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Bhaibheri neUngochani

Muna 2012, Barack Obama akava mutungamiri wekutanga akazivisa tsigiro yake yewanano yebonde (Stein, 2012). Nokuda kworudzi, hungu, rwenyika yose, chiverengero chokuyera pamusoro penhau yakadaro yetsika, miuyo inosvika kure, ine ngwavaira haidzivisiki. Kuputsika pashoma napashoma kwetsika dzeAmerica, kwakavakirwa paBhaibheri, kunopfuurira kutambudza rudzi rwuri kumhanyira ruparadziko. Zvamazvirokwazvo, Vavambi vacho pachavo vangashamisika kwazvo (tarisa. Miller, 2008). Mukati mokugadziridzwazve kwakadaro kwemirangariro yenzanga, vamwe vanoshuva kuchengeta batano yavo neBhaibheri, asi vachichengeta kururama kwezvamatongerwe enyika, vanoomerera pakuti Bhaibheri rimene rinodzidzisa kuti vatano imwe cheteyo haisi chivi chokuberekwa nacho. Vanotaura kuti Bhaibheri, kutaura idi, rinobvumira ungochani nenzira imwe cheteyo, uye pamwero mumwe chetewo, kuti rinobvumira ungochani. Kune vaya vachiri nehanya nezvinofungwa naMwari panyaya yacho, tapota onai kuongorora kunotevera zvinodzidziswa neBhaibheri panyaya yekurara nemunhurume kana kuti varume pachawo.

BHAIBHERI RINOTI KUDINI?

Ungochani MuNguva YeMadzibaba

Chii, chaizvoizvo, chiri kuda kwaMwari pamusoro pevatano yavanhu? Kuda ikoko kwakaratidzwa pakutanga pakusikwa kwevanhu vokutanga: “Akavasika murume nomukadzi” (Genesi 1:27). Sarudzo yaMwari yekugadzira muenzani wechikadzi kune murume haina kungoitika. Mukadzi akasangana nenzira nhatu dzinokosha: (1) “Hazvina kunaka kuti munhu agare ari oga” (Genesi 2:18); (2) mubetseri, akakodzera kwaari, aidikanwa (Genesi 2:18, 20); uye (3) rudzi rwomunhu rwaifanira kupfuuridzirwa kupfurikidza nevatano (Genesi 1:28). Vose Jesu naPauro vakadzokorora kunzwisisa kumwe chete uku (Mateo 19:4-6; 1 VaKorinde 7:2). Naizvozvo mukadzi akanga ari: (a) mushonga woumwari wokusurukirwa kwaAdhama; (b) mubatsiri anokodzera iye; uye (c) nzira yekuparadzira nayo rudzi rwevanhu. Pano, tinoona gadziriro youMwari nokuda kworudzi rwomunhu.

Isati iri nguva refu pashure pokunge Mwari atanga nhevedzano yakasikwa—iyo Iye akanga ataura se“yakanaka kwazvo” (Genesi 1:31) —munhu akavamba kushatisa kuda kwouMwari, uye akachinja vavariro dzapakuvamba dzaMwari pamusoro pevatano yavanhu. Rameki—kwete Mwari—akaunza barika munyika (Genesi 4:19). Mwari angadai akasikira Adhamu vakadzi vaviri, asi haana. Asi, Akagadzira murume mumwe chete nokuda kwomukadzi mumwe kwoupenyu hwose. Ndiko kuda kwouMwari—“akavasika murume nomukadzi” (Genesi 1:27; tarisa. Mateu. 19:1-9). Genesi 19:1-11 zvino yava kuoneka.

Zvino vasati vavata, varume veguta, varume veSodhoma, kubva kumuduku kusvikira kumukuru, vanhu vose vachibva kumativi ose, vakakomba imba. Zvino vakadana Roti ndokuti kwaari: Varipi varume vasvika kwauri usiku huno? Vabudisire kwatiri kuti tivazive panyama. Roti akabuda akaenda kwavari napamukova, akapfiga mukova shure kwake, akati, Ndinokukumbirai, hama dzangu, regai kuita zvakaipa zvakadai. Tarirai zvino, ndine vakunda vaviri vasina kumboziva murume; regai ndivabudisire kwamuri, muvaitire sezvamunoda; asi musaita chinhu kuvarume ava, nekuti ndizvo zvavakapinda mumumvuri wedenga reimba yangu. Uye vakati, “Suduruka!” Ipapo vakati, “Uyu akauya kuzogara ari mutorwa, uye anoramba ari mutongi; zvino tichakuitira zvakaipa kupfuura ivo. Naizvozvo vakamanikidza murume Roti, vakaswedera kuputsa gonhi. Asi varume vakatambanudza maoko avo, vakakwevera Roti mumba maiva navo, vakapfiga gonhi. Vakarova varume vakanga vari pamukova weimba noupofu, vaduku navakuru, zvokuti vakaneta nokutsvaka mukova (ndima 4-11).

Vadziviriri veungochani vanotsvaga kururamiswa kwemaonero avo kubva muBhaibheri vakatsvaga dudziro yekudzokorora nhoroondo yekuparadzwa kwemaguta eSodhoma neGomora (pamwe neAdima neZebhoimu, Dhuteronomi 29:23). Ndima iyi yagara ichinzwisiswa sekushoropodza ungochani. Iyi nzwisiso yave iri munyika yose zvokuti shoko rokuti “sodomi” rakapinzwa mumutauro wechiNgezi serinonongedzera ku“nzira ipi neipi yakasiana-siana yokuvatana inorangarirwa kuva isiri yomuzvarirwo kana kuti isina kujairika, zvikurukuru kusangana nokunobuda nako tsvina kana kuti kurara nemhuka” (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, peji 1651). Nhoroondo yeSodhoma ingatsanangurwazve sei kuti ionekwe nenzira yakanaka ukama hwengochani? Tsananguro mbiri dzakapiwa mukuedza kusimudzira kutenderwa kweBhaibheri kweungochani.

(1) Kusagamuchira Vaeni kana Ungochani?

Chirevo chekutanga chinosimbisa kuti varume veSodhoma vaingova nemhosva yekusagamuchira vaeni. Rugwaro runoti varume veSodhoma vakasimbirira kuna Roti kuti abudise vaenzi vengirozi kwavari, “kuti tivazive.”— Genesi 19:5 . Nokudaro kunopokanidzwa kuti “ziva” kunoreva vavariro yavo yokusangana, kukwazisa, kuziva, kana kuti kuva akarovedzana navashanyi. Zvisinei, zviratidzo zvemamiriro ezvinhu hazvibatanidzi kugona kwedudziro iyi.

Kutanga, nepo shoko rechiito rechiHebheru rinoshandurwa kuti “ziva” (yada) rine revo dzakasiana-siana, kubatanidza “kuziva” kana kuti “kuziva” (norutivi rukurusa, mitsetse yeshoko rechiito rechiHebheru inowirirana neshoko rechiito rechiNgezi rinoenderana naro.), chiHebheru, sezvakangofanana nemimwe mitauro yekare, rinoshandiswawo kuti “ziva” sechirevo chevatano (Genesi 4:1; 19:8). Mamwe madimikira echiSemite anoshandiswa nenzira yakafanana anosanganisira “kuvata” (2 Samueri 11:4), “kufukura kushama kwa ” (Revhitiko 18), “pinda muna” (Genesi 16:2; 38:2), uye “bata” ( Genesi 16:2; Genesi 20:6; Zvirevo 6:29; Mitauro yekare yaibatanidza kushandiswa kwokufananidzira uku kwe“kuziva” yaibatanidza Egipita, Akkadian, neUgaritic (Botterweck, 1986, mapeji 455-456 460), pamwe chete neSyriac, Arabic, Ethiopic, neGreek (Gesenius, 1979, peji 334) . Apo nyanzvi dzechiHebheru dzinotsanangura “ziva,” sokushandiswa kwarakaitwa muna Genesi 19:5 , dzinoshandisa mashoko akadai sokuti “kukanganisa pabonde” (Harris, nevamwevake., 1980, 1:366), “kusangana kweungochani” (Botterweck, 1986, 5:464) ), uye “mhosva dzinopesana nezvisikwa” (Gesenius, p. 334).

Chechipiri, kana shoko rokuti “kuziva” richingoreva “kuziva,” nei vanyori veBhaibheri vakashandisa vashandisazve zvimiro zveshoko rokuti “vakaipa” vachireva zviito zvevaSodhoma? Roti akati, “Musaita zvakaipa kudaro!” (Genesi 19:7). Mosesi, kupfurikidza nokufemerwa, akanga atopa nzwisiso yaMwari mumashoko, “Asi varume veSodhoma vakanga vakaipa kwazvo, vakatadzira Jehovha” (Genesi 13:13); “Chivi chavo chikuru kwazvo” (Genesi 18:20). Petro akataura nezve“mufambiro une tsvina wevakaipa” sodhomi ne“mabasa avo okusateerera mutemo” (2 Petro 2:7-8 ). Asi “kuzivana” hakusi “kwakaipa”! Kutaura idi, kudai varume veSodhoma vakanga vari boka revavakidzani vane ushamwari, vakasimba munzanga avo vaitsvaka kuita kuti vashanyi vagamuchire guta ravo, zvirokwazvo Mwari angadai akavarumbidza—kwete kuvapa mhosva!

Chechitatu, kana “kuziva” kuchingoreva “kuziva,” saka nei Roti akapa vanasikana vake mhandara kuvarume vacho? Angadai asina kupa vanasikana vake nechinangwa chokuti varume va“zivane” kana kuti “vazive” navo. Vakunda vakanga vatova vagari veSodhoma, uye vangadai vakazivikanwa nevarume. Roti akanga achipa vanasikana vake kuvarume vacho senzira dzokuita bonde. Roti akataura zvakananga kuti: “Ndine vanasikana vaviri vasati vamboziva murume.” (Genesi 19:8 , NW). “Kuzivikanwa” ndiko kumwe kunongedzera kuvatano. Roti akanongedzera kumugariro wavo wevatano nokuda kwechikonzero chaicho chokuti ava varume vaifarira unzenza. Sezvinokatyamadza uye zvinoshoreka kwatiri sezvakungaratidzika kuti baba kubayira vanasikana vavo vamene nenzira yakadaro, kunosimbisa idi rokuti ruchiva rwusiri rwomuzvarirwo rwoungochani rwakarangarirwa kuva runosembura zvikuru kupfuura kunyange utano husiri hwapamutemo. Nyanzvi dzakaona zvakare kuti kare, muenzi aifanira kuchengetedza vaenzi vake nemutengo wehupenyu hwake (Whitelaw, 1950, 1: 253).

Chechina, varume veSodhoma vakatyisidzira Roti nemashoko okuti, “tichakuitira zvakaipa kupfuura ivo” (Genesi 19:9). Kudai vavariro yavo yakanga iri yokungo“ziva” vashanyi vechirume, “kuitira Roti zvakaipisisa” kwaizosanganisirei? Zvichida kungadai kwakabatanidza ku“ziva” kwazvo Roti zvokuti vaizoramba vari pamberi pake ndokuzvikuvadza vamene? Zvichida vaida kumanikidza mutsa waRoti kusvika pakuti vaizotonga sofa yake yokutandarira, vodya zvokudya zvake zvose zvokuseredzera, uye kuramba kubuda pamba pake nenguva yakanaka?

Muimwe nhamburiko yokuwana chirango nokuda kwoungochani, ngwariro yakanangidzirwa kumashoko aJesu mukugadza Kwake kuvane Makumi Manomwe. Akavarayira, munzendo dzavo dzoevhangeri, kuti vapinde mumaguta iwayo aizovagamuchira uye kuti vanzwe vakasununguka kugamuchira mutsa wavo (Ruka 10:7-8). Zvisinei, kana guta rikatadza kuvagamuchira, vaifanira kuzunzira guta racho guruva raiva patsoka dzavo (Ruka 10:10-11). Jesu akabva ataura kuti: “Sodhoma richarerukirwa nezuva iroro kupfuura guta iroro.” (Ruka 10:12) Saka vanhu veSodhoma vachafara kwazvo. Vadziviriri nevanoita zvechingochani vanoti Jesu aifananidza kusabatwa zvakanaka kweSodhoma nemaguta aizosangana nevadzidzi. Vanoti kusagamuchira mutsa kweguta raizoramba vatumwa vaKristu kwaizova uipi hukuru kupfuura kubata kwoutsinye kweSodhoma pangirozi dzaishanya.

Zvisinei, kana “kugamuchira vaeni” yakanga iri nhau yakanga iri muSodhoma, vaSodhoma vaifanira kudai vakarumbidzwa, sezvo vaida bedzi “kuziva” uye kuva nomutsa kuvashanyi. Kutaura idi, Roti aifanira kunge ari iye akashurikidzwa, sezvo akaedza kudzivisa mirangariro yomutsa ye“Kugashira Wayeni.” Muchokwadi, mazwi aJesu ari munaRuka 10 aive asina kunangana nekuramba kwemaguta kugamuchira vadzidzi. Panzvimbo pezvo, akavashurikidza nokuda kwokuramba kwavo kugamuchira dzidziso yavadzidzi. Jesu akanongedzera basa ravo paakanyevera kuti: “Anokunzwai imi anondinzwa ini, anokurambai imi anondiramba ini.” (Ruka 10:16) Jesu akaisa Sodhoma pamusoro-soro pamazita emaguta ekare ane mukurumbira wakashata. Akasimbisa idi rokuti kuramba Kristu neEvhangeri yaizova mhaka huru zvikuru kupfuura zvakaitwa neguta rakaipa zvikurusa munhau yomunhu. Zvakaitwa nevagari veSodhoma zvaisemesa, zvinosemesa, zvinosemesa, uye zvakashata zvikuru. Asi kuramba mushonga wechivi ndiko kutuka nekukanganisa kwekupedzisira kuna Mwari! Asi imwe nharo yakarongwa mukuedza kupembedza ungochani ine chekuita nezvinorehwa nevaporofita nezveSodhoma. Isaya (3:9), Jeremia (23:14), uye Ezekieri (16:49) ose anonongedzera kuchivi cheSodhoma, asi hapana akadudza nenzira yakajeka ungochani sechinetso. Kutaura idi, Ezekieri akadudza zvivi zvakananga zvo“kuzvikudza, kuguta nezvokudya, nokuwanda kwousimbe,” pamwe chete nokusada kwake kubatsira varombo navanoshayiwa. Mukupindura, hatifaniri kushamiswa kuti guta rakanga rine mhaka yokushatiswa kwevatano raizovawo nemhaka yokuputswa kwokuwedzera kwokuda kwaMwari.

Isaya, mukurukurirano yake yeSodhoma, haana kududza chimwe chivi chakati, asi akangocherekedza bedzi kuti vaSodhoma vakanga vanyadziswa uye vakazaruka sei nechivi chavo: “Zvino zviso zvavo zvinovapupurira, vachizivisa zvivi zvavo seSodhoma; havazvivanzi. Sezvineiwo, mufananidzo uyu unoenderana nemafungiro ekuti “mu-chiso-chako” cheavo vanotsvaga kusimudzira hurongwa hweungochani muzuva redu. Jeremia akataura pfungwa imwe chete iyoyo mukuenzanisa kwake Judha neSodhoma paakanyora kuti “hakuna munhu unotendeuka pazvakaipa zvake.” Iyewo, akanga achicherekedza vavariro yakajeka, isingachinji, yevaSodhomi yokupfuurira nechivi chavo. Ezekieri, nyangwe achitaura zvimwe zvivi zvatanyora pamusoro, zvisinei aitaura kakawanda nezve“nyangadzi” yeSodhoma (16:50; tarisa., ndima. 43, 47, 51, 52, 58). Mosesi akabatanidzawo “nyangadzi” nekuita zvoungochani (Revhitiko 18:22).

(2) Kubatwa Chibharo Kweungochani?

Tsananguro yechipiri inopiwa kururamisa ungochani ndeyokuti varume veSodhoma havana kushurikidzirwa nokuda kwoungochani hwavo, asi nokuda kwevavariro yavo isina kunaka yokubata chibharo chingochani. Kubata chibharo, vamwe vanokarakadza (kungava ungochani kana kuti ungochani), kusabvumirana, kwakaipa, uye kwakafanirwa nokushurikidzwa. Nekudaro, iyi yekuwedzera kweiyo inhospitality quibble zvakare haina kudzivirirwa. Kutanga, kana kubata chibharo negen’a rakanga riri nhau, neiko Roti akapa vanasikana vake mukutsinhana navaenzi? Kubatwa chibharo kungadai kwave kunetsa mune zvese zviri zviviri. Kupa kwaRoti vanasikana vake kwakaratidza kunetseka kwake kwakajeka pamusoro pevarume nevakadzi. Chechipiri, varume veSodhoma vakanzi vakaipa uye vaine mhosva yechivi “chakaipa” vashanyi vasati vambouya kuguta (Genesi 18:20).

Chechitatu, Judhasi akasimbisa nhau yacho mukukurukura kwake pamusoro pechivi cheSodhoma. Akanyora kuti Sodhoma nemaguta ehanzvadzi yaro “vakazvipa vamene kuupombwe ndokutevera nyama yechienzi” (Judhasi 7). “Kuzvipira kuunzenza” ishanduro yezwi rakabatanidza ekporneusasai, rinobatanidza izwi rechiito porneuo (kuita zvepabonde zvisiri pamutemo) nechivakashure ek (kunze). Kunamatwa kwechivakashure kunoratidza kuwedzera, kureva kuti, varume veSodhoma vaive ne”ruchiva runozvigutsa” (Thayer, 1977, p. 199). Havi dzavo dzokuvatana dzakavatora kupfuura muitiro wenguva dzose wevatano. Pfungwa yekumanikidza kana kumanikidza haisi muchirevo cheshoko. “Mweni” zvinoreva “kusiyana mumhando kana kirasi kubva kune mamwe masangano ese, chimwe, akasiyana” (Danker, p. 399), saka zvine chekuita nekugutsa zvido izvo “zvinopesana nezvakasikwa” (Barnes, 1949, p. .392)—“kubva pamitemo yezvakasikwa mukusachena kunoitwa” (Salmond, 1950, 22:7). Kutaurwa kunowanzoitwa ku“zvakasikwa” nenyanzvi kunonakidza, tichifunga nezveidi rokuti Rugwaro kune dzimwe nzvimbo rinobatanidza kurara kweungochani neicho “chinopesana nechisikirwo” (VaRoma 1:26-27) kana kuti chisiri chomusikirwo, somuenzaniso., chisingawirirani neGadziriro yapakuvamba yaMwari yechisiko (somuenzaniso, Genesi 1:27; 2:22; Mateo 19:4-6 ). Achipfupikisa, Judhasi akati chivi cheSodhoma kwaiva hukama hweungochani—kwete kubata chibharo kweungochani.

Chechina, ungochani pachahwo hunoshorwa muMagwaro. MuMutemo waMosesi, Mwari akaita kuti ungochani ive mhosva inouraya, uye akarayira kuti vose vaiita zvepabonde vaiafanira kuurayiwa (Revhitiko 20:13). Mwari angadai asina kuda kuti nyajambwa asina mhaka akabatwa chibharo ane mitezo mimwe cheteyo yokubereka nayo aurayiwe pamwe chete nemubati chibharo.

Tsika dzeAmerica dzingasvika papfundo apo vazhinji vanobvumira ungochani somufambiro unogamuchirika. Uye avo vasingabvumirani vangapomerwa kuva “vasina kururama mune zvematongerwe enyika,” vasingashiviriri, uye “vanovenga ngochani.” Zvamazvirokwazvo kunotiyeuchidza nezvezuva redu kuona kuti apo Roti akakurudzira vasodhomi kuti vasaita “zvakashata kudaro,” varume vakapomera Roti kuva anotonga (Genesi 19:9; tarisa Dheuteronomio 23:17-18). Kunyange zvakadaro, vavariro, muravi asingasaruri weBhaibheri anomanikidzirwa kugumisa kuti Mwari akaparadza varume veSodhoma nemhaka yetsika yavo yakaipa youngochani.

Ungochani muNguva yaMosesi

Mukuwedzera kuNguva yaMosesi isati yavapo, Nguva yaMadzitateguru enhau, Mwari akajekesa kuda Kwake paiyi nhau apo Iye akapa Mutemo waMosesi kurudzi rwaIsraeri. Muchitsauko chinotaura nezvemitemo yezvepabonde chete, mazwi Ake akajeka uye haana kukanganisa.

Usavata nomurume sezvinovatwa nomukadzi; Zvinosemesa…. Musazvisvibisa nechimwe chezvinhu izvi,…kuti nyika irege kukurutsirai kunze, kana muchiisvibisa, sezvayakarutsa ndudzi dzakakutangirai (Revhitiko 18:22-30). “’Kana murume akavata nomurume seanovata nomukadzi vose vari vaviri vaita zvinonyangadza. zvirokwazvo vanofanira kuurawa. Ropa ravo richava pamusoro pavo (Revhitiko 20:13).

Tinokurudzira kuti muverengi angada rubatsiro kuti asanzwisise mirairo iyi.

Imwe nhoroondo yakajeka inopiwa mukati menguva yavatongi, iyo yakanga iri nguva yokuora kwomweya netsika nokuora—“Nguva Yerima” yenhau yechiJudha. Vatongi 19 inonyora kuti “vanakomana vaBheriari” (kureva, vapambi vakaipa) vakakomba imba umo vafambi vakanga vatizira usiku. SomuSodhoma, vaida “kuziva” varume vakanga vakokwa (ndima. 22). Mugamuchiri, saRoti, ainyatsoziva zvavaireva, sezvinooneka muidi rokuti, kufanana naRoti, akavapa imwe nzira yevatano (iyo, chokwadika, Mwari asina kutendera). Chishuvo chavo chevatano chakanzi “uipi,” “kutsamwa,” “kunyangara,” “utere,” uye “zvakaipa” (Vatongi 19:23-24; 20:3, 6, 10, 12, 13). Zvimwe Testamende Yekare zvinotsigira mutongo uyu wevatano yomurume mumwe chete. Somuenzaniso, munguva yemadzimambo, Josia akatanga kuchinja kukuru kwetsika nechitendero, kusanganisira kuputsa misha yevaSodhoma (2 Madzimambo 23:7).

Ungochani munguva yeTestamente Itsva

Testamende Itsva inotsanangudza zvakaenzana mukushora kwayo kusingatenderi uye kusina kupokana kuita unzenza. Pauro akapfupikisa “zvisina kururama” uye “zvisina umwari” zvamarudzi evaHedheni, ndokuzivisa kuti:

Nekuda kweizvozvo Mwari wakavapa kukuchiva kunonyadzisa; Nokuti kunyange navakadzi vavo vakashandura zvavakasikirwa kuita zvavakasikirwa kuti vaite. Saizvozvo varumewo vakasiya zvavakasikirwa mukadzi, vakatsva nokuchivana kwavo, varume vachiita zvinonyadzisa navarume, vakazviwanira mukati mavo mubayiro wakafanira kurasika kwavo. Uye zvavakange vasingadi kugara naMwari muruzivo, Mwari wakavapa kumirangariro yakaora, kuti vaite zvisakafanira. …avo, vachiziva kutonga kwakarurama kwaMwari, kuti vanoita zvakadai vakafanirwa norufu, havaiti izvo chete, asi vanotenderana navanozviita (VaRoma 1:26-32)

Ona kuti “Mwari akavaisa” ku“kuchiva kwakaipa.” Dzimwe shanduro dzinosanganisira “ruchiva rweruzvidzo” (Bengel, 1971, 2:26), “chishuvo chokuzvidzwa” (Lenski, 1951, p. 113), uye “zvishuvo zvinounza kuzvidzwa” (Cranfield, 1985, p. 125). Kuchiva uko marudzi echihedheni aipiwa kunoziviswa kuva kwakashata uye kwakaderera. Barrett akati: “Hapana chinhu chenzanga yechihedheni chakazadza vaJudha nokuvenga kukuru kupfuura kushivirira, kana kuti kuyemura, miitiro youngochani” (1967, peji 39). Muchokwadi, Melina akacherekedza kuti ungochani chitadzo chiri pakati pekunamata zvidhori. Naizvozvo vaJudha vakazvidza tsika iyi yaisvibisa zvose mweya pamwe nemuviri (1998, 25:57-68). “Vakadzi” ne”varume” (kureva, “vakadzi” uye “varume” vevhesi 26) vakanga vadzika “kusvika pahutsinye hwekusava chinhu kunze kwezvisikwa zvepabonde” (Lenski, p. 113; Bengel, 2:26)

Musiyano uripo pakati pe“zvakasikwa” ne“zvisiri zvomusikirwo” unoratidza kuti Vemamwe Marudzi vakanga “vasiya uye nokudaro vakarasa” nzira yechisikigo yokusangana kwomurume nomudzimai wake (Lenski, p. 113). Ichokwadi chokuti kuchinjana uku kwaisanganisira kuita zvepabonde kwakanyatsosimbiswa (Bauer, 1979, p. 886; Cranfield, p. 125). Uye Lenski anowedzera kuti, “Zvakanga zvakaipa kutadza nevanhurume, zvakatonyanya kuipa uye muganho weuipi hwekutadza sezvavakaita” (p. 114). Kent Hughes akacherechedza kuti Pauro akasanangura ungochani “nokuti zviri pachena kuti hazvisi zvomusikirwo uye naizvozvo anosimbisa kuti chivi chinotora vanhu kusvika papi” (1991, p. 43). Chokwadi, hukama hwengochani “hwaive hwakatekeshera munharaunda yetsika dzechiGiriki -nechiRoma maaigara” (Fitzmyer, 1993, p. 275).

Maonero aPauro ekuti kuita ungochani kunoenda “kupesana nemasikirwo” kunodzokera kumuenzaniso weKusika Mwari paakasika vanhu vekutanga (Genesi 1:26). Tsika dzechingochani dzinopesana nemaitiro echisikigo akagadzwa naMwari paakasika “murume nemukadzi” (Deyoung, 1988, p. 429-441). Maitiro akadaro “anopesana nechinangwa cheMusiki” (Cranfield, p. 123). Naizvozvo, ungochani hunopesana negadziriro yomuzvarirwo yeroorano, kwete yavaJudha kana kuti Vemamwe Marudzi; mubhedha wevakaroorana unofanira kuva usina kusvibiswa mumarudzi ose netsika.

Varume vanodudzwa mundima 27 vakaorawo sezvakaita vamwe vavo vechikadzi vakambokurukurwa. Kuve “kupiswa” nekuchiva kune mumwe nemumwe, munhu anofanira kuziva kuti “panguva iyo Mwari abviswa pakutonga muhupenyu hwevarume, kunhuwa kwekuita zvepabonde kunotozomuka. Zvakadaro munyika kusvikira nhasi. Pasina Mwari bonde rinomhanya mhanya” (Lenski, p. 115). Mumwe wemiuyo inotevera nokuda kwaavo vanopinda muvatano youngochani ndeyokuti ivo vanogamuchira “mukati mavo mavari chirango chokukanganisa kwavo chakanga chakafanira”—“muuyo wakashata wevatano isiri yomuzvarirwo pamiviri yavarume vamene nepfungwa dzavo, ushati, kuparadza. , kuparara” (p. 116).

Mashoko akanyatsojeka akadaro—“kupiswa”—kunobva kumuapostora akafuridzirwa anorwisana nemamiriro ezvinhu enzanga netsika. Muongororo yake yeungochani muWestern Europe kubva pakutanga kwechiKristu kusvika muzana ramakore rechi 14, John Boswell akaratidzira kuti Roma yakanga ine chinetso chakakomba sei noungochani, ichiparira zvikuru kukudzwa uye kuwanda kwechiito choungochani. Akataura kuti 14 pamadzimambo gumi neshanu ekutanga eRoma aive ngochani, uye akapedza mapeji 25 achitsanangura chokwadi chinosimbisa Roma kuti yaive muzinda weungochani. Semuenzaniso, panguva yekutonga kwaAugustan, hurumende haina kungobvumira pfambi dzechirume kuti dzishande mumigwagwa yake, asi yakavabhadharisa mutero uye yakavapa zuva renyika rekuzorora (1980, p. 70). Mambo Hadrian, akadanwa nevamwe kuti “vakatanhamara pa‘madzimambo mashanu akanaka,’” maererano naBoswell, “anoratidzika kuva aiva ngochani bedzi” (p. 84). Dupont anowedzera kuti “kwakataurwa nezvaKesari kuti akanga ari ‘murume wevakadzi vose uye mudzimai wavarume vose,’” achizivisa chimiro chake chevatano miviri (1993, p. 117). Munhu anofanira kungonzvera nhoroondo ipi neipi inovimbika yenhau youpenyu nenguva zvomugariwo zvake weRoma kuti aone kuti ungochani hwakaita rutivi rukuru mune zvematongerwe enyika, zvenhandaro, uye zvokutengeserana zvomuzana rokutanga ramakore. Hakushamisi ipapo kuti muapostora Pauro akataura zvakasimba kwazvo pamusoro pemiitiro yakadaro.

Avo vanoedza kupfavisa kana kupokanidza dzidziso yakajeka yaPauro munaVaRoma 1 maererano nekutadza kweungochani dzimwe nguva vanoedza kunzvenga zvinorehwa nendima iyi nekusimbirira kuti inongoshanda kune vakaigamuchira chete. Boswell akati pfungwa yendima iyi haizi “kuzvidza hunhu hwepabonde asi kupomera vaHedeni mhosva yekusavimbika kwavo” (p. 108). Martin akataura kuti Pauro akataura nezvetsika dzevaHedheni, kwete “mamiriro emunhu pasi rose” (1995, p. 338). Asi VaRoma 1:26-27 “chirango chetsika,” kana kuti kushora kunoitwa vanhu vose here? Chirevo chekare (1:18-3:20) chine chiziviso chaMwari chokuti vanhu vose mutsika dzose norudzi vari pasi pechivi—“nyika yose” (3:19). Zvamazvirokwazvo, bhuku rose raVaRoma ndiro chirevo chikuru cheTestamende Itsva chenzira yokururamiswa kuvanhu vose—“munhu wose” (VaRoma 1:16). Nokudaro, kupiwa mhosva kweungochani munaVaRoma 1 kunofambirana nekushora kuuraya, unyengeri, ruchiva, nezvimwe zvitadzo zvakataurwa naPauro.

Kumwe kuona kwekupedzisira maererano naVaRoma 1 kunokosha. Mwari haangofariri vaya vanoita zvoungochani chete, asi Pauro anoratidza kuti haafariri zvakaenzana nevaya vanotsigira mufambiro wakadaro—kunyange kana ivo pachavo vasingapindiri. Mashoko acho ndeokuti: “[V]anoita zvinhu zvakadai vakafanirwa norufu, havangoiti zvimwe chetezvo asi vanotenderawo vaya vanozviita” (ndima. 32). Panyaya iyi chete, vakawanda havana kufarirwa naMwari.

Enzanisa kutaura kwaPauro kukereke yekuRoma nemubvunzo waakabvunza kukereke yevaKorinde:

Ko hamuzivi here kuti vasakarurama havangagari nhaka youmambo hwaMwari? Musanyengerwa. Zvifeve, kana vanonamata zvidhori, kana mhombwe, kana ngochani, kana varume vanorara nevarume, kana mbavha, kana vana madyo, kana zvidhakwa, kana vanotuka, kana makororo, havangagari nhaka youmambo hwaMwari. Vamwe venyu vakanga vakadaro. Asi makashambidzwa, asi makaitwa vatsvene, asi makaruramiswa nezita raShe Jesu Kristu, noMweya waMwari wedu (1 VaKorinte 6:9-11).

Shoko rechiGiriki rakashandurwa kuti “ngochani” mundima iyi idimikira reshoko rinoreva kuti “kupfava,” uye kana richireva vanhu, rinoreva vanhurume vanozvibvumira kushandiswa pabonde nevamwe varume. Zvakare, vanyori vemaduramazwi vanoshandisa izwi iri kumunhu ari “catamite,” kureva kuti, murume anoisa muviri wake kune mumwe murume nokuda kwounzenza husiri hwomuzvarirwo—kureva, ungochani (Thayer, p. 387; Arndt naGingrich, 1957, p. 489) )

“VaSodhoma” (“vanozvibata zvisina kunaka nevanhu” muKJV) ishanduro yezwi rokuti arsenokoitai. Rinobva pamazwi maviri anoti: arsein (murume) uye koitei (mubhedha), uye rinoreva munhu anoita bonde nomurume sezvinoitwa nomunhukadzi (Thayer, p. 75). Pauro akashandisa shoko rimwe chetero paakanyorera Timoti kuti akurukure mamwe maitiro ayo ose ari maviri “anopesana nedzidziso yakarurama” uye hunhu hwouyo asiri “munhu akarurama” (1 Timotio 1:9-10).

Seizvo D. Gene West akacherekedza nenzira yakarurama pamusoro petsamba yaPauro kuna Timotio:

Tinogona kuona kubva mumashoko akapoteredza kuti zviitwa zveungochani zvinoiswa muzvikamu nezvivi zvakadai sekuuraya, kuuraya nemidhonga, kuuraya, kupamba, uye kutaura nhema. Kana tikabvuma kuti chimwe chezvinhu izvi zvitadzo, tinofanira kugamuchira kuti zvose zvitadzo. Kana chiri chivi kuita chifeve, kuita unzenza nepfambi, chiviwo kuita ungochani. Hapana nzira yekunzvenga mhedziso iyoyo. Kana chiri chivi kuuraya baba, kana amai, kana mumwe munhu, chitadzo kune vese varume nevakadzi “kugara” (2004).

Pauro paakati kuvaKristu vomuKorinde, “vamwe venyu vakanga vakadaro,” haana kungoratidza kuti ngochani dzingakanganwirwa, asi kuti dzinogona kurega kuita chivi chakadaro. Pano tine chiratidzo chebhaibheri chakajeka chokuti mumwe munhu anogona kuchinja mararamiro avo ezvepabonde, uye anogona kuregererwa mararamiro ekare ounzenza. Tinomanikidzwa kugumisa kuti kusangana pabonde kwevanhurume nevasikana haisi nyaya yemajini; asi chiitiko chehunhu chine chekuita zvakanyanya nemamiriro ekunze (ona chinyorwa chaAugust 2004 cheZvikonzero neZvakazarurwa).

MHEDZISO

Ungochani ndechimwe chezvakawanda zvakabva pakuda kwaMwari kune tsika dzevanhu uye zvepabonde izvo nzanga yakatarisana nayo. Shoko rechiGiriki rokuti ufeve, porneia, ishoko rakafara rinobatanidza mhando dzose dzokuita zvepabonde kusiri pamutemo, kusanganisira upombwe, makunakuna, kurara nemhuka, kuroora, barika, varume nevakadzi, ungochani, pedophilia, necrophilia, nezvimwewo. Nzanga yedu inopengeswa nevatano ine unzenza, uye yakaparadzana zvikuru nemaonero aMwari nezvevatano yevanhu, zvokuti zvikoro zvedu zvehurumende zvinoona zvakakodzera kudzidzisa vana kuti “vangozvingwarira” pavanopinda munzeve dzevatano kunze kweroorano. Asi Mwari haana kumbokurudzira vanhu kuita “bonde rakachengeteka” rakadaro. Tsanangudzo yemubhaibheri ye “bonde rakachengetedzeka” ibonde rinongoitwa kumuchato wakabvumidzwa naMwari, wemumagwaro (1 Vakorinde 7:2-5). Mwari anoomerera pakuti vanhu vanogona, uye vanofanira, kushandisa kuzvidzora, kuzvidzora, uye mutoro wetsika. Bhaibheri rinodzidzisa kuti hatifaniri kuzvigutsa. Tinofanira kuzvidzora, tichidzora zvishuwo zvedu zvevatano maererano nedzidziso dzaMwari.

Kukurudzira vechiduku kuti vango“tora matanho okuzvidzivirira” kunongokurudzira humwe hunhu husina kuchena. Inokurudzira hupombwe hwakawanda. Kunoparira kuwedzera—kwete kuderera—munhamba yenhumbu nehosha dzinopfuudzwa muvatano. Pasinei nemakumi emakore anoverengeka ekuzadza zvikoro zvedu nedzidzo yezvepabonde uye kusimudzirwa kwezvinonzi “bonde rakachengeteka,” vezvenhamba vanotiudza kuti “[mu]shure pokukwira zvishoma nezvishoma kwemakumi mashanu emakore, mugove wevana vanoberekwa nevakadzi vasina kuroorwa wakapfuura nepakati. pachikumbaridzo: inopfuura hafu yekuberekwa kuvakadzi vekuAmerica vari pasi pemakore makumi matatu vanoitika kunze kwewanano” (DeParle and Tavernise (2012) “mhinduro” yevakasununguka haina kushanda.” Kutaura zvazviri, dambudziko racho rakawedzera kuipa.

Kudzika kwakaita nyika yedu patsika kunoratidzwa nemutemo wekugovera michina yekudzivirira kubereka kuvadzidzi, uye kusatenderwa kugovera maBhaibheri kana kudzidzisa misimboti yeBhaibheri. Yasvika nguva yekuti nyika yedu imuke, uye kuti vagari vese vanzwisise kuti rusununguko runoda kuzvidzora. Kodzero dzinoda mutoro wega. Vanhu vanofanira kutora mutoro wezvisarudzo zvavo, uye kubvuma migumisiro yezviito zvavo. Pauro akazivisa kuti: “tizai ufeve” (1 VaKorinte 6:18). Haana kunyora kuti, “kuita ufeve ‘hwakachengeteka’”! Hakuna chinonzi chivi “chakachengetedzeka” kana kusazvibata “kwakachengeteka”, nekuti zvivi zvese zvinotuka (Jakobo 1:15). Mwari akati munhu anofanira kutiza, arwise, uye arambe (2 VaKorinte 6:18). Kupwere, Pauro akati: “Zvichengete wakachena” (1 Timotio 5:22). Munyori waVaHebheru akaomerera pakuti mubhedha weroorano unofanira kuchengetwa “usina kusvibiswa.” “Mwari achatonga mhombwe nemhombwe” (VaHebheru 13:4). Hapafaniri kuva nekamwe kahunzenza pakati pevaKristu (VaEfeso 5:3).

Ndapota nzwisisa: Mwari anoda vatadzi vose—zvisinei nezvivi zvavakaita. Asi kunokosha kuti tive nebasa rokunyevera avo vari kupinda muchivi chevatano pamusoro pokuda kwaMwari, munhamburiko yoku“vabvuta mumoto” (Judhasi 23), uye ku“ponesa mweya parufu nokuvafukidza. zvivi zvizhinji” (Jakobo 5:20). Rimwe zuva zvichange zvanyanya kunonoka kune vose vari vaviri avo “vasingaiti chete zvimwe chetezvo asiwo vanotendera vanozviita” (VaRoma 1:32). Zvirokwazvo, “mhombwe… vachava nomugove wavo mudziva rinopfuta nomoto nesarufa” (Zvakazarurwa 21:8).

Chivi chepabonde pasina kupokana chichadzika munhoroondo sechimwe chezvakakosha zvikuru mukuderera kwetsika nemweya, kudzikira, uye kuwa kwenzanga yeAmerica. Ungochani ndohumwe humbowo hwakajeka hwehutsinye hwepabonde hunowanikwa mubudiriro yeAmerica. Mumwe anoshamisika kuti kusachena kwakapararira kwakadaro kungapfuurira kwenguva yakareba sei munyika yedu Mwari asati “arova pamusoro payo chirango chezvakaipa zvayo, uye nyika inorutsa vagari vayo” (Revhitiko 18:25). Isu tinoziva nhasi kuti ungochani haukonzerwi nemajini (ona Harrub, nevamwe., 2004). Hakusi “zvakasikwa,” asi “kurera” ndiko kunokonzera. Haisi “mararamiro,” asi “sarudzo” youpenyu. Uye zvakaipa.

Nzanga yose munhau yevanhu yakatevera nzira yokuora kwetsika neyomudzimu yakaparadzwa naMwari kana kuti yakapinzwa mukati. Kufanana neaya marudzi ekare akabudirira, nzanga yedu haisati ichizobvumirwa kurarama nokusingaperi munguva yemberi—kunze kwokuti, chokwadika, Mwari akagadzirira kukumbira ruregerero kuSodhoma neGomora.

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Yakabudiswa Chivabvu 13, 2012

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