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Basa reMurume nereMukadzi: Murume kana mukadzi muBhaibheri

Munguva inopfuura hafu yezana ramakore, tsika dzeAmerica dzakasangana nekugadziridzwa kukuru kwehunhu uye kudzoreredzwa kwetsika nemweya muchimiro. Chimwe chikamu chekubviswa kwakawanda uku uye kuparara kwetsika dzemubhaibheri kwakashandurwa zvinoshamisa mabasa evarume. Gwaro rekodzero dzevanhukadzi yakapinda muAmerican. Zvechokwadi, kutanga kweboka revakadzi munguva yemhirizhonga yekuma 1960 yakakonzera kugadziriswa kukuru kwetsika dzevanhu zvakakonzera kushandurwa kwezvinenge zvikamu zvose zvetsika dzeAmerica kubva pamba nekuchechi kuenda kunyika yebhizimisi zvichienda mberi. Vakadzi vave kushanda munzvimbo dzechirume zvaisaitwa kare, kusanganisira muchiuto, zvematongerwo enyika, mitambo, uye mabasa mazhinji enharaunda anosanganisira kudzima moto, chipurisa, zveamburenzi, nezvimwe.

Usaite chikanganiso, shanduko dzakati wandei maererano nehukadzi dzakabuda dzinogona kunzi dzinobatsira uye dzakanaka. Zvakadaro, kukanganisa kwese kubudiriro yeAmerica kwave kwakashata, uye kukukurwa kwechikadzi kwaunza huipi huzhinji huri kukurumidza kusimudzira tsika dzeAmerica (somuenzaniso, kubvisa pamuviri uye ungochani). Zvichienderana nekuedza kupedza kupatsanurwa kwevarume kwave kuri kuderedzwa kwechirume nekugadziridzwa patsva kwemhuri (chivako chikuru chevanhu—Genesi 1:27; 2:24). Sezvo ukadzi hwakaderedzwa uye basa rahwo richichinjwa, nharaunda yose yosara yotambura zvikuru. Pashure pokurangarira zvose, vakadzi nenzira isingadzivisiki vanoshandisa pesvedzero huru patsika nenharaunda—chakanaka kana kuti chakaipa. Zvakanaka kuhukadzi ndizvo zvinobata budiriro yemunhu pamwechete. Mumashoko edetembo rokusafa raWilliam Ross Wallace, ““Ruoko Runozunungusa Chibereko, Runotonga Nyika” (1865). Zvinosuruvarisa nokuda kweAmerica, chitendero chevakadzi chakapidigura hundi, chakanda mwana kunze nemvura yekugeza, chakarova baba kumeso, uye chakatsikitsira chichibva pamba.

Bhaibheri Richine Maonero Akarurama

Mukati mekusagadzikana uku kunotambudza budiriro yeAmerica yose zvayo, uye zvikurukuru ChiKristu, mukaha mumwe uri kuramba uchikura pakati pevaya vanoda kutevedzera mitemo yeBhaibheri nevaya vanoda kuvandudza, uye kuita kuti Rugwaro ruenderane nenzanga iri kuchinja. Kuchema kweavo vari kudzvanyirira hurongwa hwevakadzi ndekwekuti kereke kare yaiganhura vakadzi mumabasa ehutungamiriri nekunamata nekuda kwetsika netsika nemisimboti yekududzirwa kwezvinyorwa isina kunaka. Vanoti isu tiri chibereko chesangano rinotongwa nevarume uye nokudaro vakatadza kunzwisisa zvinorehwa nendima dzebhaibheri dzakakodzera.

Chikonzero chekusagadzikana kwevanhu uku, uye kuvhiringika kwevakadzi, kurambwa kweBhaibheri seShoko rechokwadi reMweya Mutsvene Akasika Nyika nevanhu. Kunyange pakati paavo vanopfuurira kutaura kuvimbika kwavo kuchiKristu, zviverengero zvikuru zvakabvuma kururama kwezvematongerwe enyika ndokusiya gamuchidzanwa, ndiko kuti, reBhaibheri, rinoratidzira mabasa echikadzi sezvinorondedzerwa noMusiki. Mukuda kwavo kuchengetedza kukosha pakati pejecha rinoshanduka retsika dzenyika, vakanyura mweya wenguva, vakatapurwa nenjere dzevanhu, uye nokudaro vakakanganisa dzidziso yakajeka yeMagwaro pamusoro pebasa revakadzi (tarisa. “Gender Inclusive… ,” 2013; “Zvitende…,” 2006; “Basa re…,” 2006;

Sezvo hunhu hunopfava uye kutenda kwebhaibheri kunopera simba, Magwaro ari kududzirwazve kuti abvumire mabasa akawedzerwa evakadzi pakunamata. Kana munhu anodzidza ndima yeBhaibheri akagumisa kuti vakadzi havafaniri kuganhurirwa pakunamata, anorumbidzwa seari kuita “matsananguriro matsva enyanzvi.” Asi uyo anonzvera rugwaro ndokugumisa kuti Mwari aida kuti vakadzi vazviise pasi poutungamiriri hwechirume mukunamata ane mhaka yokufungira mano akaipa uye kupesvedzerwa zvisina kufanira ne“gamuchidzanwa reChechi” kana kuti “mukwende wetsika.” Zvinoita sei kuti tsika yechitendero chekare uye dudziro yeRugwaro neimwe nzira inoregererwa kubva mukunyura mweya wezera umo pfungwa dzechikadzi dzakapinda munharaunda yese yenharaunda  yeAmerica?

Kunyange zvakadaro, dzidziso yeBhaibheri panyaya iyi haina kuoma kuwana chokwadi. Kuedza kuchangoburwa kutsanangudza mabasa evakadzi kunowira pasi, kwete chete pamberi pekuongororwa zvine musoro kwezvikamu zveBhaibheri zvine musoro panyaya iyi, asi pamberi pemakore 2,000 enhorondo yeChiKristu iyo, kazhinji, yakaratidza kubata kwakaringana kwekutanga. Zvimiro zvezvinodiwa naMwari panyaya iyi. Izvi zvanga zviri zvechokwadi muAmerica umo Vavambi nevarume nevakadzi vemuzana ramakore rechi 18 vakagamuchira maonero echiKristu enyika, uye vakatenda kuti “kutendeseka kwemhuri kwaikosha kuti veruzhinji vachengeteke uye vafare” (West, 1997, p. 85).

Ndima dzeBhaibheri Dzinoenderana

Kudzidza kwakadzama kwemagwaro ebhaibheri akakodzera muchinyorwa chimwe hakubviri. Zvisinei, Shoko raMwari rakapfava zvikuru panhau ipi neipi inokosha iri muBhaibheri [CHERECHEDZA: Nokuda kwekurukurirano dzinobetsera tarisa Hicks naMorton, 1978; Piper naGrudem, 1991; Cottrell, 1992; Highers, 1991; Mitemo, 1994; Warren, 1975; Miller, 1994; Miller, 1996.] Zvamazvirokwazvo, “vadzidzisi” vachangobva kusimukira vane ruzivo rwakaoma kunzwisisa uye kurerekera kune dzimwe nyika kweseminari zvakakonzera kuvhiringika pamusoro pechidzidzo ichi (semuenzaniso, Osburn, 1993). Carroll Osburn akapfupikisa hurukuro yake ya1 Timotio 2 mumashoko anoti— “Nekutaura zviri nyore, chero munhukadzi ane ruzivo rwakakwana uye rwakarurama anogona kudzidzisa mashoko iwayo nounyoro kune ani zvake mumamiriro ezvinhu chero api angave ari” (1994, p. 115). Ko hunhu hwakadai hwekuda kutenderwa kubvisa zviri nyore mutsauko wenhoroondo nebhaibheri pakati pevarume nevakadzi? Muverengi anokokwa kuti atarise kupfupiso inotevera yedzidziso yeTestamente Itsva pamusoro penyaya yebasa revakadzi muhutungamiriri mukunamata uye mukereke.

1 VaKorinde

Zvitsauko 11 ne14 zveVaKorinde wokutanga zvinoumba mamiriro anobata nekusagadzikana mugungano rekunamata. Chirevo chose che11:2-14:40 chine chokuita neungano yokunamata, kureva, “pamunoungana” (tarisa. 11:17, 18, 20, 33; 14:23-26). Pauro akataura nezvetsika yekusiirana kuvanhu vose munhoroondo yose muna 11:3—“Asi ndinoda kuti muzive kuti musoro womurume wose ndiKristu, uye musoro womukadzi murume, uye musoro waKristu ndiMwari.” “Musoro” unoreva zvakajeka kwete “kunobva” asi “chiremera” (tarisa Grudem, 1985, p. 38-59). Nokudaro, Mwari anoda kuti vakadzi vave pasi pevarume. [Cherechedza: Kuenzana kwevarume nevakadzi muna VaGaratiya 3:28 kunoenderana nechinzvimbo cheruponeso, kwete basa.] Zviripachena kuti vakadzi vemuKorinde vaibvisa zvifukidzo zvavo vachifambira mberi mukereke kuti vatungamire nemasimba avo echishamiso akapiwa noMweya, kureva chiporofita. (12:10; 14:31) uye munyengetero (14:14-15). Mubato wakadaro wakanga uri kuputswa kwakananga kwenheyo yokuzviisa pasi, inodudzwa naPauro muganhuro 14. Muganhuro 11, iye akanangidzira ngwariro pakukodzera kwavakadzi vachibvisa chiratidzo chetsika chokuzviisa pasi.

Madzimai aibvisa machira avo nekuti ainzwisisa kuti kumira nekushandisa chipo chemweya musangano yaive simba reutungamiri. Ivo vakaziva kuti kupfeka chiratidzo chokuzviisa pasi pechiremera (chifukidziro) nepo panguva imwe cheteyo munhu achizvibata amene nenzira ine chiremera (kutungamirira mukunamata) kwakanga kuri kuzvipokanidza. Kusimbirira kwaPauro kuti vakadzi varambe vakapfeka zvifukidzo zvavo panguva yegungano rekunamata kwakava murairo wakajeka wekuti varambe kutungamira mugungano – murairo wakataurwa zvakajeka muna 14:34. Nongedzero kumutemo weChisiko (11:7-9; ona, 14:34) inosimbisa idi rokuti Pauro akaona ganhuriro pavakadzi sezvakavakirwa munhevedzano yakasikwa—kwete tsika. Uyewo, Pauro akajekesa kuti zvirambidzo zvakadaro zvinoshanda zvakaenzana kukereke dzose dzaKristu (11:16).

Gare gare muchirevo chimwe chetecho (muchitsauko 14), Pauro anotaura zvakare pamusoro pekuvhiringidzika pamusoro pezvipo zvemweya uye anodzokera zvakananga kukutora chikamu kwevakadzi mukushandisa zvipo izvozvo mukereke. Anosimbisazve tsika yepasi rose yemakereke aKristu: “sezvamakereke ose evatsvene” (14:33). [Cherechedza: Negiramagiramu, “sezvinoita mukereke dzose dzevatsvene” inobatana ne“vakadzi venyu ngavanyarare.” tarisa. ASV, RSV, NIV, NEB, NAB, nemamwe.] Vakadzi vaiva nezvipo zvinoshamisa vaisafanira kuzvishandisa mumusangano wekunamata wemusanganiswa wekereke. Kuita kudaro kwainyadzisa “zvinonyadzisa” (14:35). Kuomerera pakuita kudaro kwakanga kwakaenzana (1) nokufungidzira kuva vanyori veShoko raMwari, uye (2) vachifungidzra kuti chiyero chaMwari hachishandi kumunhu wose (14:36).

Chokwadi, 1 VaKorinde zvitsauko 11 ne14 zvinotaura nezvemamiriro ezvinhu akasiyana nevamwe. Pamusoro pazvo, zvipo zvemweya hazvichawanikwi kukereke (1 Vakorinde 13:8-11; tarisa Miller, 2003a), uye machira, munharaunda dzekuMadokero, haachisiri chiratidzo chetsika chekuzviisa pasi kwevakadzi (tarisa Miller, 2003b; naMoore, 1998). Zvisineyi, mitsara yose iri miviri inoratidza kushanda kwakajeka kwemusimboti wetsika (kuzviisa pasi kwevakadzi mukunamata) kune imwe mamiriro etsika. Iyo yepasi pekutumira musimboti inoramba yakasimba sechinhu chakavakwa chechikamu chehurongwa hwakagadzirwa.

1 Timotio 2: Rugwaro Rwunobata zvose

Naizvozvo ndinoda kuti varume vanyengetere panzvimbo dzose, vachisimudza maoko matsvene, vasina kutsamwa nekupikisana; Saizvozvowo, kuti vakadzi vashonge nguo dzakafanira, dzakafanira uye dzakafanira, kwete nebvudzi rakarukwa kana nendarama kana maparera kana nguo dzemari zhinji, asi sezvakafanira vakadzi vanoti vanotya Mwari, nemabasa akanaka. Mukadzi ngaadzidze mukunyarara nekuzviisa pasi kose. Uye handitenderi mukadzi kuti adzidzise, kana kuti ave nesimba pamusoro pemurume, asi kuti anyarare. Nokuti Adhamu ndiye akatanga kuumbwa, tevere Evha. Uye Adhamu haana kunyengedzwa, asi mukadzi akanyengerwa akava mukudarika. Kunyange zvakadaro uchaponeswa pakubereka vana, kana vachirambira mukutenda, norudo, noutsvene, nokuzvidzora (1 Timotio 2:8-15).

Ndima yekutanga muTestamente Itsva inobata basa revakadzi pakunamata ndi1 Timotio 2:8-15. Mamiriro ezvinhu ari kure ebhuku maitiro akanaka muhupenyu hwekereke (1 Timotio 3:15). Chirevo chechinyorwa chechikamu chechipiri kunamata, kunyanya munamato (1 Timotio 2:1,8). Mamiriro ezvinhu haagumiri pakunamata pagungano rekereke, asi anosanganisira hupenyu hwekereke.

Muchikamu chino, Pauro anosimbisa kuti varume vakuru (andras) vanofanira kutungamira minamato chero kupi kwavanoungana vanhu kuti vanamate. “Kusimudza maoko matsvene” idimikira, metonymy, umo chimiro chemunyengetero chinoiswa panzvimbo yemunyengetero pachawo. Minamato yavo ndeyekuburitsa kubva muhupenyu hutsvene. Ukuwo, vakadzi vanorayirwa kuti vatarise zvipfeko zvakakodzera uye kuzviisa pasi. Tarira musiyano wakarongwa muchikamu ichi: Varume vanofanira kuva vatsvene, vatungamiri vemweya mukunamata nepo vakadzi vachifanira kuva nemwero uye vasina kuzvikudza. “Kunyarara” uye “kuzviisa pasi” mundima iyi zvinechekuita nekushandiswa kwesimba remweya pamusoro pevarume vakuru mukereke. “Kubvuta” (KJV) haisi muzvinyorwa zvekutanga. Authentein inofanira kushandurwa kuti “kuva (kana kushandisa) simba” (NKJV, ESV, NIV, RSV, NASB). Nokudaro Pauro akarayira vakadzi kusadzidzisa kana kuti neimwe nzira ipi neipi kuva nesimba pavarume mukunamata.

Sei? Nei muapostora akafuridzirwa aizoisa ganhuriro dzakadaro pavakadzi veChiKristu? Kunetseka kwake kwakakonzerwa netsika dzemazuva iwayo here? Pauro akanga achingogamuchira bedzi mhoteredzo isina chiedza, ine utsinye, achimirira kwenguva uye kuchengeta rusaruro rwuri rushoma, kusvikira ava kugona kuvadzidzisa Evhangeri here? Kwete. Mweya Mutsvene unopa chikonzero chezvisingakwanisi, uye chikonzero ichocho chinodarika tsika dzese nenzvimbo dzese. Pauro anotaura kuti vakadzi havafaniri kushandisa simba romweya pavarume nokuti Adhama akasikwa Evha asati avapo. Pano tinopihwa moyo uye musimboti wekuda kwaMwari maererano nemabatiro avanofanira kuita varume nevakadzi uye nekudyidzana. Asi chii chinodiwa pakuverengwa kwenguva kwaAdhamu chine chokuita noukama hwomurume nomukadzi?

Yakavakirwa Mukusikwa—Kwete Tsika

Pauro ari kutaura kuti gadziriro yaMwari yorudzi rwomunhu yaibatanidza kusikwa kwomurume kutanga sechiratidzo chebasa rake rokuva mutungamiriri wemweya wemba. Akasikwa kuti ashande semusoro kana mutungamiri mumba nemukereke. Ndicho chinangwa chake chokushanda. Mukadzi, kune rumwe rutivi, akagadzirwa zvakananga uye akasikirwa chinangwa chokuva mubatsiri—kunyange asiri pasi—mubatsiri. Mwari angadai akatanga kusika mukadzi, asi haana. Angadai akasika zvose murume nemukadzi panguva imwe chete, asi haana. Chiito chake chaive nechinangwa chekuburitsa kuda Kwake maererano nehukadzi maererano nehukama hwemurume nemukadzi.

Ichi chikamu cheKusika chinotsanangura chikonzero nei Mwari akapa dzidziso yemweya kuna Adamu Evha asati asikwa, zvichireva kuti Adhamu aive nebasa rakasikwa rekudzidzisa mukadzi wake (Genesi 2:15-17). Rinotsanangura kuti nei mukadzi achitaurwa kaviri kuti akasikwa kuti ave “mubatsiri akamukwanira,” kureva kuti, mubatsiri akakodzera murume (Genesi 2:18, 20 , NW.) Izvi zvinotsanangura kuti nei rugwaro rwaGenesisi ruchinyatsoratidza kuti mukadzi ndiye akasikirwa murume—kwete kuti mukadzi akasikirwa murume. Rinotsanangura chikonzero nei Mwari akaunza mukadzi “kumurume” (Genesi 2:22), zvakare, sokunge kuti akasikirwa “iye”—kwete zvakapesana. Adhamu akasimbisa kunzwisisa uku nokutaura “mukadzi wamakandipa kuti ave neni” (Genesi 3:12 , emp.) Inotsanangura chikonzero nei Pauro akaita nharo mutsamba yeVaKorinde pahwaro hwouyu musiano chaiwo: “Nomurume haana kusikirwa mukadzi; asi mukadzi nokuda kwomurume” (1 Vakorinte 11:9). Inojekesa zvakare chiremera chemurume pavakadzi muchiito chake chekutumidza mukadzi zita (Genesi 2:23; 3:20). VaJudha vainzwisisa urongwa uhwu hwakarongwa naMwari, hunopupurirwa nomuitiro wokuva dangwe rechirume. Chisikwa chaMwari chemunhu chekutanga chainyanya kuitirwa kutaura nezvesimba/kuzviisa pasi perudzi rwevanhu (tarisa. 1 Vakorinde 11:8).

Cherekedza kuti Pauro anotevera kutsanangura pamusoro peiyi nheyo muna 1 Timotio 2:14 kupfurikidza nokucherekedza muenzaniso wezvinogona kuitika apo varume navakadzi vanodzongonyedza vavariro dzapakuvamba dzaMwari. Evha paakatora danho rekunamata pamusoro pemurume wake, Adamu ndokutadza kutungamira nekushandisa simba remweya pamukadzi wake, Satani akakwanisa kukanganisa imba uye kukonzera kupinza kwechivi munyika (Genesi 3). Pauro paakati mukadzi wacho akanyengerwa, akanga asiri kureva kuti vakadzi vanonyengerwa zvakanyanya kupfuura varume. Asi, kana varume kana vakadzi vakatadza kuzvisungirira kumabasa avo akasikwa, asi panzvimbo pezvo vachikanganisa nekuita zvinopesana nemabasa anodiwa naMwari, kusakuvara pamweya kuchivi kunongotevera.

Kuona kwaMwari nyaya yacho kwakaonekwa paakatarisana nevaviri ava. Akatanga kutaura kumukuru wemba—murume (Genesi 3:9). Mashoko aakazotaura kuna Evha akasimbisazve chokwadi chokuti aisafanira kubvuma kutungamirira panyaya dzokunamata. Asi aifanira kuzviisa pasi poutongi hwomurume wake (Genesi 3:16; tarisa. 4:4). Apo Mwari akati kuna Adhama, “Nokuti wateerera inzwi romukadzi wako . . . ( Genesi 3:17 ) Akanga achidanira ngwariro kuidi rokuti Adhama akanga akundikana kushandisa utungamiriri hwomudzimu, nokudaro achinzvenga gadziriro youmwari yevatano yomurume nomukadzi.

Pauro anogumisa mirairidzo yake kupfurikidza nokucherekedza kuti vakadzi vangadzivirirwa sei pakuwira mumusungo mumwe chetewo wokutora chiremera chisina kubvumirwa: “Achaponeswa pakubereka vana” (1 Timotio 2:15). “Kubereka” idimikira rinozivikanwa kududzira zvizere muchikamu. Nokudaro, Pauro akanga achitaura nezvebasa rose revakadzi. Vakadzi vangadzivisa kuzvitorera vamene mabasa asina kufanira kupfurikidza nokunangidzira ngwariro pamabasa avakagoverwa naMwari, anoitwa nokutenda, rudo, uye utsvene mukuzvidzora (kureva, kuzvidzora).

Vamwe vanoti rugwaro urwu runoshanda kuvarume nevakadzi kwete kuvarume nevakadziwo zvavo. Zvisinei, chirevo cha1 Timotio haisi imba, asi kereke (1 Timotio 3:15). Saizvozvowo, kushandiswa kwezvizhinji nekushaikwa kwechinyorwa muna 2:9 na2:11 kunopa pfungwa yevakadziwo zvavo. Hapana mumashoko akapoteredza angaita kuti munhu afunge kuti Pauro aingotaura nezvevarume nevakadzi chete. Kunze kwezvo, Pauro aizoganhurira vadzimai pamabasa eutungamiri muchechi—asi ozobvumira vakadzi vasina kuroorwa kutungamira?

Mudhikoni Vechikadzi

Avo vanotsigira mabasa akawedzerwa evakadzi muchechi vachitsura kuvapo kwemadhikoni muTestamente Itsva. Asi tingori nezvikamu zviviri chete zvinongoratidza nezvechinzvimbo chakadaro: VaRoma 16:1-2 na1 Timotio 3:11. Muna VaRoma 16:1 , shoko rinoshandurwa kuti “mushumiri” muKJV ishoko rechiGiriki rokuti diakonos, shoko risingarambiki rinoreva “munhu anoshumira kana kuti anoshumira.” Ndeyemunhurumewose (kureva kuti, angangoreva varume kana kuti vakadzi) uye inowanikwa mundima dzinotevera: Mateu 20:26; 22:13; 23:11; Mako 9:35; 10:43; Johane 2:5, 9; 12:26; VaRoma 13:4; 15:8; 1 VaKorinde 3:5; 16:1; 2 VaKorinde 3:6; 6:4; 11:15, 23; VaGaratia 2:17; VaEfeso 3:7; 6:21; VaFiripi 1:1; VaKorose 1:7, 23, 25; 4:7; 1 VaTesaronika 3:2; 1 Timotio 3:8, 12; 4:6.

Izwi iri rinoshandiswa muTestamente Itsva nenzira mbiri. Chekutanga, rinoshandiswa sezwi rehunyanzvi renzvimbo yepamutemo muchechi iyo munhu anogona kugadzwa nekuzadzisa zvimwe zvinodiwa. Chechipiri, inoshandiswa senge risiri-tekinoroji izwi rechisina kurongeka rekushandira kana kuita. Mashoko okuwedzera muTestamende Itsva ane zvaanoreva zvounyanzvi uye zvisiri zvounyanzvi anosanganisira “muapostora,” “mukuru,” uye “mufudzi.” Kuti ave ane musoro mukuongorora kwake nyaya, munhu anofanira kutora mhedziso chete idzo dzinotenderwa nehumbowo. Panyaya yemadhikoni, munhu anofanira kungogumisa kuti mudhikoni ari kurehwa kana mamiriro ezvinhu anoratidza zviri pachena kuti hofisi iri kutariswa.

Muna VaRoma 13:4, hurumende yehurumende inonzi mudhikoni waMwari. Muna VaRoma 15:8, Kristu anonzi mudhikoni wemaJuda. Muna 2 VaKorinte 3:6 na6:4, Pauro anonzi mudhikoni weSungano Itsva uye mudhikoni waMwari. Aporo akanyorwa pamwe chete naPauro semudhikoni muna 1 VaKorinte 3:5. Zviripachena, aya ese mashandisirwo asiri ehunyanzvi ezwi rinoreva sevhisi kana rubatsiro rwuri kuitwa.

Mumashoko akapoteredza aVaRoma 16:1 hapana chinobvumira mhedziso yokuti Pauro akanga achirondedzera Febhi somudhikoni akagadzwa. “Hanzvadzi yedu” inodudza kuve nhengo yekereke uye “muranda” anotsanangura kushanda nesimba kwaakaita kukereke yeKenkrea kwaaive nhengo inoshingaira, ine hanya. Kuva “mushumiri wekereke” hakurevi munhu anenge agadzwa sezvakaita mashoko ari pana VaKorose 1:25 apo Pauro anonzi muranda wechechi.

Vamwe vakaomerera pakuti shoko riri pana VaRoma 16:2 rakashandurwa kuti “rubatsiro” rinoreva kushandiswa kwounyanzvi. Ichokwadi kuti prostatis inogona kureva mubatsiri mupfungwa yokutungamirira nechiremera. Asi izwi iri rine kusajeka kwakafanana kunoitwa nediakonos mukuti rine pfungwa yakarongeka uye isina kurongeka. Asi sezvo ndima yacho ichitaura zvakajeka kuti Fibhi aiva “mubatsiri” kuna Pauro, kushandiswa kusiri kwounyanzvi kunofanira kuonekwa. Angadai asina kushandisa simba pana Pauro. Kunyange vaapostora biyake havana kuita izvozvo sezvo akashandisa chiremera chakakwirira chakabva kunaShe (1 VaKorinde 14:37-38; VaGaratia 1:6-12; 2 VaTesaronika 3:14). Kristu chete ndiye akashandisa simba pana Pauro.

VaRoma 16:2 inotoshandisa kutamba nemashoko. Pauro akaudza vaKorinde “kubetsera” (paristemi) Fibhi sezvo ave ari “rubatsiro” (prostatis) kuvazhinji, kubatanidza Pauro amene. Nepo zita rechirume prostates richigona kureva “mutungamiri,” zita chairo rechikadzi prostatis rinoreva “mudziviriri, mutsigiri, mubatsiri” (Arndt naGingrich, 1957, p. 718). Pauro akati, “Batsira Febhi sezvaakabatsira vamwe neni.” Akanga ave ari mupiro ane hanya, ane rupo, ane mutsa, akazvipira kubasa raShe. Pauro akanga achimupa mutero mukuru uye achitaura pachena rukudzo rwakamufanira. Asi akanga asiri kumubvuma somubati wehofisi muchechi.

Chikamu chechipiri chakakumbirwa nevamwe kuti vawane mvumo yevadhikoni mukereke ndi 1 Timotio 3:11. Pakati pekurongwa kwezvikwaniriso zvemadhikoni, Pauro akataura nezvevakadzi. Vakadzi vapi? Pauro aireva vadzimai vevakuru vakuru vechechi here, kana kuti aireva vanhukadzi vakagadzwa, kureva kuti, vadhikoni? Zvakare, izwi repasi rose rechiGiriki haribatsire pakupindura mubvunzo uyu sezvo gunaikas (kubva mugune) iinewo pfungwa dzehunyanzvi uye dzisiri dzehunyanzvi. Rinogona kureva “mudzimai” kana kungoti “mukadzi” kana kuti “mukadzi.” Rinoshandiswa nenzira mbiri muna 1 Timotio: “mukadzi” muna. 2:9-12, 14 na” mudzimai” muna. 3:2, 12; 5:9.

Kucherechedzwa kwemamiriro ezvinhu kashanu, zvisinei, kunopa rubatsiro mukuziva zvinoreva ndima yacho. Kutanga, mukadzi haagoni kuva “murume womukadzi mumwe” (3:12). Chechipiri, muhurukuro yevadhikoni vechirume kubva muna 3:8-13, zvingava zvisingashamisi kuchinja pakati pemadhikoni echikadzi pandima imwe pasina kujekeswa. Chechitatu, kutaura nezvevadzimai vevakuru vakuru vechechi kwaizova kwakakodzera sezvo mufambiro wemhuri uri itiro hanya inokwanirisa (3:2, 4-5, 12). Chechina, “saizvozvo” (3:11) zvinogona kungoreva kuti madzimai anofanira kuva netsika dzakafanana nedzemadhikoni pasina kureva kuti vane basa rimwe chete (1 Timoti. 5:25; Tito. 2:3). Chechishanu, kushaikwa kwechimiro chechimiro negunaikas (“madhikoni”) kana kuti “chavo” hakurambidzi madzimai emadhikoni sezvo zvisingashandiswi mune dzimwe nguva varume/vakadzi vari kurondedzerwa semadzimai/varume (VaKorose 3:18-) 19; VaEfeso 5:22-25;

Humbowo hwezvinyorwa husina kukwana hunotsigira mhedziso yekuti chinzvimbo chemudhikoni chinorehwa muTestamente Itsva. Kunze kweTestamente Itsva, Pliny, Gavhuna weBythynia, akanyora tsamba kuna Mambo Trajan munenge muna A.D. 110 achitaura muchiLatin kune vaviri ministrae (vashumiri vechikadzi). Izwi iri rine kusanzwisisika kumwechete mukati maro kune diakonos. Anogona kunge aireva vanhu vakagadzwa, kana kuti aigona kunge achingotaura nezvevashandi. Chero zvazvingava, kungotaura kwenguva pfupi kunoitwa nomunhu asiri muKristu asina ruzivo hahusi uchapupu hwakavimbika. Zvinyorwa zvechiKristu zvenhoroondo kubva panguva imwe chete iyi hazvireve kuvepo kwevakadzi vakagadzwa kunyangwe vachikurukura nezvesangano rechechi (Lewis, 1988, p. 108).

Kusvikira mukupera kwezana ramakore rechitatu muSyria Didascalia tinowana chirevo chemadhikoni. Basa ravo raibatanidza kubetsera parubhapatidzo rwavakadzi, kupinda mumisha yavahedheni kwaigara vakadzi vanotenda, uye kushanyira vanorwara (kuvashumira nokuvagezesa). Kurongeka kwekereke kwemadhikoni hakuoneki kusvika muzana ramakore rechina/rechishanu. Zvakare, mabasa avo aisanganisira kuchengeta magonhi, kubatsira murubhabhatidzo rwevakadzi, uye kuita rimwe basa nevakadzi (Lewis, p. 108-109). Avo vari muchechi nhasi vari kudzvanyirira madhikoni uye mabasa akawedzerwa evakadzi havangambogutsikane nemabasa akadai.

Kunyangwe dai vakadzi vaive madhikoni mukereke yeTestamente Itsva, vangadai vasina kushanda mune chero rudzi rwehutungamiriri kana chinzvimbo chechiremera pamusoro pevarume. Vaisafanira kugadzwa sevakuru. Kana Mabasa 6:1-5 ichireva kugadzwa kwemadhikoni (chiito chechimiro chinoshandiswa) muchechi yeJerusarema (Woods, 1986, p. 199), vose vaiva varume uye basa ravo chairo raisanganisira kugovera rubatsiro rwokunyama kuchirikadzi.

Humbowo huri kushaikwa. Kuvapo kwemudhikoni wechikadzi mukati meTestamente Itsva hakugone kuratidzwa. Vaya vanoomerera pakugadza chinzvimbo chakadaro vanoita kudaro vasingabvumirwi neMagwaro.

Kusaenzana kana Kuderera?

Shoko rokupedzisira rinofanira kutaurwa pamusoro peidi rokuti vose vari vaviri varume navakadzi vanofanira kuyeuka kuti dzidziso yeBhaibheri pamsoro pebasa nenzira ipi neipi hairevi musiyano mukukosha, ukoshi, kana kuti mano. VaGaratia 3:28 (“havasi murume kana munhukadzi”), 1 Timotio 2:15 (“achaponeswa”), uye 1 Petro 3:7 (“vadyi venhaka pamwe chete yenyasha dzoupenyu”) zvose zvinoratidza kuti varume navakadzi vakaenzana pakuve munhu uye mamiriro eruponeso. Vakadzi vanowanzova pamusoro pevarume mune tarenda, njere, uye kugona. Vakadzi havasi pamusoro kuvarume sezvo Kristu ari pasi kuna Mwari, vagari vemo vari vakaderera kuMutungamiriri, kana kuti nhengo dzechechi dzakaderera kune vakuru. Basa revakadzi muchechi haisi nyaya yekutonga, simba, kana kudzvinyirira. Inyaya yekuzviisa pasi pevanhu vose kukuda kwaMwari (VaEfeso 5:21). Inhau yokudisa kwezvisikwa zvaMwari, varume nevakadzi, kuzviisa pasi pegadziriro youmwari pamusoro pevatano. Musiyano webhaibheri inyaya yebasa, mabasa anopiwa, uye nzvimbo yebasa. Mubvunzo kwatiri ndouyu: “Ndinodisa sei kuzvibatanidza ndimene mugadziriro yaMwari?”

Mhedziso

Basa revanhukadzi, seruzhinji muhutsika hwekuMadokero, riri mukutambudzika kwekuvhiringidzika uye kutsanangurwa patsva. Avo vanoramba kutsanangurirwazve kusiri kweBhaibheri vanorangarirwa sevanoomerera pamagamuchidzanwa, vane ndangariro yakaganhurirwa, vanyajambwa vakashata, sokunge kuti havagoni kuchengeta mipimo yakatendeseka, isina rusaruro, yakafunda pamusoro penhau dzakadaro; sokunge kuti Bhaibheri harina kunzwisiswa makore ose aya. Kana Bhaibheri rakazvibvumira, hapana murume anofanirwa kuve nekuvenga vakadzi vane mukana wakakwana wezvinzvimbo zveutungamiri mukereke. Chokwadi, vakadzi vakawanda vane zvipo, vanotya Mwari vane zvipo nematarenda zvingavagonesa kupfuura vazhinji vevatungamiri vechirume vanonamata vari kushanda muchechi nhasi.

Avo vanoramba kufuridzirwa kwouMwari kweBhaibheri vacharamba vasingatapurwi uye vasingafariri dzidziso yeBhaibheri pamusoro pevatano. Zvisinei, Bhaibheri rinomira sechiziviso chisingachinji, chisingagumi chokuda kwaMwari panhau yacho. Nemashoko iwayo tichatongwa (Johane 12:48). Kune avo vanoremekedza Bhaibheri seShoko raMwari, dzidziso yeBhaibheri inouraya papfungwa yehutungamiriri hwechikadzi muchechi nemumba. Tose ngatipfugamei nekuzvininipisa nekuzvininipisa pamberi paMwari weKudenga.

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KUGADZIRIRWA NEZVINHU ZVINOTAURWA: Tinofara kupa mvumo yekuti chinyorwa chino chigadzirwezve muchidimbu kana kuti chose, chero zvatinoda zvichicherechedzwa.


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