V2 Fall 2017-Web

EVOLUTION AND CREATION DEFINED Macroevolution The General Theory of (organic) evolution or Darwinian evolution—which states that all the living forms in the world have arisen from a single cell, which itself came from an inorganic form (that is to say, life arose from nonliving antecedents). Microevolution States that small-scale changes do take place in nature, but within very limited parameters, disallowing change across phylogenic boundar- ies (e.g., varieties of dogs, roses, cattle, etc.). Creation According to the Creation model, everything in the Universe came into being through the design, purpose, and deliberate acts of a super- natural Creator Who created the Universe, the Earth, and all life on the Earth. In the evolution model, the Universe is self-contained (i.e., it is all that exists). In the Creation model, the Universe is not self-contained, since a supernatural Creator also exists. IS EVOLUTION A SCIENTIFIC FACT? Spontaneous Generation Evolution is based upon the assumption that nonliving material gave rise to living organ- isms—i.e., spontaneous generation occurred. If something cannot live, it cannot evolve. And this is assumed to have happened only once . But abiogenesis (spontaneous generation) never has been observed to oc- cur. Additionally: (a) in science, any concept based on an assumption that is not capable of experimental verification never can be referred to as a “fact” (since, at best, it always rests on an unprovable assumption); (b) the scientific method is incapable of dealing with unique, one-time-only events, since, by definition, they fall beyond the scope of scientific investigation. Natural Selection Natural selection does work—but only to explain the elimination in nature of unfit, non-adapted organisms. It cannot produce totally new phyla, families, genera, etc. Natural selection may explain the survival of the fittest, but it cannot explain the arrival of the fittest. Creationists readily acknowledge natural selection as a conservation principle that, as a screening device for eliminating the unfit, represents the Creator’s plan for preventing harmful mutations from affecting or destroying the entire species. But it cannot change one type of organism into another. Genetic Mutations Genetic mutations are spontaneous, chance alterations that rarely are beneficial, and that more often than not have either no effect or a deleterious one. Extremely rare cases of beneficial mutations still involve a loss of function (information) for the organism. The overwhelming trend is de-evolution, not evolution. Macroevolution is dependent upon the addition of new information and new genes that produce new proteins that are found in new organs and systems. But, mutations do not add new information . Evolutionist Stephen J. Gould correctly admit- ted: “A mutation doesn’t produce major new raw material. You don’t make a new species by mutating the species.... A mutation is not the cause of evolutionary change.” transitional Fossils Evolution requires intermediate forms between species, but paleontology has not provided them. The more scientists have searched for the transitional forms between species, the more they have been frustrated. Evidence from the fossil record is overwhelmingly in conflict with Darwinian theory, which advocates that new species evolve from existing ones by the gradual accumulation of small changes (due to mutations), each of which helps the organism survive and compete in the environment. It is not only entire “intermediate” organisms that are missing from the fossil record. Even individual body parts (such as half scales/half feathers) are conspicuously absent. GEOLOGICTIMETABLEAND THE AGE OF THE EARTH Geological Anomalies (1) In 1936, a metal hammer with a wooden handle was dug out of Cretaceous limestone (dated by evolutionists at 135,000,000 years old) in London, Texas. When the surface oxida- (OVER) A Bookmark of Creation/Science REFERENCES from Apologetics Press 11 Valor & Virtue

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