simbiso yekutenda kwaMuhammad mukururama kweMutemo neEvhangeri (tarisa. Surah 87:18-19; 6:155-158). Vanotokumbira muJudha, akararama panguva imwe chete naMuhammad, uyo akasimbisa kuti Korani yakasimbisa Rugwaro rwakaitangira. Zvirokwazvo, Korani inoti inopindirana uye inopindirana neMagwaro apfuura (Bhaibheri).

Mufungo uri pasi pemavhesi ose aya eKorani ndewekuti Korani inofanira kugamuchirwa, kuremekedzwa, nekuteererwa chose sezvakaita Magwaro apfuura (kureva, Bhaibheri). Mavhesi aya akanyorwa nenzira yekuti anofungidzira kuti nderechokwadi uye rinogamuchirwa neBhaibheri. Kutsoropodza kweKorani kwakanangana nemaJuda (nemaKristu) hakusi kuti vakakanganisa Magwaro avo (ona, Surah 7:169-170). Asi, vanoshoropodzwa nekusagumisa kuti Muhammad neKorani vaive tsinhiro yezvakazarurwa zvakapfuura zvemaJuda nemaKristu. Chokwadi, vaJudha pavakasimbirira kuna Muhammad kuti vakanga vapiwa ruzivo rwakakwana kuburikidza neTorah—kubvuma kwakaitwa neKorani pachayo [“Zvakare, Takapa Gwaro kuna Mosesi, rakakwana kune uyo aizoita zvakanaka, tsananguro pazvinhu zvose, hutungamiriri netsitsi, kuti vatende kusangana naTenzi wavo” (Surah 7:155)]—Muhammad akapindura nesurah itsva: “[D]ai miti yose iri panyika yaiva zvinyoreso; uye gungwa, nemamwe makungwa manomwe okuribatsira, (aive ingi), mashoko aAllah haaigona kupera” (Surah 31:27).36 Kana Korani ichitsigira kuvimbika kweBhaibheri, uye tine manyoro aripo Bhaibheri rakatangira Korani, ipapo ururami nouchokwadi hweBhaibheri hunomira hwarevererwa—kwete bedzi noufakazi huzhinji hwamanyoro—asi kunyange neKorani imene.

Kudzokorora: Tinogona kuziva kuti Bhaibheri rakapfuudzwa zvakarurama mumazana emakore apfuura. Kutaura zvazviri, Bhaibheri iShoko raMwari.

Mashoko Okupedzisira

1 Sir Frederic Kenyon (akadhindazve 1951), Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), muchinyorwa chechipiri, p. 1.

2 Philip Comfort (1990), Early Manuscripts and Modern Translations of the New Testament (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House), p. 4.

3 Zvikamu zvechikamu chino zvakatorwa kubva kuna Wayne Jackson (1989), “Was the Old Testament Transmitted Faithfully?” Apologetics Press,  https://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=105&article=1140.

4 Sir Frederic Kenyon (1939), Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode), mapeji 69,88.

5 Rene Paché (1971), The Inspiration and Authority of Scripture (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), p. 191.

6 Robert Dick Wilson (1929),  A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament (New York: Harper Brothers), p. 8.

7 David Ewert (1983), From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations  (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan), p. 139; Kenyon, 1951, p. 5; B.A. Westcott uye F.J.A. Hort (yakadhindwazve muna 1964), The New Testament in the Original Greek (New York: MacMillan), p. 565.

8 Michael Welte (2019), pae-mail, September 17, Institute for New Testament Textual Research (Munster, Germany), http://www.uni-muenster.de/NTTextforschung/.

9 F.F. Bruce (1960), The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), rakadzokororwa, p. 20.

10 Ibid., p. 21.

11 Ibid., p. 21.

12 Ibid., p. 22.

13 Donald Guthrie (1990), New Testament Introduction (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press), p. 24.

14 Bruce, p. 23.

15 Bruce, mapeji 20-21.

16 Ibid., p. 19.

17 Bruce Metzger (1968), The Text of the New Testament (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), p. 86.

18 Norman Geisler naRonald Brooks (1990), When Skeptics Ask (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books), pp. 159-160.

19 p. 145.

20 Gleason Archer (1982), An Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), p. 30, ep. akawedzera.

21 Metzger, p. 185.

22 Sir Frederic Kenyon (1940), The Bible and Archaeology (New York: Harper), p. 288.

23 pp. 19-20.

24 Dabney Phillips (1975), Restoration Principles and Personalities (Yunivhesiti, AL: Youth In Action), p. 184; L.L. Brigance (1870), “J.W. McGarvey,” muJ.W. McGarvey (akadhinda zvakare muna 1962),  A Treatise on the Eldership (Murfreesboro, TN: DeHoff Publications), p. 4.

25 J.W. McGarvey (akadhindazve muna 1956), Evidence of Christianity (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate), p. 17.

26 p. 564, emp. added.

27 Ibid., p. 565, emp. added.

28 J.I. Packer (1958), “Fundamentalism” and the Word of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans), 1976 reprint, p. 90, emp. added.

29 As quoted in Packer, pp. 90-91.

30 John Gilchrist (1986), Muhammad and the Religion of Islam, http://answering-islam.org.uk/Gilchrist/Vol1/index.html.

31 Seyyed Hossein Nasr (2003), Islam (New York: HarperCollins), p. 8, . emp. added.

32 Shanduro yaMohammed Pickthall (n.d.), Zvinorehwa neKoran Inobwinya (New York: Mentor),  emp. added..

33 Shanduro yaAbdullah Yusuf Ali (1934), The Qur’an (Kubudiswa pachena kweKorani) (Elmhurst, NY: Tahrike Tarsile Quran), chinyorwa chechipfumbamwe, emp. added.

34 Ibid.,  emp. added.

35 Pickthall, emp. added .

36 Cf. Martin Lings (1983), Muhammad (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions International), p. 78.

Yakabudiswa 6 Gumiguru 2019

KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero bedzi zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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