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3 Zvikonzero Zvakanaka Zvokudavira Bhaibheri Harina Kushatiswa

Vakawanda ndevaya vanosimbira pakuti Bhaibheri rakashatiswa nokufamba kwenguva, kuti hatinyatsozivi kuti ndeapi mavhesi ari muBhaibheri, uye kuti zvikanganiso zveshanduro dzakawanda zvokuti hatina shoko rokutanga. Zvakadaro zvirevo izvi zvakanangana nekupikiswa nguva nenguva. Kunze kweTestamende Yekare (iyo yakasimbiswa zvizere), zviuru zvemabhuku mumakore apfuura zvakaratidza nounyanzvi kuvimbika kwerugwaro rweTestamende Itsva, kusanganisira mavhoriyamu akadai saJ. McGarvey Umboo weChiKritsu, Kurt naBarbara Aland Zvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva, F.F. Bruce Zvinyorwa zveMagwaro, raBruce Metzger Zvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva, F.H.A. Scrivener’s Nhanganyaya Yakajeka yeKutsoropodzwa kweTestamente Itsva, yaSir Frederic Kenyon Bhaibheri Redu neZvinyorwa Zvekare,  Benjamin Warfield’s Nhanganyaya yeKupikiswa KweZvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva, nemamwe akawanda. Avo vanoshora kuperera kwechinyorwa chebhaibheri vanoratidza kusaziva kwakadzikama, kusingapembedzeki kwechokwadi chakagara chiripo chenyaya yacho kana kurerekera divi rimwe chete nemaune. Kana muverengi achida chokwadi pamusoro peuchokwadi uye kuvimbika kweBhaibheri, uchapupu huripo—kana munhu wacho achida kushandisa nguva nesimba kuti ayera uchapupu ihwohwo uye kusvika pamhedziso yakakodzera (1 VaTesaronika 5:21; 1 Johani. 4:1). Tine here shoko rakanyorwa nevanyori vepakutanga? Chokwadi ndechokuti mabhuku eTestamende Itsva ndiwo mabhuku akasimbiswa zvikuru enhoroondo yekare. Chokwadi chinoderedza zvachose uye chinozvidza kurwiswa kupi nokupi kwokutendeseka uye kuparadzirwa kweBhaibheri.

Chikonzero #1: Chinyorwa cheTestamende Itsva ChechiGiriki Chakasimbiswa

Tinoziva maverengerwo emabhuku ekutanga eTestamende Itsva nekuti tine mapoka matatu euchapupu asara okuti tigadzirise patsva Testamende Itsva yepakutanga: Zvinyorwa zvechiGiriki, shanduro dzekare, uye mashoko akatorwa echiKristu. Nhamba yemazuva ano yemakopi ezvinyorwa zvechiGiriki ane zvose kana kuti chikamu cheTestamende Itsva zvino inomira pa5,874. Huwandu uhu hwehumbowo hwezvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva hwakakura kwazvo kupfuura hunowanikwa kune chero munyori wekare. Nguva iri pakati pekunyorwa kwemabhuku ekutanga eTestamende Itsva nemakopi ekare aripo mapfupi. Kunyange zvazvo pasina makopi maviri akanyorwa nemaoko anobvumirana pane zvose, mwero wokururama wakawanwa nevanyori vakawanda wakanga wakakwirisa zvikuru. Ruzhinji rwezvakasiyana-siyana zvinosanganisira zvinhu zvidiki zvisingachinji dzidziso ipi neipi yeTestamente Itsva. Hapana chinhu chedzidziso yeChiKristu chiri mungozi. Mhinduro dzakakodzera dzemisiyano iyi dzinoonekwa. Kunyangwe vasina kudaro, humbowo hwemanyoro hwakakura zvekuti kuverenga kwekutanga ndeimwe yesarudzo dziripo. Kunyange misiyano iya ingaonekwa nevamwe se“inokosha padzidziso” (somuenzaniso, Mako 16:9-20; Johani 7:53-8:11) ine chokuita nenyaya dzinotaurwa kune imwe nzvimbo muBhaibheri apo mubvunzo wokuva wechokwadi/uchokwadi usina mubvunzo. Tinogona kutaura nechivimbo kuti tine 999/1000th yeTestamente Itsva yechiGiriki yepakutanga. Iyo 1/1000th yasara inechekuita nezvisina basa.

Pamusoro pezvo, hupfumi hweshanduro dzekare hunopa humwe humbowo hwekuona kuchena kwezvinyorwa zvebhaibheri, zvinosanganisira chiLatin, chiSyriac, chiCoptic, chiGothic, chiArmenian, chiGeorgian, chiEthiopic, chiSlavonic chekare, nezvimwe. Vatsoropodzi vemagwaro kuburikidza nenhoroondo vakatsigira zvakasimba kukosha kweidzi shanduro dzekare mukuvakazve zvinyorwa zveTestamente Itsva. Somuenzaniso, Vaganay akati: “Pashure pemanyoro echiGiriki eTestamende Itsva, shanduro dzacho dzinoumba manyuko anokosha zvikuru okunyora nhau yorugwaro urwu” (1934, peji 28; tarisa. Vogels, 1923, peji 84—“Bhaibheri Itsva reChirunguhe rine mavhezheni anokosha chaizvo pakuziva magwaro ekutanga eBhaibheri.”). Kunyange vachicherechedza zvisingakwanisi, veAlands vakabvuma kuti: “[K]ukosha kweshanduro dzacho kwakakosha” (1987, p. 182).

Zvimwe chetezvo zvingataurwa nokuda kwepfuma yezvinyorwa zvinowanika kupfurikidza naanonzi “Madzibaba eChechi,” ndiko kuti, vanyori veChiKristu vapakuvamba avo vakatora mashoko, vakadudza, uye neimwe nzira inonongedzerwa kundima dzomuMagwaro mutsamba dzavo, tsinhiro, uye tsamba. Aya manyuko okupedzisira amashoko akakura kwazvo zvokuti Metzger akatsinhira, kuti: “Zvechokwadi, aya mashoko akatambanudzwa zvikuru zvokuti kudai mamwe manyuko ose okuziva kwedu rugwaro rweTestamende Itsva aizoparadzwa, aizokwana ari oga nokuda kwokuvakwazve kwechinodokuva chose chose. Testamende Itsva” (1968, p. 86).

Uku kukakavara kwakasimbiswa nevatsoropodzi vakuru vezvinyorwa uye nyanzvi dzemitauro dzemazana maviri emakore apfuura. Mhedziso dzavo hadzisati dzave dzechinyakare, asi dzinoramba dziripo nhasi sepakutanga kuumbwa. Kana kuperera kwemagwaro eBhaibheri kwakanyatsosimbiswa mumazuva avo, zvichiri zvakadaro nanhasi. Rangarira mashoko anotevera anotaurwa nezvimwe zveizvi zviremera zvakakwirira.

Kusimbisa Kwenyanzvi Dzezvidzidzo Mukuchena kweZvinyorwa zveTestamente Itsva

F.F. Bruce (1910-1990) akanga ari nyanzvi yebhaibheri yaidzidzisa chiGiriki paYunivhesiti yeEdinburgh uye Univhersiti yeLeeds, sachigaro weDhipatimendi reBhaibheri Renhoroondo uye Literature paYunivhesiti yeSheffield, akagamuchira chiremba anoremekedzwa weDhivhiniti kubva kuAberdeen Univhesiti, uye akashumira. SaRylands Purofesa weTsvakiridzo dzeBaibheri neTsanangudzo paYunivhesiti yeManchester. Akanyora mabhuku anopfuura makumi mana uye akashanda seMupepeti weThe Evangelical Quarterly nePalestine Exploration Quarterly. Bruce akazivisa, kuti: “Kurava kwakasiana uko kusava nechokwadi kupi nokupi kunosara pakati pavatsoropodzi vorugwaro veN.T. hazvinei nenyaya yenhau kana yekutenda kweChiKristu nemaitiro” (1975, peji 19-20, yakawedzerwa). Akataurawo kuti:

Tichifunga nezvokuunganidzwa kusingadzivisiki kwezvikanganiso zvakadaro kwemazana emakore akawanda, zvingafungwa kuti magwaro ekare eTestamente Itsva akashatiswa zvokusagona kudzorerwa. Vamwe vanyori, zvamazvirokwazvo, vanoomerera pakubvira kweizvi kusvika pamwero wakadaro zvokuti mumwe anombofungira kuti vangafara kudai zvaiva zvakadaro. Asi vakarasika. Hapana boka remabhuku ekare pasi pano rinofarira hupfumi hwehuchapupu hwakanaka hwemanyoro seTestamende Itsva (1963, p. 178, yakawedzerwa).

Bruce akawedzera kusimbisa:

Chimwe chinhu chinofanirwa kutaurwa, uye kutaurwa nekusimbisa. Tave tichikurukura nezvemhando dzezvinyorwa zvakasiyana-siyana, uye tichidzokorora kutaura kwavo kwekuenzanisa kuti vaonekwe sevamiriri vakanakisa veTestamente Itsva yekutanga. Asi hapana misiyano yakakura pakati pemhando idzi, dzerudzi runogona kuita mutsauko kune basa reChechi rekuve chapupu uye muchengeti weChinyorwa Chitsvene…. Kana maverengero akasiyana awanda, imhaka yekuti zvapupu zvakawandisa. Asi zvapupu zvese, nemhando dzese dzavanomiririra, vanobvumirana pazvinyorwa zvese zvinotendwa nechiKristu nemaitiro (1963, p. 189, anovedzera).

Bruce Metzger (1914-2007) aivawo nyanzvi yechiGiriki, Testamende Itsva, neZvinyorwa zveKutsoropodza zveTestamende Itsva, akashanda sapurofesa paPrinceton Chikoro chezvidzidzo zveUmwari kwemakore 46. Achirondedzerwa nenyanzvi yeBhaibheri yakatanhamara Raymond Brown “sezvingabvira inyanzvi hurusa yamanyoro iyo America yakabudisa” (sezvinokorwa mashoko muEhrman neHolmes, 1995, p. xi), Metzger akanga ane chiremera chinozivikanwa parugwaro rwechiGiriki rweTestamende Itsva. Akashanda mubhodhi reChikamu chezvinoona nezvemaBhaibheri muAmerica, ndiye aive simba remubatanidzwa weUBoka remaBhaibheri, uye akashanda saSachigaro weKomiti yeNRSV. Anoonekwa nevakawanda somumwe wenyanzvi dzeTestamende Itsva dzine simba zvikuru dzemuzana remakore rechi 20. Nezveshanduro dzekare, Metzger akati: 

…nyangwe dai tisina zvinyorwa zvechiGiriki nhasi, nekubatanidza pamwechete kubva mushandurudzo idzi kubva pamazuva ekare, taigona kuburitsa zvakare zviri muTestamende Itsva. Pamusoro paizvozvo, kunyangwe tikarasa zvinyorwa zvese zvechiGiriki neshandurudzo dzekutanga, tinogona kuburitsa zvakare zviri muTestamende Itsva kubva munezvakatorwa mutsinhiro, mharidzo, tsamba, nezvimwe zvakadaro zvemadzibaba ekereke ekutanga (seyakatorwa muStrobel, 1998, p. 59).

Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901) akanga aribhishopi weBritain, nyanzvi yebhaibheri nemudzidzi webhaibheri, achishanda saBhishopi weDurham akabata Regius Purofesa vezvehuMwari kuCambridge. Waaishanda naye, Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892), akanga ari nyanzvi yezveBhaibheri yekuIrish akashanda saPurofesa kuCambridge. Pamwe chete, vakatanga magwaro echiGiriki anozivikanwa zvikuru kuti Testamende Itsva muGiriki yokutanga muna 1881. Vachionekwa sevatsoropodzi vemagwaro vane mukurumbira. Vakataura pachena:

Nezvekuwanda kwemazwi eTestamente Itsva…hapana mutsauko kana chimwe chikonzero chekupokana…. [I]ye huwandu hweangangonzi shanduko huru ingori chikamu chidiki diki chese chasara kusiyana, uye hachikwanisi kuumba chikamu chinodarika chiuru chezvinyorwa zvese. Sezvo paine chikonzero chekufungira kuti kuwedzererwa kuripo pakukanganisa kwemagwaro muTestamende Itsva…tinoda kuita kuti zvinyatsonzwisiswa pachine nguva mberi kuti zvakawanda zveTestamende Itsva zvakamira sei pasina basa remuongorori wezvinyorwa (1882,p. 2-3).

Nyanzvi dzisingaenzaniswi idzi dzakasimbirirawo kuti: “[M]uumboo hwakasiyana-siyana uye humbowo hwainobva pazviri zvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva zvinongomira zvoga uye zvisingasvikike pakati pezvinyorwa zvekare” (p. 278, emp. added). Vanowedzera kuti: “Mabhuku eTestamende Itsva akachengetedzwa mumagwaro aripo zvechokwadi anotaura nesu munzira dzose dzinokosha mumutauro wakafanana newaakataura nawo kune avo akanyorerwa pakutanga” (p. 284).

Benjamin Warfield (1851-1921) akanga ari Muzvinafundo wezvidzidzo zvouMwari paPrinceton Seminary kubva muna 1887 kusvika 1921. Anonzi ndiye wekupedzisira pavafundisi vakuru vePrinceton. MuIntroduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, Warfield akacherekedza:

[U]ku kwaive kuri kuita kwaMwari mukuchengetedza Chechi Yake muzera rega rega rugwaro rweMagwaro, kwete Testamende Itsva chete isingaenzaniswi nezvinyorwa zvekare mukuchena kwechinyorwa chayo sekupfuudzwa nokuchengetwa chaiko. mukushandiswa, mukuwanda kweuchapupu hwakauya kwatiri kuti tibvise makwapa ahwo asingawanzoitiki…. Hukuru hweTestamente Itsva, nemamwe mazwi, hwakasvitswa kwatiri kwete, nemusiyano (1886, mapeji 12-13,14, akawedzera).

Richard Bentley (1662-1742) akanga ari nyanzvi yechiRungu, mutsoropodzi, uye mudzidzi weBhaibheri akashanda saTenzi weKoreji yeTriniti, kuCambridge uye akanga ari muRungu wokutanga kuiswa pamwechete nemagamba makuru ekudzidza kwechinyakare. Ainyanya kuzivikanwa nekutsoropodza kwekunyora uye zvinyorwa, kunyange kunzi “Muvambi weMufungo weHistori,” uye akarumbidzwa nekusikwa kwechikoro cheChirungu cheHerenisimu. Heano tsinhiro dzake pamusoro pekuvimbika kwechinyorwa cheTestamente Itsva:

[I]ye rugwaro chairwo rwevanyori vanoera haachisiri iye zvino (sezvo ekutanga anga akarasika kwenguva refu) anonyepa mune chero chinyorwa chimwe chete, asi akaparadzirwa mazviri ese. ‘Chaizvoizvo chaizvoizvo kunyange mumanyoro akaipisisa aripo zvino; uyewo chinhu chimwe chekutenda kana chirevo chetsika hachina kutsveyamiswa kana kurasika mazviri (1725, mapeji 68-69)

Marvin Vincent (1834-1922) akapedza kudzidza paColumbia Univhesiti ndokuva purofesa weNew Testament Exegesis and Criticism paUnion Theological Seminary muNew York City mukupera kwezana remakore rechi19. Anonyanya kuzivikanwa nekuongorora kwake kwechiGiriki mashoko eTestamende Itsva muWord Studies in the New Testament yake. Nezvekuperera kwechinyorwa, iye akati:

Kuwanda kwakasiyana-siyana hakupi chikonzero chokutyisidzira muravi anoshingaira weTestamende Itsva. Ndiwo mugumisiro wechisikigo wenhamba huru yezvinyorwa zvinyorwa. Chikamu chidiki kwazvo chemisiyano chinokanganisa pfungwa, chikamu chidiki chakanyanya kukosha, uye hapana musiyano unokanganisa chinyorwa chekutenda kana chirevo chetsika (1899, p. 7).

VaFrederic George Kenyon (1863-1952) airemekedzwa zvikuru, munyori wenhoroondo weBritain ane mukurumbira uye mudzidzi webhaibheri uye wekare akatora zvinzvimbo zvakatevedzana paBritish Museum. Akashanda seMutungamiri weBritish Academy kubva muna 1917 kusvika muna 1921 uye Mutungamiri weBritish School of Archaeology muJerusarema. Akaita fundo yeBhaibheri kwoupenyu hwose sorugwaro rwenhau. MuBhaibheri rake nemagwaro ekare, Kenyon akatsinhira kuti:

Izwi rimwe chete reyambiro…rinofanira kusimbiswa mukupedzisa. Hapana dzidziso yakakosha yekutenda kwechiKristu inotsamira pakuverenga kwakapokana. Kugara tichitaura nezvemhosho uye kusiyana kwekuverenga…kunogona kupa kukahadzika kuti chokwadi, pamwe nemutauro, zveBhaibheri hazvina kuvhurika mubvunzo. Hakugoni kutaurwa zvakasimba zvikuru kuti chaizvoizvo rugwaro rweBhaibheri nderwechokwadi. Kunyanya izvi ndizvo zviri kuitika kuTestamende Itsva. Nhamba yezvinyorwa zveTestamende Itsva, zveshanduro dzepakutanga kubva mairi, uye mashoko akatorwa mairi muvanyori vekare veChechi yakakura kwazvo, zvekuti zvine chokwadi kuti kuverengwa kwechokwadi kwendima dzose dzisina chokwadi kunochengetwa mune imwe kana kuti. zvimwe zveizvi zviremera zvekare. Izvi zvinogona kutaurwa nezverimwe bhuku rekare pasi rose (1895, mapeji 10-11,).

Mubhuku rake guru rinonzi Bhaibheri neAkayaroji, Kenyon akatizve:

Nguva iripo pakati pemazuva ekutanga kunyorwa uye humbowo hwekutanga huripo hunova hudiki zvekuti husina basa, uye hwaro hwekupedzisira hwekupokana kupi nekupi kwekuti Magwaro akauya kwatiri zvakanyanya semanyorerwo aakaitwa akabviswa. Zvose chokwadi uye kuperera kwemabhuku eTestamende Itsva zvinogona kuonekwa sezvakazosimbiswa (1940, mapeji 288-289,).

Zvamazvirokwazvo, “muKristu anogona kutora Bhaibheri rose muruoko rwake ndokutaura asingatyi nokuzengurira kuti akabata mariri Shoko rechokwadi raMwari, rinogamuchidzwa nokutendeka kubva kuchizvarwa kuenda kuchizvarwa mumazana amakore” (1895, mapeji 10-11)

Samuel Davidson (1806-1898) aiva mudzidzi webhaibheri wechiIrish akashanda saPurofesa weKutsoropodzwa kweBhaibheri paRoyal College yeBelfast uye Purofesa weKutsoropodza Bhaibheri muLancashire Independent College kuManchester. Akanyora mabhuku akawanda eBhaibheri. Achitaura nezvebasa rekutsoropodza zvinyorwa, Davidson akapedzisa:

Mugumisiro wacho wanga uri kusimbisa huchokwadi hwemagwaro eTestamente Itsva muzvinhu zvose zvinokosha. Hapana dzidziso itsva dzakamutswa nerubatsiro rwayo; uyewo hapana maidi enhau akadanwa nawo kubva mukusazivikanwa kwawo. Dzidziso dzose nebasa rechiKristu rinoramba risina kukanganiswa… [M]uzvinyorwa zvefemero hakuna uori hunoonekwa…. [M]ukupera kwemazana emakore zvinyorwa zveMagwaro zvakachengetedzwa neungwaru…. Tichisimbiswa nezvibereko zvekutsoropodza, tinogona kutaura kuti Magwaro anopfuurira zvakafanana neapo akabva kuvanyori pachavo (1853, 2:147,).

Frederick H.A. Scrivener (1813-1891) aiva mutsoropodzi ane mukurumbira uye anokosha weTestamende Itsva wemuzana remakore rechi 19. Apedza kudzidza paTrinity College, Cambridge, akadzidzisa zvidzidzo zvekare muzvikoro zvakati kuti kumaodzanyemba kweEngland. Unyanzvi hwake hwokutsoropodza magwaro hunooneka pakuti akashanda senhengo yeDare Rekudzikorora Testamende Itsva yeChirungu (Revised Version), akapepeta Kodekisi Bezae Cantabrigiensisi nemamwe maBhaibheri eTestamende Itsva yechiGiriki, akaunganidza Kodesi Sinaiticusi neTekisasi Reseputasi. , uye ndiye akatanga kusiyanisa Tekisasi Reseputasi nezvinyorwa zveByzantine. Mubhuku rake rinonzi Nhanganyaya Yakajeka yeKutsoropodzwa kweTestamente Itsva, Scrivener akabvuma kuti:

[C]hokwadi chikuru chinobvumwa nemaoko ose—runenge rwose rusununguko rwakakwana rwoRugwaro Rutsvene kubva mukunyumwirwa kuri pachena kwoushati hweune [sic]; kunyatsozivikanwa kweuchapupu hwekopi yega yega inozivikanwa maererano nedzidziso, nemweya, uye kukukurwa kukuru kwegakava rega rega nerondedzero yese kuburikidza nevhoriyamu yese yeKufemero…. Saizvozvo Kupa kwaMwari kwakachengeta kubva mukukuvadza pfuma yeshoko Rake rakanyorwa, kusvika parinodiwa vimbiso yakanyarara yekereke Yake nevanhu (1861, p. 6-7,).

J.W. McGarvey (1829-1911) akanga ari mushumiri, munyori, mudzidzisi, uye nyanzvi yebhaibheri. Akadzidzisa makore 46 muKoreji yeBhaibheri muLexington, Kentucky, achishanda saMutungamiri kubva muna 1895 kusvika muna 1911. Akapfupikisa pfungwa yacho: “Chiremera chose noukoshi zvaiva nemabhuku aya paakatanga kunyorwa nezvawo ” (1974, peji 17).

Elias Boudinot (1740-1821) aiva Baba Vavambi veAmerica vane mukurumbira. Akashanda muContinental Congress (1778-1779, 1781-1784), seMutungamiri waro muna 1782-1783, uye aive mutungamiri wekutanga weAmerican Bible Society. Mukuramba kwake Thomas Paine’s Age of Reason, Boudinot akatsanangura, kuti: “[I]ye nechokwadi apo rudzidziso rwechiKristu rwakavakirwa paari, ane umboo hwakasimba, kupfuura chokwadi chipi nechipi chiri chinhambwe chakadaro chenguva; uye kuti mabhuku anodzisvitsa kwatiri, angaonekwe kuti haana kushatiswa uye ndeechokwadi, nesimba guru kupfuura mamwe mabhuku ekare akaenzana” (1801, p. 239,). Maonero aBaba Muvambi aya ekuchena kwechinyorwa cheTestamente Itsva aive maonero evazhinji veVavambi.

Nemutsa wese waungaite, ava vane mukurumbira, vakanyatsodzidza, vane ruzivo, vasina vezera, vane hunyanzvi mundima yeKupesana kwezvinyorwa zvisingaenzaniswi, vane ruzivo rwakanyanya uye rwakarurama mukuongorora kwavo kuvimbika, uye chokwadi chegwaro. magwaro ebhaibheri kupfuura chero anonzi mudzidzi kana mutsoropodzi ari kurarama nhasi. Chokwadi, Mwari aiziva kuti vanyori vekutanga vaisazorarama, uye kuti Shoko Rake raizofanira kufambiswa nemazana emakore nemakopi. Muitiro wokuparadzira unochinjika zvakakwana kuti Shoko raMwari ripiwe zvakaringanira navakopi vasina kufuridzirwa, vasina kukwana. Zvamazvirokwazvo, chinyorwa chapakuvamba cheTestamende Itsva chave chakarevererwa zvakakwana uye zvakazara.

Chikonzero #2: Nzira Yekushandura Inoshanda

Mwari aiziva kuti ruzhinji rwevanhu rwaisagona kudzidza chiGiriki kana chiHebheru. Aiziva kuti Shoko Rake raizofanira kuverengwa mushanduro mumutauro wevanhuwo zvavo. Kushandura kwacho kunochinjika zvakakwana kuti Shoko raMwari ripiwe zvakaringanira nevashanduri vasina kufuridzirwa, vasina kukwana. Nepo dzimwe shanduro dzechiRungu dzingatsvaga kufambisira mberi hurongwa hwezvidzidzo zvebhaibheri, tichingotaura, shanduro zhinji hadzisiyani pane zvakakosha. MaBhaibheri akawanda echiRungu anopa zvinhu izvi zvinokosha: (1) zvinofanira kuitwa nemunhu kuti aponeswe uye (2) zvaanofanira kuita kuti arambe akaponeswa. Kunyange zvazvo shanduro dzingava dzisina kukwana, dzakawanda dzichiri kubudisa mashoko anokosha aya. Izvi zvinotsigirwa nokushandisa kwakaita Jesu uye vaapostora pachavo Seputugendi, shanduro yechiGiriki yemagwaro echiHebheru en vogue muPalestine yomuzana remakore rokutanga. Vamwe vanofunga kuti shanduro iyi yakawanwa nenyanzvi 72 dzechiJudha dzakakokwa kuAlexandria, Egipita anenge mazana maviri nehafu emakore Kristu asati auya. Kunyange zvazvo nyanzvi dzichionekwa seshanduro isina kukwana yechiHebheru, mashoko akawanda akananga muTestamende Yekare muTestamende Itsva akatorwa muSeptuagint. Nokudaro, Bhaibheri rinopa tsinhiro youmwari yakakwana kukushandiswa kweshanduro dzisina kukwana, dzakaitwa nomunhu, richiratidzirazve kuti Shoko raMwari rakapfuudzwa zvakaringanira mumazana amakore kupfurikidza nokushandura.

Mabhuku akawanda akatsikiswa mumakore apfuura ayo anokurukura misimboti yekududzira Bhaibheri (semuenzaniso, Nida, 1964; Beekman naCallow, 1974; Ryken, 2009; Grant, 1961; nevamwe.). Mitauro yose yevanhu inogovana zvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana zvemutauro zvinogona kushandiswa zvakakodzera kupa zvinorehwa naMwari. Chibatanwa chaMarudzi chinomira sechipupuriro chisingarambiki cheidi rokuti revo inogona kupiwa kubva mumutauro mumwe kuenda kune mumwe. Chokwadi, mameseji pasi rese anoshandurirwa mumitauro yakasiyana mazuva ese. Saizvozvowo, zvinorehwa nemashoko, girama, uye syntakisi yemitauro yebhaibheri (mubereki) yechiHebheru, chiAramaic, uye chiGiriki zvakachinjirwa kushanduro dzeBhaibheri dzeChirungu. Kunyange kana shanduro dzechiRungu dzikasiyana pandima ipi neipi, imwe fundo ichaita kuti mudzidzi weBhaibheri akwanise kuziva zvinoreva (zvi) zvinorehwa. Sokupfuudzwa kwerugwaro rwechiGiriki, muitiro wokushandura unopa munhu wacho mikana apo zvinoreva zvinopfuura chimwe chete zvichibvira. Kana zvose zvaitwa uye zvaitwa, munhu angataura nechivimbo kuti shoko raMwari rakatamiswa zvakakodzera kubva mumitauro yepakutanga yeBhaibheri kuenda muchiRungu.

Chikonzero #3: Nhoroondo Yeshanduro yeChirungu Inoratidza Kuchengetedza

Mitauro yose inogara ichichinja-chinja. Saka shanduro itsva hadzingadzivisiki uye dzinodiwa. Asi kunyange zvazvo rugwaro rwechiGiriki rwakasimbiswa, uye kunyange tichiziva kuti shanduro yacho inogona kuitwa zvakarurama, tinoziva sei kuti nhasi tine Shoko raMwari rinowanika sezvo kushandura kwave kuchiitwa nevanhu vakawanda vakasiyana-siyana kwemazana emakore anoverengeka? Mhinduro: Nekuti nhoroondo yekushandurwa kweChirungu yakatevedzwa uye yakasimbiswa. Tinoziva kuti magwaro echiHebheru neechiGiriki akashandurirwa muchiLatin pakutanga, uye akazotanga kuchinjirwa kuChirungu muzana remakore rechi 14th Mukurumbira yevashanduri veBhaibheri vakakurumbira munyika dzinotaura Chirungu inosimbisa kuitwa kwokutamiswa kweShoko raMwari kusvika iye zvino: John Wycliffe, William Tyndale, Miles Coverdale, John Rogers (Bhaibheri raMateu), Richard Taverner, The Great Bible. , Geneva Bible, Matthew Parker (the Bishop’s Bible), King James Bible (1611), English Revised Version (ERV—1888) neimwe yaro yokuAmerica, American Standard Version (ASV—1901), uye ruzhinji rweChirungu shanduro dzakabuda mu20th uye zvino 21st centuries (tarisa Lewis, 1991). Tinoziva kuti Bhaibheri harina kushatiswa nekuti tine shanduro dzechiRungu dzakagadzirwa mumazana emakore dzinoita kuti tikwanise kuongorora uye kuona zviri mubhaibheri. Sezvineiwo, kunyange dai taive tisingazivi nhoroondo yeshanduro yechiRungu, tinogona kutora chinyorwa chechiGiriki chechokwadi toita shanduro itsva muChirungu.

Mhedziso

Humbowo huripo uye hunosarudza. Iye zvino makopi eBhaibheri ari kuparadzirwa haana kusiyana zvikuru nerepakutanga. Avo vanoramba chiremera chouMwari cheBhaibheri vanofanira kuita kudaro nokuda kwezvikonzero zvisiri pakukwanisa kwavo kuziva icho Mwari aida kukurukura kurudzi rwomunhu.

Vanhu vose vanogona kuziva chokwadi uye vagoponeswa. Vose vanogona kuziva kuti Mwari ariko uye kuti Bhaibheri iShoko rake. Vose vanogona kuziva kuti chiKristu ndicho chitendero chechokwadi chete uye kuti vose vanofanira kuteerera Evhangeri yaKristu kuti vakanganwirwe zvivi uye vaponeswe. Vese vanogona kuziva kuti tinofanira kurarama hupenyu hwechiKristu, kunamata Mwari nemazvo, uye kurarama takatendeka kuna Mwari mumaitiro ezuva nezuva.

Refurenzi yeZvinyorwa

Aland, Kurt naBarbara Aland (1987), Zvinyorwa ZveTestamende (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Beekman, John naJohn Callow (1974), Kushandura Shoko raMwari (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).

Bentley, Richard (1725), Mashoko Pahurukuro Yanonoka Kufunga Kwakasununguka (Cambridge: Cornelius Crownfield).

Boudinot, Elias (1801), Nguva yeZvakazarurwa (Philadelphia, PA: Asbury Dickins),  http://www.google.com/books?id=XpcPAAAAAAAJ.

Bruce, F. F. (1963), The Books and the Parchments (Westwood, NJ: Fleming H. Revell).

Bruce, F. F. (yakadhindwazve muna 1975), Manyoro eTestamente Itsva: Akavimbika Here? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Bruce, F. F. (1988), Zvinyorwa Zvemagwaro (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press).

Davidson, Samuel (1853), Chibvumirano Chekutsoropodzwa kweBhaibheri (Boston: Gould & Lincoln).

Ehrman, Bart naMichael Holmes (1995), The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Grant, Frederick (1961), Kushandura Bhaibheri (New York: Seabury Press).

Kenyon, Sir Frederic (1895), Bhaibheri Redu Mumanyo Ekare (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode).

Kenyon, Sir Frederic (1940), Bhaibheri uye Archaeology (New York: Harper & Row).

Lewis, Jack (1991), The English Bible kubva kuKJV kusvika kuNIV (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker), chinyorwa chechipiri.

McGarvey, J.W. (yakadhindwazve muna 1974), Evidence of Christianity (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate).

Metzger, Bruce (1968), The Text of the New Testament (New York: Oxford University Press).

Nida, Eugene (1964), Kune Sainzi Yekushandura (Leiden: E.J. Brill).

Ryken, Leland (2009), Kunzwisisa Shanduro dzeBhaibheri dzeChirungu (Wheaton, IL: Crossway).

Scrivener, F.H.A. (1861), A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.).

Strobel, Lee (1998), Nyaya yaKristu (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan).

Vaganay, Léon (1934), Kutanga à la critique textuelle néotestamentaire (Paris: Blond & Gay).

Vincent, Marvin (1899), A History of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (New York: MacMillan).

Vogels, H.J. (1923), Handbuch der neutestamentlichen Textkritik (Munster: Aschendorff).

Warfield, Benjamin B. (1886), Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London: Hodder & Stoughton).

Westcott, B.F. uye F.J.A. Hort (1882), The New Testament in the Original Greek (New York: Harper & Brothers).

Yakaburitswa Nyamavhuvhu 1, 2015

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