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tion was removed, the metal was still shiny. (2) The trilobite, a small marine arthropod with a hard exoskeleton, is classified as an “index fossil” for the earliest period of the Paleozoic Era (the Cambrian—supposedly 450,000,000 years ago). On June 1, 1968, however, evolutionist William J. Meister was searching for fossils near Antelope Springs, Utah. When he opened a slab of rock, he discovered a fossilized trilobite—in a human sandal print! (3) Evolutionary geologist Albert Ingalls was working in the coal veins in Kentucky when he discovered human-like footprints embedded in coal veins. Evolutionists suggest that coal was laid down during the so-called Carboniferous period, which allegedly is sep- arated from man by 250,000,000 years. Dr. Ingalls did not find these footprints only in Kentucky. He also uncovered them in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Missouri, and elsewhere. Polystrate Fossils Embedded in sedimentary rocks all over the globe are what are known as “polystrate” fossils. Polystrate means “many layers,” and refers to those fossils that cut through at least two sedimentary-rock layers. Probably the most widely recognized of the polystrate fossils are tree trunks that extend vertically through two, three, or more sections of rock that supposedly were laid down in epochs covering millions of years. Even animals’ bodies form polystrate fossils (like catfish in the Green River Formation in the state of Wyoming, and a fossilized whale skeleton near Lompoc, California). Trees, catfish, and the other organisms with which the fossil record abounds did not die and lie around for hundreds, thousands, or millions of years while slowly becoming polystrate fossils. Such fossils represent impressive evidence for a young Earth whose layers formed rapidly—and not all that long ago! YOUNG EARTH EVIDENCE (1) Niagara Falls is a waterfall located on the border between New York and Ontario, Canada. Erosion has pushed the waterfall about 7 miles upstream, forming the Niagara Gorge. Prior to water-diversion projects in the 1950s and 1960s, the falls receded at a rate of more than 3 feet per year. If the Earth were 4.6 billion years old, and if the falls have been eroding at 3 feet per year, the original location of the waterfall would have been 13.5 billion feet farther upstream! (But the circumference of the Earth is only 132 million feet!) (2) As the Mississippi River flows toward the Gulf of Mexico, along the way it picks up dirt and sediment from the riverbank. Approximately 300,000,000 cubic yards of sediment are deposited into the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi River each year. You do the math. If we really have been around as long as evolutionists say we have, then the sediment deposited from the Mississippi River would have filled in the Gulf of Mexico a long time ago. (3) Evolutionists believe that the Grand Canyon was formed by the Colorado River (a very small amount of water) over a long period of time. The problem with this theory is that there are over 900 cubic miles of dirt missing from the end of the river. If the tiny Colorado River did form the canyon, what happened to the 900 cubic miles of dirt? FLAWED RADIOMETRIC DATING ASSUMPTIONS Radiometric dating techniques are typically used to date inorganic materials (e.g., rocks). These techniques analyze the breakdown of parent isotopes into daughter isotopes over time. The following are fundamentally flawed assumptions of these dating techniques: (1) The nuclear decay rates of the elements have been constant throughout history. (2) No daughter element existed in the specimen being measured at the beginning of its decay. (3) The parent and daughter isotopes have not been altered by anything except radio- active decay. Each of these assumptions have been shown to be flawed. Radiocarbon (C-14) dating is used to date organic materials (i.e., materials containing carbon, thought to be once living). Since the C-14 half-life is only 5,730 years, the method cannot be used on anything thought to be millions of years old. Besides the above as- sumptions, C-14 dating must assume that the atmosphere is in C-14 equilibrium (i.e., equal amounts of C-14 are being formed and decaying). That assumption is now accepted by geologists to be false, and attempts to redeem the method through calibration have failed due to their own flawed assumptions. C-14 dating is only potentially accurate when dating objects thought to be, at most, several hundred years old. for more information , or to order , call (800) 234-8558 , or visit a pologetics p ress . org 12 apologeticspress.org